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i I 

4 11S" 




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Price Seven Shillings and Sixpence, bound in cloth. 


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lenesoi Wsuum Clows* aaaSons Pnatsis. Staaoawd Stmt. 

/-" i 




D I O 

US THE YOUNGER, sun of Dionysius the 
ttder, succeeded him as tyrant of S\ incuse, being ncknow- 
xifpd as such by the j>copte. His father had left the state 
a prosperous condition ; but young Dionysius had neither 
lilies nor his prudence and experience. He followed 
lie advice of Dion, who, although a republican in 
inciple, had remained faithful to his father, and who now 
deavoured to direct the inexperienced son for the good 
his country. For this purpose Dion invited his friend 
lie to Syracuse about 364 B.e, Dionysius received the 
ftjsopher with great respect, and in deference to his ad* 

* reformed for awhile his loose habits and the manners 
his court But a faction, led by Philistus, who had 
tays been a supporter of the tyranny of the elder Dio- 
lias, succeeded in prejudicing his son against both D-on 
i Plato. Dion was exiled undor pretence that he had 

to the senate of Carthage for the purpose 

tg a peace. Plato urgently demanded of Du> 

f Dion, and not being able to obtain it, 

iftcr which Dionysius gave himself up to 

Muehery without restraint, Aristippus, who was then 

irt, was the kind of philosopher best suited to the 

be of Dionysius. Dion meantime was travelling through 

"here his character gained him numerous friends 

mysius, moved by jealousy, confiscated his property, and 

iged his wife to marry another. Upon this Dion ool- 

ted a small force at Zacynthus, with which he sailed for 

uy, and entered Syracuse without resistance. Dionysius 

Kd to 1 in the Ortygia, and after some resist- 

i Philistus, bis best supporter, was taken 
er I death, he quitted Syracuse by sea, and 

• red to Locri, the country of his mother, where he had 

'is and friends. His partisans, however, retained 

session of Ortygia, and a faction having risen in the 

elides, a demagogue, who proposed 

equal distribution of property, which Dion resisted, the 

<* w :i | of his command, and would have been 

ted populace, had not his soldiers escorted 

Issfcl- itini. In the midst of the confusion, a 

made by the soldiers of Dionysius, who 

1 and burnt part of the city, recalled the Syracu* 

s, and messengers were dispatched after 

<U re him to return. Dion obeyed the call, 

v, and soon after took the citadel. But 

Heraclides conspired against Dion, and had 

> murdered, 354 B.C. 

eded each other in Syracuse, until 

1 retook it about 346. Diony- 

f improving by his ten years' e 

-urped the supreme power in 

n„ he had committed many atrocities, had put to death 

ir wives and daughters. 
Upon his return to Syracuse, his 
away a great number of people, 
irtu of Italy and Gteece, whilst 
etas, tyrant of Leontini, and a former friend 


D I O 

I of Dion. The latter sent messengers to Corinth to request 
assistance against Dionysius. The Corinthians appointed 
as leader of the expedition Titnoleou, who had already 
figured in the a flairs of his own DOUnlT) ;s a determined 
opponent of tyranny. Timol eon landed "in Sicily 344 b c, 
notwithstanding the opposition of the Carthaginians and of 
Iketasv who acted a perfidious part on this occasion; he 
entered Syracuse, and soon after obliged Dionysius to sur- 
render. Ukmysiuf was sent to Corinth, whore he spent the 
remainder of his life in the company of actors and low 
women ; some say that at one time he kept a school. Jus- 
tin (xxi. 5) says that he purposely affected low habits in 
order to disarm revenge, and that being despised, ha 
might no longer be feared or hated for his forma tyranny. 
Several repartees are related of him in answer to those 
who taunted him upon his altered fortunes which are nut 
destitute of wit or wisdom. (Plutarch, Dion* ; Diudorus, xvi.) 
DIONY'SIUS, the sou of Alexander, uu historian and 
critic, born at Halicarnassus in the first century b. c. We 
know nothing of his history beyond what he has told us of 
himself He states (Aniiq., p. 20-84) that he came to Italy 
at the termination of the civil war between Augustus and 
Antony (h. c. '2 l J) 1 and that he spent the following two and* 
twenty years at Rome in learning the Latin language 
and in collecting materials for nil history. (Phot. Bib- 
lioth^ cod. bcxxvi.t H< also B*yi {Antiq* p. 1725) that he 
lived in the time of the great civil war. The principal 
work of Dionysius is his ttoman Antupdtiett which com* 
menced with the car'* history of I he people of Italy, and 
terminated with the beginning of the first Puoic war, b.c. 
265. (Aniiq. L p. 22.) It originally consisted of twentv 
books, of which the first ten remain entire. The eleventh 
breaks off in the year 31 2 b. c\. but several fragments of the 
latter half of the history are preserved in I he collection of 
Constantino Porphyrogennetus, and to these a valuable 
addition was made in 1816 by Mai, from an old MS. IV- 
sidos, the first three books of Appian were founded en* 
tirely upon Dionysius; and Plutarch's biography of Ca- 
millus must also be considered as a compilation mostly 
taken from the Roman Antiquities, so that perhaps upoii 
the whole we have not lost much of this work. With re* 
gard to the trustworthiness and general value of Dionysii 
liistory, considerable doubts may be justly entertained ; lor 
though he lias evidently Written with much greater earn 
than Livy, and has studied Cato and the old annalists more 
diligently than his Roman contemporary, yet he wrote with 
an object which at once invalidates his claim to be con- 
sidered a veracious and impartial historian. Dionysius 
wrote for the Greeks; and his object was to relieve them 
from the mortification which they felt at being conquered 
by a race of barbarians, as they considered the Romaic to 
be; and this he endeavoured to effect by twisting and 
forging testimonies and botching up the old legends, so as 
to make out a primft facie proof of the Greek origin of the 
city of Rome, and he inserts arbitrarily a great number of 
set speeches, evidently composed for the same purpose. He 

Vol. IX.— B 

D I O 

D I O 

indulges m a minuteness of detail which, though it might 
be some proof of veracity in a contemporary history, is a 
palpable indication of want of faith in the case of an antient 
nistory so obscure and uncertain as that of Rome. With all 
his study and research, Dionysius was so imperfectly 
acquainted with the Roman constitution that he often mis- 
represents the plainest statements about it. (Niebuhr, 
Hist. Borne, vol. ii. p. 13, Engl, tr.) For instance, he 
imagines that the patricians had all the influence in the 
centuries, and that the plebeians and equites had nothing 
to do with the first class. (Antiq. \± 82-87, x. 17. See 
Niebuhr, Hist. Rome, ii. p. 178, Engl, tr.) He thought the 
original constitution of Rome was a monarchical democracy, 
and calls the curies the demus (fli/ftoc.) He believed when 
he wrote his second book that the decrees of the people 
were enacted by the curies and confirmed by the senate 
(Antiq. ii. 14), and not, as he afterwards discovered, the con- 
verse. (Antiq. vii.38.) In a word, though the critical historian 
may be able to extract much that is of great importance 
for the early history of Rome from the garbled narrative 
and the dull trifling of Dionysius, he cannot be regarded as 
a meritorious writer, or recommended to the student of 
antient history as a faithful guide. Dionysius also wrote a 
treatise on rhetoric ; criticisms on the style of Thucydides, 
Lysias, Isocrates, Isams, Dinarchus, Plato, and Demos- 
thenes ; a treatise on the arrangement of words, and some 
other short essays. His critical works are much more 
valuable than his history, and are indeed written with 
considerable power. The criticism on Dinarchus [Di- 
narchus] displays good sense and judgment, and shows 
the great pains which the author took to separate the 
genuine writings of the Attic orators from the fabrications 
which passed under their name. The best editions of 
Dionysius are those of Hudson, Oxon., 1 704, 2 vols., in 
folio; and by Reiske, Lips., 1774-1777, 6 vols., in 8vo. 
Mai's fragments were first published at Milan in 1816, and 
reprinted the following year at Frankfort. They also ap- 
pear in the second volume of Mai's Nova Collectio, Rome, 
J 827. His rhetoric has been published separately by 
Schott, Lips., 1804, 8vo. ; and his remarks on Thucydides 
by Kriiger, Hal. Sax., 1823, 8vo. There is a German 
translation of the Roman Antiquities by J. Lr. Benzler, 
Lemgo, 1771-1772, 2 vols., 8vo. The only English trans- 
lation of the Antiquities is the following : ' The Antiquities 
of Dionysius Halicarnassensis, translated into English, 
with notes and dissertations, by Edward Spelman, Esq.,' 
2 vols., 4 to., London, 1 748. 

DIONYSIUS of Byzantium lived before the year a.d. 
196. His voyage ('AvajrXovc) in the Thracian Bosporus was 
extant in the 16th century, for Gyllius, who died in 1555, 
has given extracts in Latin from it in his work on the Thra- 
cian Bosporus. A single fragment from this work is 
printed in Ducange's ' Constantinopolis Christiana,' and in 
Hudson's Minor Greek Geographers. Perhaps there is some 
confusion between this Dionysius and the author of the 
* Periegesis/ whom Suidas (Aiovvatoc) calls a Corinthian. 

DIONY'SIUS PERIEGETES, the author of a Greek 
poem in 1186 hexameter verses, intitled Tijc Oucov/iivifc 
Uepitjyrjffic, or ' a description of the habitable world.' It is 
not known where Dionysius was born nor where he lived. 
Perhaps the most probable opinion is, that he was a native 
of Byzantium and belonged to the latter part of the third or 
the beginning of the fourth century a. d. As a poem 
the Periegesis is of little value, and as a geographical work, 
not worth the trouble of reading. The commentary of 
Eustathius on the Periegesis possesses some value for the 
miscellaneous information which is scattered through it. 
There are two Latin translations of this poem, one by 
Rufus Festus Avienus, and the other by Priscianus. 
There are numerous editions of Dionysius. The last and 
best edition of the Periegesis is by G. Bernhardy, Leipzig, 
1828, 8vo., in the first volume of his * Geographi Groci 

DIOPHANTUS, a native of Alexandria, the exact date 
of whose birth is unknown, some authors asserting that he 
lived in the reign of Augustus, whilst others place him 
under Nero, or even the Antonines. The fact is that we do 
not know when he lived. He lived however, as is well as- 
certained, to eighty-four years of age. 

Diophantus left behind him thirteen books of Arithme- 
tical Questions, of which however only six are extant; but 
from their distinct and peculiar character, in comparison 
with «U the othej writings of the Greek mathematicians, 

these books have given rise to much discussion. It is how- 
ever scarcely to be conceived that whilst the cumbrous 
machinery of common language constituted the sole instru- 
ment of investigation, the very curious conclusions which 
we find in this work could have resulted fron. the researches 
of one single mind. To suppose that Diophantus was the 
inventor of the analysis which bears his name, is so con- 
trary to all analogy with experience and the history of 
mental phenomena, as to be utterly impossible to admit. 
Still, if we inquire into the history of this brtnch of ana- 
lysis, and ask who were the predecessors of Diophantus, or 
whether they were Greeks or. Hindus, no satisfactory an- 
swer can be given. 

Diophantus also wrote a book on Polygon Numbers (xtpi 
iroXvyuiviov dptfy&y). Holzmann published at Basle, in 
1 575, folio, a Latin translation of both the works of Dio- 
phantus. The first Greek edition was by Meziriac, Paris, 
1621, folio : an improved edition of Meziriac's edition was 
published by S. de Fermat, Toulouse, 1670, folio. A valuable 
translation of the Arithmetical Questions into German was 
published by Otto Schulz, Berlin, 1822, 8vo. ; to which is 
added Poselger's translation of the work on Polygon Num- 

DIOPSIDE, a variety of Pyroxenb. 

DIO'PSIS, a genus of Dipterous Insects of the family 
Sepsid®. The insects of this genus are remarkable for the 
immense prolongation of the sides of the head. The head 
itself is small, and appears as if it were furnished with two 
long horns, each having a knob at its apex ; these horn- 
like processes however are not analogous to the parts usually 
termed antennae, but are in fact prolongations of the sides 
of the head, the knob at the apex of each being the eye of 
the insect. They vary in length according to the species. 
In some they are almost equal to the whole length of the 
insect, whereas in others they are only about half that 
length. The antenna) are situated close to the eves, and 
arc three-jointed : the basal joint is the smallest and is very 
short ; the terminal joint is the largest, of a globular form 
(or nearly so), and furnished towards the apex with a simple 
seta ; there is also a short seta on the peduncle or eye-stalk, 
situated about midway between the base and the apex of 
that process, and on the anterior part. The thorax is some- 
what attenuated anteriorly, but approaches to a spherical 
form, and is generally furnished with two spines on each 
side ; the scutellum is also furnished with two spines. The 
body is more or less elongated, sometimes nearly cylindri- 
cal, but generally increases in diameter towards the apex. 
The legs are tolerably long— the anterior femora arc gene- 
rally thick, and furnished beneath with minute domicilia- 
tions, and the four posterior femora are often furnished with ; 
a spine at their apex. 

For a detailed account of these curious insects we refer 
our readers to Mr. Westwood's excellent paper in the seven- l 
teenth volume of the • Transactions of the Linnaian Society j 
in which twenty species are described. 

DIoiwU Sykesii, G. H. Grey. 
a denotes the natural «ite. 

The illustration is copied from one of that gentleman's 
figures, and represents tne Diopsis Sykesii, one of the largest i 
species of the genus, and which has been selected as pos- - 
sessing the longest eye-stalks ; these processes in this insect ' 
are of a pitchy red colour, and the body is of the same tint. 
The head ana thorax are black and the wings are clouded 
with brown. - 

But little is known of the habits of these insects. Lieut.-* 
Colonel W. H. Sykes, who collected great numbers of the* 
above species during his residence in India, furnished Mr is 
Westwood with the following notice respecting their ha-* 
bitat and habits:— 

•OMtah ll^hittfertf^Hurreecliundeishuj'.in th^i, 


D J 

western ghauts of the Decean, at an elevation of 3900 feet 
above the level of the sea, 19* 23' N. lat, 73° 4.0 1 E. long. 
* This insect aflects chasms or ravines in iho lolly woods 
which encircle the mountain in bells, In various places, 
where the sunbeams occasionally pierce the woods and foil 
Mjiatcd or salient rocks in the above localities, Iho; 
arc seen in myriads, either poising themselves in the rays, 
or reposing on the spots on which the rays fall* 

In addition to this notice we may add that all the known 
specie* are from the tropical parts of the Old World. 

r emerald eO]f*er t a crystallised silicate of 
lit primary form of which is a rhomboid ; its colour 
emerald to blackish green ; its lustre is vitreous; 
msluccnt, and sometimes transparent; it is 

rutch triads, though hut feebly ; it is brittle ; 

specific J "278; the streak is green; fracture uu- 

.tud cross fracture Hat conchoidal. It is found in 

Siberia and the Bannat ; and, according to Lowitz* it con* 

copper $5, water 12, 

DIOPTRICS. [Optics; Infraction,] 

DIOK A ' I • : I he Greek word Stapjv, to see through, 

exhibition invented of late 
Tears b artists, Dagucrro and Bo u ton, which, 

possess some of the advantages of the 
panorama, produces a far greater degree of optical illusion. 
It has also one advantage over the panorama, in being 
equally suitable for architectural and interior views as for 
luntUrapc ; nay even more so, because the positive degree of 
and the relief of the objects becomes 
more deceptive. The peculiar and almost magical effect of 
the diorama arises, in a considerable measure, from the con- 
trivance employed in exhibiting the painting, which is v lowed 
throufrh a huge aperture or proscenium. Beyond this open- 
tat; (be s placed at such distance that the light is 

Obowo upon if, at a proper angle* from the roof, which if 
ud cannot be seen by the spec- 
biift. Beside* the light being thus concentrated upon the 

Cl«y ibe effect is materially increased by the spectator 
iparative darkness, receiving no other light 
m what is reflected from the surface of the Minting it- 
Another circumstance greatly favouring illusion is the 
rig distance ; and also the circumstance that the 
bo proscenium or opening are continued inwards to* 
•Sids the p ■<» (screen its extremities, and at the 

«r.« lime assist in confining the light to the scene itself. 
He eantrmst thus occasioned, and the exclusion of all other 
*ptcU «f vision save those represented in the painting, so 
M the eye has no immediate standard of comparison be- 
taen them and real ones, give to this species of exhibition 
**•> extraordinary force that a very moderate degree of 
Igat wtU suffice to show the painting* Hence the light 
Mtj he diminished or increased at pleasure, and that either 
freiesltf ur suddenly, so as to r e present the change from 
ertoarj daylight to sunshine, and from sunshine fco cloudy to the obscurity of twilight ; also the difference of 
Iflsnssafcsria tone attending them: all which variations give 
te tie duu*mma a character of nature and reality beyond that 
fen other mode of painting. These transitions, in regard 
* etfet and atmospheric e Sects, are produced by means of 
ecnmt fold* or shutters attached to the glazed ceiling, 
-re *o coi hat they may bo immediately 

(jrordor elided to any extent, thereby increasing or dimi- 
jusi as required, and otherwise modifying 
Portlier than this, some parts of the painting itself are 
t and on them the light can occasionally bo ad* 
From behind, thereby producing a brilliancy far ex- 
ttral ftj the highest lights of a picture upon an 
groui be made to appear vivid and 

ig only by contisvr, not by any positive increase of 
: cm i lion ■ irfuce. llere, on the contrary, 

is admitted through it, in addition lo 
b illuminates the picture generally, an artifice 
atagea of in transparency 

wsbjut its defects looking more solid, and the 

tural lhan when the whole 

l# the light pus- - picture. The combination 

unsparent, and opaque colouring, still 

-» IfcrtWr eiwintrd bj i of varying both the effects ami 

lit and shade* renders the diorama tho 

a saJ b ct see,' 1 n of nature, and adapts it 

* I pmusrly for noonluhi i>jecta,or for showing such 'oecf- 

I lemserapn us sudden fleams of sunshine and their 

It is also unrivalled for showing arcbiti 


turo, particularly interiors, as powerful relief may ho ob- 
a itljuut that exaggeration in the shadows which is 
almost inevitable in every other mode of painting. ♦ 

Although hitherto employed only for purposes of public 
exhibition, the diorama might undoubtedly be turned to ac- 
count for those of embellishment Likewise in corridors and 
other places of that kind, where light can bo obtaiued only 
from one extremity. For it should be observed that tho 
principle is totally independent of the contrivance adopted 
fir exhibiting two pictures ; although this latter in itself en- 
iho attraction to the public. Tins may be unrhi- 
slood by briefly describing the building erected for the pur- 
pose in the Regent's Park. London, alter the plans of 
Messrs, Morgan and Pugin, and first opened in the autumn 
Of I S23. 

Tlu' sneetaterj or saloon for the visitors is a rotunda 40 
feet m diamen tingle opening ur proscenium about 

|i feet wide J and placed within another rotunda having two 
openings communicating with the picture- re I) of 

which eon i a change of scene takes place 

the inner rotunda is turned by means of machinery beneath 
l>oi\till the proscenium is gently shifted from the open- 
uito one picture-room to that of iho other, the two being 
quite contiguous. At the next change it is shified back 
again, so that tho whole space passed over backwards and 
forwards is* about one-third of the entire euomnferew 
double that portion of the circle form tag the proscenium. 
The diorama at Berlin, executed by C rl GroptUS, an | 
in rail scene-painter, is somewhat on the same plan, yet 
some ^li^ht aifForencea. The pecalia 1, of 

turning the spectatory from one painting to the other, is 
adopted, as th than the opening 

through which they are viewed, and to be stretched 

on a Irani me;, so that they cannot be either rolled un, or 
drawn aside in tWC haWes, as is done with scenes of a U 
Ire. Nevertheless, it would perhaps be found practicable to 
exhibit a suc(v-sion of three Of t »nr riews,in ;i tingle I 
lure-mum,' by making that pari of the buildii 
spacious to allow each scene to bt ilkled backwards <o t a- 
wards so as to be enhivU Bill of view when drawn a^ido. 

DiOSCO'REA, the genus of plants which furnish the 
tropical esculent* called yams. They arc perennial tleshy- 
rooted or tuberous diencious plants, with annual twining 
stems, broad alternate leaves having a somewhat netted ar- 
rangement of their veins, and loose dusters of small green 
flowers, The corolla and tho calyx taken togcth 
of six small equal segments, which, in the i land 

upon the top of the ovary. The male tl 
mens ; the females three styles, I I js a thin 

compressed three-winged capsule, containing one or two 
membranous seeds. 

The only general account of the species, which nt al) de- 
serves to be consulted, is that of Dr. noaburgb, who culti- 
vated seventeen sorts in the Bol I alculta ; 
others are known to botanists, but far from perfectly. 

The common West India yam, which is often sold in the 
shops of London* is produced by Dt> ite. It is met 

with in the East Indies also, but only In a cultivated slate. 
A figure of it is piven in Rheode's * Hoftus Mal&barieus, 1 vol. 
vii. t. 38, under tho name of Icatsji-keleagfe. Its tubers are 
oblong, brown externally, white internally, and often of 
great size, weighing sometimes as much IS 30lbs,: they 
h alter the Urn year, if loft in live ground, having first 
produced the young ones that are to replace them. ■ Be* 
the tubers the proper roots of all these plants are fibrous, 
springing from and ch telly about the union of the sterna 
with the tubers, and spreading in every direction." The 
stems are furnbhed with tour crested leafy wings, andspread 
to a great extent twining round trees and bushes; ihey 
often bear prickles near the ground. The first leaves (hat 
appear on the stem are alternate, the succeeding are oppo- 
site, seated on long sialics, deeply heart-shaped at the base, 
sharp-pointed, smooth, with from five to seven ribs The 
flowers are small and green, uud appear in compound pani- 
cles. The remainder of the specie* ;i re 
in general ehafaeten ; I few short notes will luffictentty 
e their ddlereiicea. 
D. glohosa, cultivated in Bengal under the name 
puree aloi. 1 < -»f the Indian >miis. [tsflowerfl 

are highl j fragrant; the tubers are white internally; the 

irrow-hi aded. 
I), rubell it Indian ion \ 

lanre tuber* stained with rod iinmediatelv belo\i le \ 


it is much esteemed ; its tubers are sometimes three feet 
long ; its flowers are fragrant. 

Anotfier valuable kind is D. purpurea, called lol-guranya- 
aloo in Bengal, whose tubers are permanently stained purple 

At Malacca is cultivated another purple-rooted sort, the 
D. atropurpurea, whose tubers are large fend irregular, and 
grow 10 near the surface of the ground as to appear in dry 
weather through the cracks that they make in llio sail by 
raising the earth over them. 

Other eatable sorts are numerous, hut are less valuable, 
and therefore not cultivated. In Otaheile the D. bulbifera, 
which bears small fleshy angular tubers along the stem in 

■ the axils of the leaver, is the favourite species. 
It is not a little remarkable that while so many species 
are nutritious in this genus, some should be highly dan- 
gerous; but such is unquestionably the fact* Dioscorea 
Dromonuui and triphylla, both ternute leaved species, have 
dreadfully nauseous and dangerous tubers. No genus is 
mow in want of revision than this. 

DIOSCOREA'CEifi, a natural order of endogenous 
plants, referred to the Refuse group, and having (he last 
genus for their type. They are particularly distinguished 
I*;- the following character. 

Flowers dioecious; calyx and corolla superior; stamens 
six | ovary three-celled, with one or two-seeded cells; style 
deeply tiifid; fruit leafy, compressed, occasionally succu- 
lent : embryo small, near the nilum* in a large cavity of 
cartilaginous albumen. 

All the species are twining shrubs, with alternate M rail- 
rurally opposite leaves. They consist, with the exception 
of Tutnus, or Black Bryony, of tropical plant-*, or at least of 
such us require a mild frostless climate. Some of them 
produce eatable farinaceous tubers, or yams, as the various 
species of Dioscorea and Testuduiaria ; but there is a dan- 
gerous acrid principle prevalent among them, which ren- 
ders the order upon the whole suspicious. It exists in a 
perceptible degree in Tamus, and is still more manifest in 
the thrue-teaved Dioscorea. 

1, ft ftttnAt of Rnjantft cordata; 9, ft mnie flower; 3. n f>rrt1o]flovr«r; 4, ft 
13 of a lipc fruit with the iced rxpowd; 5, a lecliun at the Med. 

Greek writer on Materia Medica, was born at Anazarbus, 
in Cilicia, and flourished in the reign of Nero, as appears i 
from the dedication of his hooks to Areas Asclepiadeus, | 
who was a friend of the consul Licinius or Lecanius Bassos. 
Jn early life he seems to have been attached to the army ; 
and either at that time or subsequently he travelled through 
Greece, Italy, Asia Minor, and some parts of Gaul, collect- 

ing plants with diligence and aflqnmratmg himself with 
their properties, real Off reputed. He also gathered together 
the opinions current in his day concerning the medical 
plant! brought from countries not vi-siled by himself, affjew 
cially from India, which at thai lime furnished uuiuy drugs 
to the western markets. From fitch materials be compiled 
bis celebrated work on Materia Medics, in five hooks, 
wherein between 500 and 600 medicinal plants are named 
and briefly described. He is moreover reputed the author 
of some additional books on therapeutic*, && 5 but in the 
judgment of Sprengel the latter are spurious, and from the 
mixture of Lai in and Greek names of plants, are probably 
some uionki-h forgery. 

Few books have ever enjoyed such long and universal 
celebrity as the Materia Medica of Dioseoridea Fee six- 
teen centuries and mure, to use the words of one of his 
biographers, this work was referred lo as the fountain-head 
of all authority by everybody who studied either botany or 
the mere virtues of plants. Up to the commencement of 
the seventeenth century the whole of academical or private 
study in such subjects was begun and ended with the works 
of Dioscorides ; and it was only when the rapidly increasing 
numbers of new plants and the general advance in all 
branches of physical knowledge compelled people to admit 
that the vegetable kingdom might contain mora thing! 
than were dreamt of by the Anuzarbian philosopher, that 
his authority ceased to be acknowledged. 

This is the more surprising, considering the real nature 
of these famous books. The author introduced no oider 
into the arrangement of his matter, unless by con- 
ing a similarity "of sound in the Ctajmeshegave nb prints 
Thus, medium was placed with epimediuin, althaea ean 
nabint with cannabis, hippophajstum (cnicus stellatus) 
with hippopbae. and so on; the mere separation of aro- 
matic and ^um- hearing trees, esculents and corn-plants, 
hardly forms an exception to this statement. Of many of 
his plants no description is given, but they are merely 
daalgitaled by a name. In others the descriptions arc com- 
parative, contradictory, or unintelligible. He employs the 
same word in di He-rent senses, and evidently attached DO 
exactness to the terms he made use of. He described the 
same plant twice under the same name or different nam 
he was often notoriously careless, and he appears to I 
been ready to state too much upon the authority of others. 
Nevertheless, hlJ writings are extremely interesting as 
■bowing the amount of Materia Medica knowledge in the 
authors day, and his descriptions are in many cases far 
from bad: but we must be careful not to look upon them 
as evidence of the state of botany at the same period ; 
for Dioscorides has no pretension Co be ranked among the 
botanists of antiquity, considering that the writings of Theo- 
phrastus, four centuries earlier, show that botany had even 
at that time begun to be cultivated as a science distinct 
from the art of the herbalist. 

The most celebrated MS. of Dioscorides is one at Vienna, 
illuminated with rude figures* It was sent by Busbcqn- 
the Austrian Ambassador at Constantinople, to Mathiolus, 
who quotes it under the name of the Cantacuaene Codex, 
and is believed to have been written in the aixth century, 
Copies of some of the figures were inserted by Dodoens in his 
Histuria Stirpium, and others were 'engraved in the reign 
of the empress Maria Theresa under the inspection of Jnc- 
quin. Two impressions only of these plates, ns fi 
can learn, have ever been taken off, as the work was not 
prosecuted/ One of them is now in tlio Library of the 
Liunrean Society ; the other is, we believe, with tSiblhorna 
collection at Oxford. They are of little importance, as the 
figures arc of the rudest imaginable description, Ann 
manuscript of the 9th century exists at Pans and was ut 
by Salinaains; tkfi also is illustrated with figures, and 
both Arabic and Coptic names introduced, on which 
account it is supposed to have been written in Egypt. Be* 
sides these, there is at Vienna a manuscript believed to be 
still more antient than that first meutioned, and three 
others are preserved at Ley den. 

The first edition of the Greek text of Dioscorides, was 
published by Aldus at Venice, in 1499, fbl. A fur better 
one || that of Paris, 1549, in 8vo. by J. Goupyl ; but a 
battel still is the folio Frankfort edition, of IjDH, by Sar- 
raeenus. $prenc;cL laments, 'nullum rei herbaria? peritutn 
viruui HtJliamnm huic scriptori operant impaodisse.' Never- 
theless, there have be«n many commentators, ot whom 
some, such as Fuchsius, Amatus Lusitanus, Rutllius, Ta- 

D I O 

D I P 

lauus. Tragus, and Dalechampius, arc of no sort 
jHi ially Mutthiolus, Msuanta, 
id Tour tie fort, among the older, with 
ip. Smith, and Sprengeh among modern com men lu- 
, deserve to be consulted with attention, The Last edi- 
■'he Greek text is by Sprengel, in the collection of 
Greek Physicians by Kubn, Leipzig, IH'2'i, Bm, which has 
l by a collation of several MSS. Dr. Sibthorp, 
who visited Greece For the purpose of studying on the spot 
I i] ; of Dioscoridee, must be accounted of the 
.est critical authority; for it frequently happens that 
tb* traditions of the em, alities, or other Purees of 

prmatton throw fur more light upon the statements of 
this aiuient author than his own descriptions, It will ever 
be i f regret to scholars, tbat Dr. Sibtborp should 

hare died before he was able to prepare for the press the 
result of his inquiries; what is known of them is embodied 
in the Prodromus Flone Grsecce, published from his ma- 
terials by the late Sir James Edward Smith, and in the 
Flora Grmea itself, consisting of in vols. fid. with nearly 
lOOtl coloured plates, commenced by ihe same botanist, and 
now nearly c under the direction of Professor 

Lindley. [Sibthorp.] So far as European plants are in 
question, we may suppose that the means of illustrating 
Dioscorides are now nearly exhausted ; but it is far other- 
vise with his Indian and Persian plants, Concerning the 
tattei, U in probable thai much may be learned from a 
studj of the modern Materia Medica of India. When the 
Neslonans, in the fifth century, were driven into exile, 
Ihey sought refuge among the Arabs, with whom they 
establish' ited school of medicine, the mini- 

kixtended into Persia and India, and laid 
the foundation of the present medical practice of the 
vea of those countries. In this way the Greek names 
>oǤco rides, altered indeed, and adapted to the genii j- of 
the new i became introduced into the languages of 

Persia, Arabia, and Hindustan, and have been handed 
down traditionally to the present day. Thus Dr. Royle has 
ru, by an examination of this sort of evidence, that tin 
\ aromatikosof Dioscorides is not a Gentian, as has 
Ucn imagined; that Nardos Indike is unquestionably the 
Nttd Jatamansi of De Candolle, and that the 

Lai it was neither a Rhamnus, nor a Lycium, but 

** Prosper Alpinus long ago asserted, a Berberis, With 
regard to plant, Dr. Royle stales that Herberts 

called in India hoozis hindee, or 
/ ; this last word has for rls Arabic synonym 
ou or lookyon : therefore the Berberry is still called 
i the reputed qualities and uses of 
OSMA* a genus of Rutaccous shrubs inhabiting the 
ive alternate simple 
marked with dots of transparent oil. and diffusing 
ul odour when bruised. Some of the Species are 
as the Buck us, with which the 
ime themselves, and which are chiefly 
> crenaia and serratifolia. The flowers of most 
I. Diosiua crenatn 
s reputed a powerful antispasmodic, is thus de- 

An erect shrub, smooth in irt, and growing a foot 

ersuhi^h; branches tapering, purplish, long, lax ; branch- 

or scattered, angular, 

Leaves alternate, on short 

lunl, fbii, smooth, deep preen above, 

:ieai sunken glands, Ihe midrib soine- 

landular-dotted, and 
middle sized. Peduncles 

Mlern botam-ts the old genus Diosma is 

unely, Adenaudra, Coleonema, 

lemadenia* Baryosmo, to which 

ong, A . and Macrostylis. 

ata (Linn.) and Diosma serratifolia (Vent) 

ich at the Cape of Good Hope are termed 

id which are sometimes used alone, but 

When bruised they emit a strong 

r, resembling rosemary or rue. The taste is 

not bitter or disagreeable 

- court analysed the leaves, and found no 

;,65 of volatile oil; 2 LI 7 extractive; 2.15 resin; 

I. ID chlorophylle. Brandes considers the extrac- 

pcculiar, and teims it Diosmin, analogous to ca- 


I ftfesfl 

tlmrtin. The volatile oil and the extractive appear to be the 
active ingredients. They are usually administered in the 
form of infusion. Buchu leaves have been long known i> 
the Hottentots as a remedy against rheumatism, cramps, 
and above all in affections of the urinary organs. They 
have of late yean been introduced into European practice. 
In their action they resemble those of the arctostuphylos 
uva ursi, but from their containing volatile oil. buchu 
leaves are in many cases preferable. [Bear's Whortle- 

DIP, in magnetism, the angle which the magnetic needle, 
freely poised on its centre of gravity and symmetrically 
formed in both its arms, makes with the plane of the hori- 
zon. It is more scientifically termed the ion of the 
needle, or the magnetic inclination. [Imagination and 
D1PHIMJS. [Athens, vol. h\> p. 18.] 
DIPHTHONG i&tftoyyos) is the sound of two vowels 
pronounced in rapid succession, as the German au in maus % 
pronounced precisely like the English word mau\e, the 
vowel sound consisting of the broad a of father, followed 
quickly by the sound of u or oq. Again, the i in the 
English w r ord mind, though represented by a single cha- 
racter, is virtually a diphthongal sound, consisting of the 
broad a of father, followed by the vowel sound which is 
heard in mean. The name diphthong; however is com- 
monly given to any vowel sound represented by the junc- 
tion of two vowels, as in dream, though the sound pro- 
duced if not compounded. 

AU diphthongs are said to be long syllables ; and this 
would be true if they were only employed to mark the 
union of two vowel sounds. This probably was originally 
their sole office ; for in many English words now written with 
diphthongs, hut pronounced as if they had single vowels, au 
earlier pronunciation contained the double sound; and in- 
deed this view is often supported by the provincial pronun- 
ciation of a word. For example, such words as meat, dream t 
are pronounced in many parts of England as dissyllables, 
meiih dream. In practice however a diphthong is ofleu 
used where the vowel sound is not only uncompounded but 
rimttg as in friend, breadth. 

Again, diphthongs are occasionally used to represent 
simple sounds intermediate between the vowels, as in the 
English word coughs and the Geiman sounds represented 
by ae, off* ue, commonly written «, ci, tV, where the dots 
placed over the vowels are merely a corruption of the 
letter r. 

DIPHUCETHALA, a genus of coleopterous insects 
belonging to the Lamollicorncs section Phyllopbagi. 

This genus appears to be confined to Australia, and the 
species of which posed are distinguished from those 

of allied genera ch icily by I heir having the elypeus deeply 
emarginated ; they are of an oblong form; the thorax ti 
attenuated anteriorly, the elytra are somewhat depressed, 
and the abdumen is very convex. The antenna? are eight- 
jointed, and the club is composed of three joints; the afl- 
tcrior libim are generally denlated externally ; the anterior 
tarsi of the mules have the four basal joints dilated, and 
furnished with a velvet-like substance beneath, and all the 
claws are bifid. 

A rich golden green appears to be the prevailing colour 
of these insects, and we understand that they are found 


, fntcrjhaht xeneea (Kirby) is nearly half an inch in 
length, of a golden green hue, and has a silk WL< i r l n on 
ihe upper parts; the lege are red, the anterior tibia* have 
Lin oh I use tooth-like process DO the outer side, near the 
apex; t lie head and thorax are very thickly and delicately 
punctured; the elytra are covered with conducts punctures 
which are arranged in longitudinal rows, and each elytron 
has two smooth elevated slria>; the under parts of the 
body are covered with white scale-like hairs. 

This is the largest species known; there are however 
many which are nearly equal to it in size. The genus 
Diphucephale forms the subject of a monograph in the first 
volume of the 'Transactions of the Entomological Society 
of London/ where sixieen species are desCT 

Dl'PIIYDES. DPPHYM, a family of zoophytes, thus 
characterized by M. de Blainville, and placed by him be- 
tween the PkfftOgrada and the (iliugrada. 

End ij, bilateral and symmetrical, composed of a very small, 
nuclei form, visceral mass, and two natatory organs, which 
are contractile, subcartilaginous, and serial j one anterior* 

D I P 

in more or less immediate connexion with the nucleus, 
which ii envelop; the other posterior, and but 

.iltle adher- 

//*W, at the extremity of a more or less proboscidiform 


Vent, unknown : a long cirrhifurm and ovigerous pro- 
Auction, proceeding from the root of the nucleus, and pro- 
longing itself more or less backwards. 

lit Bury de St. Vincent, in his voyage to the African 
coasts, appears to be the first who n o ti ced these animals, 
which abound in all the seas of warm latitudes, with any 
degree of certainty. He considered them to be BipfofW 
(Salpa). Tilesms also said something of them in the zoo- 
logical part of Krusen^torn's voyage. 

But it was Cuvier who first tinned these creatures into 
a separate genus, under the name of Dipht/es, and he placed 
them at the end of his Hmfrogtatic Acal*pham\ immediately 
after Stepharvmiia of Feron. Cuvier describes I hi* b 
as very Singular, consisting of two individuals, which 
always together, one including itself in a hollow of I he 
other (Tun s'eiubuitaut dans un creux. de l'autre), an ar- 
rangement which nevertheless permits their separation with- 
out the destruction of life. They are, ho observer gelati- 
nous, transparent, and move very nearly hke the M> ! du«r. 
The including individual (remboilant) produces from the 
bottom of its hollow a chaplet (chapelet), which traverses a 
demi -canal of the included individual (l*embotte) f and 
Would seem to be composed of ovaries and of tentaeula and 
suckers like those of the preceding genera. Cuvier then 
goes on to state the divisions established by MM. Quoy and 
Ciaimard, according fco the relative forms and proportions of 
the two individuals. Thus, in the Diphyes^ properly so 
called, the two individuals are nearly alike, pyramidal, and 
with some points round their opening, which is at the base 
of the pyramid In the CaipeSt the included individual 
has still the pyramidal form, but the including individual 
i* very small and square. In the A/it/Irs, the included nidi- 
victual is oblong or oral, and the including rather smaller 
and bell-shaped. In the Cu&oidet t it is the included indi- 
vidual which is small and bell-shaped ; the including iiwh- 
\ id ual is much larger and square. In the Navictuis, the 
included individual hoped; the including individual 

large abo> but Blipper-shtped (eO forme de sabot), Cuvier 
king that there are msn <!nbi- 

nations, and refers to the memoir of MM. Quoy and Gai- 
mard, in the ' Annates des N&turelles,' tome x. 

This, then, is the account given by Cuvier in his last edition 
of ihe *Regne Animal;* but he first that he esta- 

blished the g> I in that edition he evidently knew 

of only one species from the Atlantic, for which he refers 
to M. Bory's 4 Voyage/ a I he genus - free 

Aculephans, between Cestutn of Lesueur and Porpita of 
Lamarck. It is to the first edition that M, de Bin in 
refers in his ' Actinologie,' and he there says that in fact 
M. Lesueur, more than a jear previously, had sent him the 
drawing of a genus of the same family, to which Lesueur 
had given the name of Amj Jiiont (Amphiroa?>, and which 
M. de Blainville observes was, from what he now knows of 
tlie DiphycSy very nearly approximated to them, to lay the 
least; but the want of inforo to tlte characters of 

the genus prevented him (De Blainville) from publishing it. 
He remarks, that he ought to add that Lesueur was more 

tussle than Cuvier. inasmuch as the former had at his 
and living animal ; while the latter cha- 
v an animal composed of two indi- 
viduals, giving as the type the anterior moiety only, to which 
lies two apertures, one fur the mouth and the other 
lor t the cirrhigerous production which he reg 

as the ovary, M. de Blainville then, i further 

ivations as to the igned to (he animal by 

Cuvier, refers to the l Memoir of MM. Quoy it Gainmrd, 1 
above mentioned, «nd states that during tip their 

_ r e those zoologists had met with more D>; 

\ formed 1 enere, and h ;tted 

tation; that he had also obtained 
itiful drawings of these animals, made bi Lesueur in 
the Gulf of Bahama; and Paul dE mil laced 

by his recommendation on board a merchant ship about to 
mals - world, h 1 to 

him the ins which he (Botta) had ta x>< 

L-aus; so that, ditllcull as the stud} 
animals may be, he thinks 

iiue natural relation bovc all, 

D I P 

by an examination of certain species of Physsophorce* M. de 
lilainvdU- then : Diphye9i at Irs! 

sie.hU and especially a^ it appears dflftfi to he 

composed or two poly^maL inbcarlilaginous, tiausparent 
parts, placed one after the other, the posterior portion pene- 
trating more or h nation of the ante] 
tion. These two putts, constantly more or less diasii 
have this in common: viz., that they are ordinarily more 
or less > hollowed out by a blind cavity 0] 
externally by ■ very large and regular, though divei 
aperture. Adding to tins a production regarded as toe 
ovary by Cuvier, and which comes out of the superior eaviry 
of the anterior earlilaginous part, we have the whole that 
had been remarked about the DiphycUe before the memoir 
of Quoy andCaimard, who have described numerous species 
which they have observed, very nearly like Cuvier; with 
this modification, however, that they have conaktared the 

belonging to the same animal ; but the 
of the differences of form necessary for the establi- 
of the new genera which they have proposed, and above all, 
the good figures which they have given, have enabled them 
to go further, and to see in the Dtpht/uUe something beyond 
the two suhcarlilaginous parts. In fact, takiug for e\ 
the Caiprfi, and especially the Cucubali and the Cu< 
is seen that the bodies of the Diphydm form true nuclei, 
situated at the anterior part of the entire mass, and that 
the nucleus is composed of a proboscidian esophagus, wish 
a mouth having a Ottpping'gtiSl Kks termination (en ven 
louse), continuing itself into a stomach surrounded with 
green hepatic granules, and sometimes into a second, filled 
with air. There is, moreover, to be remarked, at the lower 
part, a glandular muss, which is probably the ovary, and is 
Bi more or less immediate relation with the 1 
and perhaps ovifero us production, which is prolonged back 
wards. This nucleus would seem to be more or less en 

I by the anterior cartilage, which offers to it, n, 
cavity Sometimes distinct IV < mid (win 

mentioned shove), serving for locomotion, and at other 
times confounded with it; it is, besides, in intimate can- 
wiih ii- tnwoe by filaments, which M. de Blainville 
believes to be vascular. It has been already remarked that 

lerior part of the body is hollowed out by 
cavity, which is continued nearly throughout i 
and it is from the bottom of tins cavity that a prolon 
perhaps equally vascular, proceeds, which toes above the 
root of the oviterous production, and urnt< 
doubt, wjih the nucleus. 'Thus, 1 continues M- de 
villo, * it would appear to me certain thai I really 

belongs to the Diphyes ; but it is easy to conceive how it 
may be detached by the slightest dibit, b 
is only effected by a single Slam 

A In t this statement of the organization of Diphy 

that the purl which M. Cuvier regarded as by itself 
constituting the animal, is only an organ of minor import* 
ance \ (hat ilu-re must be adUd to it the posterior \ art, 
which was regarded as a distinct individual 
that it is necessary to take into the account the \ 
nucleus, wb ms production, fbi 

A part of the animal. From this auah- 
Diphycx, it is evident that it cannot be an animal 

f the Actifviz'utrift; but in order b its natu< 

rel relationship, let Us he OUMffVOn aho\e named 

have recorded of its manners and habits. 

* The Diphyes are very transfarenl animals, so that it 
if often fety difficult to distinguish them in the se 
even in a certain quantity of water taken from it. It i* 
especially at considerably ETC*! distances from the shore 
that they are met with in 1 f waim C 

often ver| uumerous. They Host and swi 
all directions, with the anterior or nueleul extremtt) 

id getting rid of the water which they take in, by 
the con of the two aubcartilaginous parts; E&ea 

apcrtu] led bacs 

natatory organs are equally provided with 
le that the loeomolion is 
rapid; it can, finally, | ed by either the one or the 

1 to the nucleus with so little solidity, that n 
is that it detaches itself from it Accidentally ; 
M* II" red that in entire Diphyes was onh 

by one of the but very rr 

Muing locontotii 
ms production apparently tloats e\le 

D I P 

bdging itself partly in a gutter, into which the inferior 
edge of the posterior natatory organ is hollowed out; dm 
it has not the same length, the animal being able to con- 
tract it powerfully and even to the extent of withdrawing 
it inwards entirely ; from this it is evident that this organ 
is muscular. But what is very remarkable is, that through- 
oat its length, and placed at sufficiently regular distances, 
are found organs which MM. Quoy and Gaimard regarded 
as suckers, and which possessed, in fact, the faculty of ar 
ksion and bringing the animal to anchor, as M. Botta was 
satisfied. I dare not decide what this organ is ; but I am 
strongly inclined to believe either that it is a prolongation 
of the body analogous to that in the Physsophoree*, or that 
it is, if not an ovary, at least an assemblage of young indi 
riduals, a little like what takes place in the Biphores. 

'In the actual state of our knowledge with regard to the 
Dipkyes y it seems to me that they arc, so to speak, inter 
mediate between the Biphores and the Physsophorar. They 
approach the first, whose cartilaginous envelope is some- 
times tripartite, as M. Chamisso has taught us, inasmuch 
as that the visceral mass is nucleiform, that it is contained 
in great part in this envelope, that the latter has two aper 
tares, and that it is by contraction that it executes loco- 
motion. We find, on the other hand, a mode of approxi- 
mating the Diphyes to the Physsophorce, in regarding the 
Bttatory organs as analogous to those which we have seen 
m INpkusa, which has the smallest before and the largest 
behind, both the one and the other being perfectly bilateral. 
The mouth is also at the extremity of a sort of proboscis. 
There is sometimes a bulloid swelling full of air: finally, 
the body is terminated by a cirrhigerous production, which 
i* perhaps oviferous. For the rest we are obliged to agree 
that these approximations require, before they are freed 
from doubt, a more complete knowledge than we at present 
possess, not only of the organization of the Diphyes and 
Pkguopkone, but also of the Biphorcs themselves. Ac* 
fording to the views of M. Mertens, chief naturalist in the 
lwt circumnavigation of the Russians, the Diphyes would 
V* no other than Stephcuiomisc ; in which case the ovi- 
fwous and cirrhigerous productions of the Diphyes must 
1* considered the analogues of the posterior and tubular 
part of the Stephanomite* We have already said that | 
MM. Quoy and Gaimard, in their memoir on the DiphydT, 
fed established many new genera, having in view princi- 
pally the form and the proportion of the two natatory origans 
« parts of the body. M. Lesueur has also established 
genera, some of which may be incorporated with those of 
the zoologists of the Astrolabe ; unfortunately our know- 
ledge of these genera is confined to figures only. Lastly, 
M. Otto has proposed one or two, but they are founded on 
detached parts or incomplete animals. The greater part of 
these genera are not, in reality, very distinct; we adopt 
tbeca nevertheless provisionally at least in order to facili- 
tate the study of beings so singular. The Diphydce seem 
ts> us capable of division into two great sections, according 
as the anterior part is provided with a single or double 
etnty. If. Eschscholtz, in his systematic distribution of 
the species of DiphycUz, has regard to the number of 
cavities of the anterior natatory organ, and to the presence 
of one or more suckers in the tubular production. From 
this test have resulted genera otherwise circumscribed, and 
&i less numerous than from our manner of viewing the 
The following is M. de Blainville's arrangement. 

Diphydte whose anterior peart has but a single cavity. 

Genera, Cucubalus. 

Body, provided with a large proboscidiform exsertile 
Reker, with a bunch (grappe) of ovaries at its base, lodged 
ia a large single excavation of a natatory anterior cordiform 
crgan, receiving also the posterior, which is also cordiform 
aod hollowed into a cavity with a posterior and sub-oval 

Example, Cucubalus cordiformis, the only species cited 
vf the genus established by MM. Quoy ana Gaimard. 
Length, two lines. Differs from the other Diphyda*, first, 
11 having the nucleus much less hidden ana sunk in the 
interior natatory body, which has moreover only one large 
cavity in which it is plunged ; secondly, in having the ovi- 

• This (says X. de BUinrflls) It the opinion of M. Esehaehalt*. who gives I 
Utfcb Mrt lb* unt of Smetm mtritmimt (nourishing canal), which, ho aajrs. , 
avaple, or provided with a single sucker, in the first section, and complex . 
VftOTitM with au^floxtm,!* the ffjosab i 

D I P 

ferous production very short ; and, lastly, in the mode of 
locomotion, for the animal always swims vertically. 

Cucubalus coTdtformis. 


Body furnished with a great, exsertile, proboscidiform 
sucker, with a bunch of ovaries at its base, lodged in a deep 
excavation, the only one in the anterior natatory organ, in 
form of a hood, in which the posterior is inserted (s'em- 
boite) ; the latter is tetragonal and pierced behind with a 
rounded terminal orifice. 

Example, Cucullus Doreyanus (Quoy and Gaimard* 
Localitv New Guinea. 

Cucullus Doreyanus. 

M. de Blainville observes that this genus does not really 
differ from the preceding, excepting in tho form of the 
natatory organs, and he doubts the propriety of retaining 
it, especially as it consists but of one species. M. Botta, 
lie observes, who had occasion frequently to observe in 
nearly all the seas of warm climates, from the coast of Pern 
to the Indian archipelago, a great number of animals re- 
sembling the Cucullus of MM. Quoy and Gaimard, and 
having found them sometimes free and at other times 
forming part of tho cirrhigerous and oviferous production 
«* the ordinary Diphyes, has been led to think that the 
Curulli may be only a degree of development of a Diphyes. 
Although, concludes M. de Blainville, this is conceivable 
up to a certain point, inasmuch as in the Cuculli there is 
no cirrhigerous production, which seems to prove that they 
are not adults, the difference nevertheless of the natatory 
organs is so great that he dares not come to this decision. 

Cymba (Nacelle).* 

Body furnished with a large exsertile proboscidiform 
sucker, having at its base a mass of ovariform organs, 
lodged in the single and rather deep cavity of a naviform 
natatory organ, receiving and partially hiding the posterior 
natatory or^an, which is sagittiform, pierced behind with a 
rounded orifice crowned with points, and hollowed on its 
free bonier by a longitudinal gutter. 

Example, Cymba sagittata (Quoy and Gaimard) ; N;t 
agittata (De Blainville). Locality, Straits of Gibraltar. 

K. sagittate. 

M. de Blainville remarks that he ought to observe that 
M. Eschscholtz says that this genus, to which he unites the 
two following genera, possesses an anterior natatory organ 
with two cavities, and of these the natatory cavity projects 
in the form of a tube. M. de Blainville further observes 
that this genus does not differ from the Cuculli, except in 
the form of the natatory organs ; in fact, the disposition of 
the nucleus in the bottom of the single cavity into which 

• Mr. Broderip liad appropriated this name to a subgenus of Volutide. 
gee Sowerbv's • Geuera of rccnt and fossil Shells/ No, 2tf, and Mr. B.'a 
[uttograph in Mr. Sowerby's 'Sprries CnnchyUorum,' 
t Naywula? 

D I P 


D I P 

the anterior organ Is hollowed, and the penetration of the 
posterior or^an into this same cavity are absolutely the 
same as in the two preceding genera, as If. dt Rlainville 
has been able to satisfy himself from the examination Of 
many individuals preserved in spirit. 

Cuboid es. 

Body nueleiform, provided with a large proboscidiform 
sucker, surrounded by an hepatic mass, having at it* base 
an ovary, whence proceeds a filiform ovigenous production, 
contained in a large, single, hemispherical excavation of an 
anterior, cubnid, natatory organ, much larger than the pos- 
terior one, which is tetragonal, and nearly entirely hidden 
in the first. 

Example, Cuhmdes vitreus (Quoy and Gaimard). Lo- 
cality, Straits of Gibraltar. 

Cubciules Titipuj. 
a. naL tite $ ft* mRjjiii<W, 

Tins again, according to M« de Blainville, is a genus 
. distinguishable from the preceding genera, and 
only by the form and proportion of the natatory organs. 
tayi M. de Blainville, *I have had a considerable 
number of individuals at my disposal, 1 have been able to 
satisfy myself as to the characteristic which I have given 
in." 1 have in fact clearly recognized that the great 
and single cavity of the anterior and eubic organ contained 
a considerable visceral nucleus, in which I have been ihie 
to distinguish a sort of proboscidifurm stomach, surrounded 
nt its base with an hepatic organ; and further backward, a 
granular ovary, contained in its proper membrane, and 
whence escaped a long o vigorous production. 1 have also 
been equally able to satisfy myself that the natatory pos- 
terior organ, of the same conformation, as far as the rest, 
as in the true Diphyes, was entirely hid in the excavation 
of the anterior organ with the visceral mass. 


^ Body nueleiform, provided with a large exsertile snekcr, 
having at its base an assemblage of ovaries, whence pro- 
ceeds an oviferous production. Anterior natatory organ 
ennengomil, containing with the nUtkltta in a single! 
vation the posterior organ, which is much smaller, with five 
peints, and canal iculated below. 

Example, Enneagona hjalina (Quoy and Ga'iraard). 

EnilfrAgnDft liyatiriii. 
, 1 it, 1 b, Ermeugoua hyaliua cinder different aiprcts; 1 c, vi*ctral part ; 


Body nueleiform, of considerable volume, furnished with 
a proboscidiform stomach, having at its base a bunch of 
ries, prolonged into a long filament, contained in an 
anterior, polygonal, short, natatory or/an, cut squarely, 
with a single cavity in which the posterior organ, which is 
equally short, polygonal, and truncate*!, is inserted. 

Example, Amphiroa alata (Lesueur)* Locality, Seas of 

M. de Blainville observes that this genus is only known 
bj the beautiful figures sent by M. Leetteur, tad of which 
one reached M. de Blainville BaOW than n n featl ngo, but 
without description, the want of which prevented him from 
publishing it. Nevertheless it is evident, he remarks, on 
ng to these figures, that the Amphiroa* are Diphijdtr, 
but with natatory organs of a particular form and propor- 

* The i*rm Arophiroa it alao employ*! by Lwnouro^x and other* to di«lin- 
gvtib a f»am el CoralJiB^ft. 



Amphiroa alata. 
1, 1 #, Amphiroa nlataj 1 b, ill n'icloa* «xlrnclr>1. 

tion. Another species, he adds, Amphirotn , would 

appear to approximate nearly to the Calpe* of MM. Quoy 
and Gaimard, by the great disproportion of the two 

Diphydre whose anterior part is furnished with two dis- 
tinct canties. 


Bwlif nueleiform, without an exsertile proboscis, having 
a sort of aeriferous vesicle, and at its base an ovarv? pro- 
longed into a long ctrrhigeroiis and oviferous prodi 
Anterior natatory organ short, cuboid, having 
locomotive earity; posterior natatory organ very long, 
truncated at the two extremities, not penetrating mto the 
anterior organ, and provided with a round ten 

Example, Calpe penfngomi (Quoy and Gaimard), Lo 
cality, Straits of Gibraltar? 

Ciitpo prtitMRona. 
1, Catpe pentafoua (profile); I ■ (mi.|,-i title); 1 b, nucleus. 

M. de Blainville observea that this genus is really suffi- 
ciently distinct from the irue Diphyes, with which it has 
n« m ruleless many relations, not only by the great difference 
of the two locomotive organs, hut because the posterior 
organ i* only applied against the anterior one, and rj 
penetrate into lh< lie remarks that he has 

examined some individuals well preserved in spirit, and ban 
easily seen that the nucleus is composed of a sort of stomach 
with a sessile tnouth and with a small hepatic plate (plaque) 
of a green colour applied against it, and 
of aeriferou- dtualed behind. At the lower i 

the itotnachal swelling is the ovary, formed by a i 
granules, and whi 

a Long production charged with oviform bodies, and others 
longer and mure bell shaped. This production p; 
from the anterior natatory organ, and passes under the 
posterior one in following (he gutter into which it ii hi 

on its low ually, this 

equally truncated at the two s hollowed 

nearly throu ghoul its length into a great cavity, bom the 
bottom of which a vessel which is continued to the root of 
the ovary of the nucleus may be clearly seen to proceed. 


nueleiforni, inconsiderable, with a very long cirrbi- 
gerous and oviferous production. Anterior nalator 
much shorter than the other, subcubbid, with a distinct 

D 1 P 

D 1 F 

rinty for the reception of the anterior extremity of the 
posterior natatory body, which is polygonal and very lon£. 

Example, Abyta trigona (Quoy and Gaimard). Locality, 
Straits of Gibraltar. 

[Abyla trigone, j 
1, Abyla trigona; 1 o, posterior part; 1 6, anterior or visceral part. 

M. de Blainvilie observes that this genus does not really 
differ from the preceding, excepting in the form of the 
natatory organs, and above all in that the anterior part is 
merced witn a depression sufficiently considerable for the 
lodgment of a part of the other, which has a long inferior 
/arrow (sillon) and a posterior terminal opening. To this 

Ems If. de Blainvilie refers a species of Diphwke, found 
MM. Quoy and Gaimard in Bass's Strait, and of which 
y had provisionally formed the genus Bassia, which 
does not seem to M. de Blainvilie to be sufficiently charac- 

M. Eschscholtz, remarks M. de Blainvilie, rightly unites 
this genus with the preceding, as well as the genus Rosacea 
ef Quoy and Gaimard, the latter perhaps erroneously. 


Body nucleiform indistinct, situated in the bottom of a 
deep cavity, whence proceeds a long tubular production, 
furnished throughout its extent with proboscidiform 
sorters, having at their root granular corpuscles and a 
rirrhiferous filament. Natatory bodies nearly equal and 
similar; the anterior with two distinct cavities, the pos- 
terior with a single one, with a round aperture provided 
with teeth. 

Example, Diphyes Bory (Quoy and Gaimard) ; Diphyes 
campanuljfera (Eschscholtz). 


(.Diphyes Bary.j 

L 1km e ntire aabaal (potto) ; la, anterior part of the same; 11, posterior 
put; 1 e animal magmaed ; 1 4, posterior part of the tame. 

If. de Blainvilie observes that the denomination of 
AMsfe*, employed by M, Cuvier for a single species, which 
P.C, «©. MS. 

is the most common and the most generally spread in aL 
seas, is used in the work of MM. Quoy and Gaimard for 
species which have the natatory organs nearly equal in 
form and size, the first whereof has two deep cavities, of 
which the one receives a part only of the other which has 
a long inferior ridge for the lodgment of the cirrhigerous 
production. M. Lesueur, he adds, who has equally adopted 
this division of the Diphydce, gives it the name of Dagysa 
adopted by Solander, and also by Gmelin ; but M. de Blain- 
vilie asks, is it certain that the animal seen by Solander 
was a Diphyes, and not a Biphoret He adds, that M. 
Lesueur has figured five species belonging to this genus, 
perhaps all new, and from the seas of South America. 

Doubtful species, or those with one part only. 
Body free, gelatinous, crystalline, rather solid, pyramidal, 
tetragonal, with four unequal angles, pointed at the summit, 
truncated at its base, with a single rounded aperture com- 
municating with a single deep cavity, towards the end of 
which is a granular corpuscle. 
Example, Pyramis tetragona (Otto). 

[Pyramis tetragona.] 

This genus was established by M. Otto, and M. de Blain- 
vilie admits that he knows no more of it than is to be col- 
lected from M. Otto's description and figure. He seems to 
doubt, however, whether the genus may not have been 
founded on the posterior natatory organ of a Diphyes, per- 
haps of the division properly so called. 

M. Eschscholtz makes this organized body a species of 
his genus Eudoxia, which comprehends Cucubalus and 
Cucullus of Quoy and Gaimard, admitting that the two 
natatory organs are intimately united so as to form, appa- 
rently, but one. 


Body J subgelatinous, rather soft, transparent, binary, 
depressed, obtuse, and truncated obliquely at the two ex- 
tremities, -hollowed into a cavity of little depth, with a 
round aperture nearly as large as the cavity, and provided 
with a large canal or furrow above. 

Example, Praia dubia (Quoy and Gaimard). 

[Praia dubia.] 

M. de Blainvilie describes, from personal observation, 
this provisional genus of MM. Quoy and Gaimard as being 
subgelatinous, rather soft, and transparent. Its form, he 
remarks, is regularly symmetrical, and it seems to be di- 
vided into two equal parts by a great furrow which traverses 
it from ope end to the other. It has a shallow cavity with 
a rounded aperture, without denticles or appendages at its 
circumference. In the tissue M. de Blainvilie perceived a 
mesial vessel, giving off" two lateral branches, wilh very 
similar ramifications; and he is inclined to think that the 
form is only the natatory organ of some large species of 
Physsophora : the substance is too soft for a true Diphyes, 

Body? gelatinous, transparent, rather solid, binary, of 
an elongated, parallelopiped, tetragonal form canalieulated 
below, truncated obliquely anteriorly, pierced behind by a 
gaping orifice furnished with symmetrical points, and lead- 
ing into a long blind cavity. 

* Vol.IX.-G 

d i r 

Exam jili', Iftiaguna hilpidum (Quo)' <«"1 Guinvimh. 


D I P 


[Tetragon* hiipi<iMiu.) 
I, TeLrt„'oij.i ]ji,|ii.Jiirn ; 2, 3, i t Uulmis cf the same. 

M. de Blainville is of opinion that this ii only thi 
terior or inferior natatory organ of a true Ltiphyes. 

Body? Buhcartilsginoua, transparent, * .-longaled, cylin- 
droid, traversed throughout its length by a very largo 
lu i row, bordered with two membranes, truncated at the 
two extremities, with a posterior aperture, with appeU; 
dieular lobes on its circumference and leading into a very 
and blind cavity. 
Example, &ulc< (Lesueur). Locality, 

Mediterranean (Nice). 


[Sulculoobrid qundriTalvt*.] 

ced by De Blainville, who found it 
i (ho figure* of Lesueur, from those ftgui 
but the »iigly inclined to believe that 

founded un the part of an animal, and not on an 
entire one* If these bodies should turnout to be merely 
U. do Blainvdle thinks they ought to 
t of Quoy and Gaimard. 


iinousp rather firm, perfectly regular, synime- 

il un the sides and 

I fine cirrhi. 

A I pierced in a sort of diaphragm 

with ap(; , binary above, leading into a lar^e 

ity with ■ i ovary al the ant 

r by a mesial and bilubiali-d 

;id Gaimard). 



avc the form the name of I 

ru ployed 
by Quoy and < name 

item to 
De Bl liarity of the two 

rows of cilia vii each side. Boiu sent Una also in spirit 

many individuals obtained in the course of his cireuin navi- 
gation. It seemed to De Blainville that these animate 
differed really from the Diphydf?* and approached the 
/ r v. 'JU confirm tins approximation it would have 
been necessary to find the posterior aperture of the internal 
ranal, oC which, be remarks, no observer has spoken: but 
it appears to him that the existence of the two set 
cirrhi, their relation with a canal which follows their root, 
the distinct and muscular walls of the cavity, and Hi 
lion of the ovary, are sufficient to show in these animals a 
passage at least towards the Berves. 


Body free, gelatinous, very soft, transparent, suborbicular, 
with a single terminal aperture at one of the poles I. 
into an oval cavity which communicates with a depJ 
whence proceeds a cirrhigeroui and oviferous production. 

Example, Rosacea Ceutemis {Qyxoy and Gaimard i, 

[Rosacea Crulemu,] 

Esehschollz unites (Jus genus with those of Calpe and 
Ahyla under the first appellation, De Blainville, 
states that he only knows the form from the figures and 
description given by Quoy and Gaimard, is at a loss to de- 
termine positively what it is, but he supposes it to be a 
Phijssophora rather than nDiphyes, 

Body free, gelatinous, transparent, spheroidal, rem form. 

with a sort of infundibulitWtn cavity, whence proceeds a 

proboscidiforra, contractile production- 
Example, Noctiluca miUaris, Lamarck. 

[Nocliluca mitiarlr ] 

M. Surriray, a doctor of medicine, while investigating 
the cause of the phospl i-watcrat Havre, 

appears to have been the first who observed and called 
ii l ten lion to the genus Noctiluca, which he described and 
figured in the memoir that he communicated to the 

l the French Institute. Its size hardly equals 
that of a small pin\s head, and it is as transparent as 
: he found it very common in the basins al Havre, 
sometimes in such abundance as to form a considerably 
thick crust (cr- < cnaisse) on the surface nj' the 

water. Lamarck adopted the geuus, placing it between 
rmiria, which lust, in his system, imme- 
diately precedes Fkyuophora, To these minute animate 
Dr. Surriray attributes the phosphorescence of the sea at 


M. de Blainville states that he has often had occasion to 
these minute beings with Dr. Surriray, aided by the 
ope. * It appeared to me. 1 says De Blainville, 
speaking ot r NoctiUtca mitiari*, * nearly regularly sph< 
but somewhat notched tfeudu), ^r excavated on its 
p^iitsoasa little 110m the middle 

of the excavation proceeds a sort of long cylindrical ten- 
tacle diminishing little in size throw :tt, and 
terminating in an obtuse extremity , During li 

in all directions somewhat after the manner 
elephant's trunk (en so repliant, un peu a la man i ere 
do ['elephant). It seemed to me, in fact, 
composed of annular fibres and traversed by a canal 

bout its I. 
terminated I p, The I eloped in a trans- 

parent membran irregular plaits. 

Within mai ]»bagus 

(espece d'ajsopha^e, en entonuvir) commencing anteriorly 

r p 


D i p 

nating posteriorly by a sort 

•tomach. ible to determine whether 

1 1 canal with an anal opening. In 

, would appear, at a certain 

nr only, maybe seen in the interior many 

>s, or small d -tpilarly placed, and a .-imposed of 

a rent envelop, containing small globules of bl 

i which M\ Surrirav considers U At a more 

1 (teriod, which rt. Sun iray supposes to be that of 

i e water becomes of a red colour (d'un rougo tie 

md then there ore found a certain number of indi- 

irhich have the probosr ids form production twi 

al length (du double phis long), and which he regards 

tMtr!y-bom animals. The genera) movements of these 

- appear to be very slow, and are essentially 

executed by means of the species of trunk which is oonti- 

anally tooting from right to left. M, Surrirav, who had 

ccaaoo to observe them, has seen them some- 

ber themselves entirely of their mem- 

sus envelope even to the tentacuia. During life the 

itttc<* are excessively pb ent, and 1 have veri- 

i with M. Surriray the fact that at Hfivre the phoapho- 

i of the sea is owing to these animals : also, i : 

it through a strainer (a trgvi amine), it 

" i property, which is much the strongest in warm 

I itorroy weather, much weaker in the winter, and null 

let a west wind.' 

Dc Blainville remarks that though he arranges this 
axil provisionally in this section, he is far from consider- 
that it is its true place, and that it seems to him, in 
t, to have much relation with that form of which MM. 
Chami&so andEisenharrlt have made their genus Ffagel- 
1 which MM. Quoy and Gaimard have also desig- 
ned under a particular denomination: be asks, in con- 
. whether Noctiluca may not bo an animal n< 
udM and CutuHi, whose natatory organs have been 
membranous envelope? 


Body f gelatinous, hyaline, cylindrical, truncated, and 
*n,ualU attenuated at the two extremities, which are largely 
epeoed and without apparent organs. 

Do/itJum Mediterranetan (Otto), 


[DoUolum Mediterraneans] 

, Otto describes the organism on which he has esta- 

genus as swimming by ejecting and absorbing 

ns of the alternate dilatation and controo- 

M Delle Chiaje (Mm* torn. iiL) 

(hat the DQtioium of Otto is 

a fragment of a species of Holothurio, which he 

huria infurretif. De Blainville observes that 

uon of the motion, &c., above stated, be 

that the animal i> a true Biphore ; 

by mas chance, there should be but one opening, 

the orgat Physsophtjra, which 

ftgre* better with the total absence of internal 

Blainville's ■ Manual * was published in 1 834* and 
- et Corrections, 1 dated at the 
?*ri* Museum, December, 1836, he declares his persistence 
be belief that the Phyangrada* Dyphidce, and Cituh 
frodb. On o be comprised in the type of the vie/ /no- 

ought to form an * ent retype,* under 
tW denomination of .V' rating that they 

**, 90 to speak, intermediate between the MaUu&ea and 
With regard to the Diphydte* in particular, 
*± tv»Afk* that since the appearance of his * Manual/ 
MM Qu<*y an »• published their observations 

nd that they have abandoned 
:*. (coupes generiques) which 
iicd m their first memoirs: distinctions, 
ed on more than the difference 
r form awl the p of the natatory organs. They 

hat their polymorphous Biphore 
- certainly nothing more 
IL d« n continues thus * — ' The structure of 

t he PfyfMOp&c I have named Diphtftj* by reason of 

the existence ol two natatory organs only, winch are median 
and placed one before the other, and of rows of cartilagi- 
nous squnmeltfe upon the root of the eirrhigerous produc- 
tion:-, r permit a doubt of the great relationship 
which exists between the Diphye*, properly so called, 
and the Physo^rada ; and that these two great genera 
ought to be united under the same family, as has been 
previously stated. M. Brandt has proposed to establish two 
subgenera only among the Diphyes, the first consisting of 
those iu which the eartilagin^ of the ciirhigeroua 
production ari distant, aa in D par, 
and the second, which he names Dij ■■•hyomorj. ha, in which 

the scales arc so aloftft-tet u to be imbricated* as is seen in 
the new species ! by Merteus, and named by him 

Diphyei Stepjtanomia, Among the genera dis t 

which, \\i lit, have been connected with PhytBO- 

phora or Diphi rtttin that they 

an- animals, we shall cite the two following genera inten- 
tionally omit ted in our work/ 

De Blainville then mentions the following: 

Cupulitks (Quoy and Craimard), placed among the Phy&~ 
tapfaorWt whoafl capsules are disposed on of a very 

long lufaed on an ffrganiied body, figured pi 

fig. 4 — lfi in the zoological part of the \ ihe Ura- 

nie. Not having met with this animal in their second 
voyage, MM. Quoy and Gaimard doubt (Astrolabe, Zoology 
t. i\\ p. :>:\ n.) whither it is an toeomplete Phyaophora or a 
>tephanvmiat) with hollow natatory organs, 
Cuvier places the genus between Hippoptts* and Pacemis. 

POLTTOKA (Quoy and Gaimard, Zool of the Uranie, pi. 
87, fig. 1*2, 13), wliich may be defined to he an uval mass 
of globular tri valvular corpu sides (corpusCuhft globulenx 
comme bivalve*), and which MM, Quoy and Gaimard con- 
ceive to be rather a Biphore thon a Physograde. 

Tktracova (p. 10), Quoy and Gaimard, Zool of tho 
Uranie, pi. &6, fig, 11;. This the authors themselves (A si 
labe iv. p. 1U3) have recognized as being nothing more 1 1 
the posterior point of Diphyes hisj>irf<t. 

RJ.CBMI1 (Delle Chiaje, Cuvier), figured by Delle Cluaje, 
Mem. tab, 50, f. II, 12, and described as a globose vesicle 
endowed with a very quick motion, and disposed toward- 
ovate shape ; but, observes Do Blainville, the figures and 
description are too incomplete to afford a supposition of 
what it is; in fact, Delle Chiaje confines himself to statin.; 
that his Raeemis ovata executes all the rotatory and rapid 
motions at the surface of the water, and that those of each 
vesicle are so lively that it has been absolutely impossil _•.• 
perceive the aperture with which, according to Delle Ch 
they are provided. Cuvier only adds to the description of 
Delle Chiaje, who also places Racemis near tlu* Phytsoj h<>- 
*yp, a small membrane with which e bed. 

M. De Blainville concludes hy Ofoerviug that he had m 
a drawing, by M. Laurillard. which had been taken at Nice 
from one of these organized bodies while alive, and that he 
supposed that it might well be a mass of eggs 

From the difficulties with which the distinguished zoolo- 
above quoted have found thi* subject &urroiindeu\ and 
the differences of opinion expressed by them, the reader will 
perceive that the natural history of the 
ganized bodies is anything but complete : and we have laid 
before him the information above given in order ilmr 
may see what has been done and how much remains kg ho 

DI'PHYES. [Diphydes.] 

DIPHYLLI'DIA. [Infseobrancbiata.] 

Dl PH Y S A [ Phy«oghju>a.) 

D1PLECTRON. [Payoxida.] 


DIPLODA STYLUS, a genus of 1 ahlishcd hy 

Mr. Gray, and resided by him as forming a new genus in 
the fumily of Gf 

Generic character. — Scales sub con form able, minute, 
smooth; the abdominal scales rather large; the caudal 
scales annulate and larger; the labial scales mod, 
tinet, the three anterior ones on each side much tin 
no gular scales. Tat/ cylindrical, vetitricose, 2 
simple, subequal, subeyhndrieal, the points suhdihiird, 
bifid beneath, with two oval, ol 

• divlcr qiiotta tfcU *■ Oia nenrric mm*.' of Quoy and Galmi 

B I P 


D I F 

claws 5, 5, small, very retractile. No femoral pores* 

This genus differ., from PJtyllodaetylus of t he same zoolo- 
gist in having the under sides of the tips of the iocs Air* 
nished with two rather large oblong tubercles troncated at 
the tip and forming two oval di*ks placed obliquely, one on 
each side of the claw, instead of having, as in Phyttodacty- 
Uu t two membranaceous Malts. The scales of Dipladac- 
tylu* are, moreover, uniform, whilst in Phylioductylus there 
is a row of larger scales extending along the buck. 

Example, Dipfodartylus rittaffis. 

i iption. Brown, wiili a broad longitudinal dorsal 
fillet; limbs and tail margined with torn o? yellow spots. 

There rue two rows of rather distant small spots on each 
side of the body, the spots become larger on the upper 
surface of t lie tail, and are scattered on the limbs. Length 
of head and body "2 inches, that of live tail l£ inch, Lo- 
e ility. New Holland, whence it was brought to England by 
Mr, 'Cunningham. {Zool Proc. 18 

[UipiuJacUlni Vtltataft*.] 

DFPLODQN. u- fur a lien us of fresh- water 

corobifers, Naladee of Lea. [Najlad | 

DIPLOMACY is a term used either to express the art of 
conduct iii. and arranging treaties between n;i- 

08, or the branch of knowledge which regard* the princi- 
ple* of that art and the relations of independent states to one 
another. The word comes fiom the Greek diploma, which 
properly signifies anything doubled or folded, and is more 
particularly used for a doGttxxieiil or writing issued on any 
more sole inn occasion, cither hy B state or other public 
body, because such writings, whether on waxen tablets or 
on any other material, used antienlly to he made up in a 
folded form* The principles of diplomacy of course are to 
be found partly in that bod] jtiizcd customs and 

regulations called public or international law, partly in the 
treaties or special compacts which one state has made with 
another The superintendence of the diplomalic relations 
of a country has been commonly entrusted in modern times 
to a m i ti i ; i' p called tie Minister for Foreign Affairs, 

or, as in England, the Secretary for (he Home Department. 
The different persons permanently stationed or occasionally 
employed abroad, lo arrange particular pom Is, to negotiate 
treaties commercial and general, or to watch over their exe- 
cution and maintenance, may all be considered us the 
agents of this superintending authority, and as immediately 
accountable to it, as well as thence deriving their appoint- 
ments and instructions. For the rights and duties of the 
seveml descriptions of functionaries employed in diplomacy, 
see the articles Ambassador, Charge d'affaires, Consul, 

DIPLOMATICS, from the same root, is the science of 
the knowledge of antient documents of a public or political 
character, and especially of the determination of their au- 
thenticity and iheir age. But the adjective, diplomatic, is 
usually applied to things or persons connected* not with 
diplomatics, but with diplomat y. Thus by diplomatic pro- 
cei dings we mean proceedings of diplomacy ; and the corps 
diplomatique* or diplomatic body, at any court or sent of 
government, means the body of foreign agents engaged in 
diplomacy that are resident there. 

Some of the most important u orks upon the science of 
diplomatics are the following: — 'Ioannis Mabilkm dc Re 
Diplomatic*, 1 lib. vii. t fob, Paris, 1681-1*09, with the *Sup- 
plementura, , fob, Paris, 1704; to which should be added 
the three treatises of the Jesuit, Barthol. Gennon, addressed 
to Mabillon, * De Veteribus Retrum Francorum Diploma- 
tibus, 1 12mo„ Paris, 1703, 1706, and 1707:— Don. Eber. 
Baringii 'Clavis Diplomatic^' 2 vols. 4to., Hanoi., 1754; 
loan. Waltheri 'Lexicon Diplomatieum,* 2 vols, fob, Got- 
ling., 1745-7: ' Nuuveau Traite" de Dipl": par Its 

Benedietins Tassin, &c, 6 vols. 4to., Paris, 1760*65; 'His- 
• Vfs uf Indebted to Mr, Gray for tac Afore of tau uuma!,.' 

toria Diplomatica,' da Scipionc Mallei, 4lo., Mant., 1727, 
lo. Heomaiin von Teutscuenbrjonn * Comment arii de Re 
Diplomatiea Imperial!, 1 4to>, Nnrem., 1745 ; Dom de Vaines, 
1 Diotionnaire Raisonne de Diplomatique,' z vols. s\ ( »., 
Paris, 1774; J. C. Galterer " Abnss der Diplomatic, 1 Bvou, 
Getting., 179S ; and C, T. G. Schoeiieuiann *Versuch eines 
Yollstandigen Systems <ler allgemeinen besouders altern 
DiplomaLik,' 8vo. t Gol I ing . 1 80S. 

DIPPER. [Mkhi-lipa] 

DIPPING-NEEDLE, an instrument, the essential part 
of which is the monetised needle employed Ut ascertain 
the Dip or inclination. [Inclination,] 


DIPSA'CEA a small natural order of exogenous plants, 
with monopetalous flowers, nearly allied to Composite 
(otherwise called AsteracesD), from which it differs in the 
ovule being pendulous instead of erect, in the embryo being 
inverted, in the anthers being distinct, not syugeuesious, 
and in the corolla having an imbricated, not valvate a?sii\n 
lion. In habit the species are similar to Cnuiposila?, having 
their flowers constantly arranged iu heads. None of 
species are of any importance except the commoa teazle, 
Dipsacus Fullomuu, whose prickly" flower-heads are ex- 
tensively employed in carding wool. Many of tin 
have handsome flowers, especially the Si I, and ate 

cultivated in the gardens of the curious. Purple rind ttarri 
Scabious are common hardy annuals. 

A poritun ofihe Ippar ptrt ofDlpMctti FaUnaum. 
1,» Eawnrith Eki hard iplii) w«ct ftom*l>irTi KtspriSgai °.*ec»R&* 
,| ;i. a li.n^-iiiM Lual wcUuli of a fruit, v,UU ili- 

DIPSAS (Laurenti), Bungann (Oppel), of &•. 

pents placed by Cuviei under the gr< til | ber, 

Description. Body* in the bead. 

Scales of the spis 

tax Ittdica, Cuvier; 

Description. Black, snnulatod with wl 

The subjoined cut, from Guerin (7 
the form* 

D I P 


D I P 

[DlpttM cyaoodon (/i«wy)J 

1 1 is also used by Dr Leach to distinguish 
-Infers; and he states thai its 
ion is between Unto and Anodonta (Ano- 
Suwerbyj Naiadei of Lea. [NaTadks.] 
'HSRA* one of the orders into which insects are 
led- This name was first applied by Aristotle, and has 
sstatsjflasjlly been adopted by almost .ill entomologists to 
design*;/ ts the most sinking characteristic of 

• bah U the possession of two wings only. 

The conim n house-fly and blue-bottle tly afford familiar 
ruuapV> rder. Some dipterous insects, however, 

of wing* (such as the specie ; of Ihe gei 
Mtiopha&ud, Nycterobia, &c,) ; hence it i^ 
at* should hvre notice other peculiarities observable in these 
imm b 

The Diptera have six legs, furnished with Ave join led 
tarsi, a proboscis, two palpi, two antenna*, three ocelli, and 
two halter** or poisers. 

Tbc wings are generally horizontal in their position and 

transparent; their nervuies are nut very ni and 

part longitudinally rf. character 

tn which pterous insects differ from those 

of the orders Neuroptcra and Hymen op ti 

The proboscis, situated on the under part of the heart, 
a generally short and membranous, and consists of a 
•heaih <or part analogous to the under lip or labium in 
tnanflihulate insects), which serves to keep in situ other 
parts of the mouth, which, when they are all present, re- 
present tbc m maxill©, tongue, and labium. 

There are however considerable modifications in the 

••fucf in some it is long, slender, and 

r.iuctKis, and the number of enclosed pieces, which are 

slender and sharp, varies from two to six. 

it this structure of mouth is adapted only 

i and transmission of fluids; and when 

thrta contained within any moderately lough 

heath of the proboscis 
mding and penetrating so as to 
of the fluid, which by their pressure is 
iscend and eater the oesophagus. 

The palpi are situated at the base of the proboscis. The 
antenna? are {faded OH the lore purt of the head, and ap- 
proximate at their base; they an !".v small and 
three-jmnted * the last joint, bo often furnished 
with an appendage, railed the stylet, which is considerably 
diversified, not only in form hut in its position. 

In some el the inserts of this order, the Timidities for 
instance, the antennas are long, and composed or numerous 
and in th s CuUrkUe they rese m hi o I it t le p I l i 
The eyes in dipterous insects are generally large, espe- 
cially in the male sex, where they often occupy nearly the 
whole of the head. 

The hulteres or poisers are two small organs of a slender 
form, and furnished with a knob it their an .1 at 

the base of the thorax on each side, and immediately be- 
hind the attachment of the wings, These OYgsnS ACTS 
been considered by many is analogous to the under wings 
of four-winged insects. Latreille and oth ver, 

have come to a different opinion, from the aircumstones of 
their not being attached to the same part of the thorax. 
The use of these organs is not yet ascertained; it is how- 
ever supposed by some that the little knob which we men- 
tioned is capable of being inflated with air, and that they 
serve to balance the tnseet during llight, at which time 
these organs arr observed to be in rapid motion. 

As regards the thorax, it is only i here to ob- 

serve that the chief part of that which is visible from above 
consists of the mesothorax ; the prothorax and metat borax 
being comparatively small. 

The sculellum varies considerably in form, and is some- 
times armed with spines; we lind it developed in an extra- 
ordinary manner in the genus Celyphus* (Dalnian), where 
it is very convex and covers the whole abdotm 

The abdomen seldom presents more thau seven di 
segments ; its form is very variable. 

Dipterous insects undergo what is termed a Com) leie 
transformation: their larva* are devoid of i\ut> and hu . 
head of the same soft substance as the' bod i and witnntit 
determinate form. The parts of the mouth exhibit two 

pointed plates. The stigmafn are nearly aO pl.i 
on the terminal segment of the body* When about so 
assume the pupa state, they do not east their skin (fis is the 
case with ihe larvai 1 of m i. but this becomes gra- 

dually hardened, and after a time the animal the 

pupa state within, so that the >km of the larva fur 
were a cocoon. 

There are however exceptions to this rule, for mam 
change their skin before they assume the pupa hi ale, anil 
some spin cocoons. 

We may here observe, that in -sue of the species oftlta 
genus Sarcophaga the eggs are half bed within the body of 
the mother, whence the insect first makes its appearance in 
the larva state; and in the Pupipara, not only are the i 
hatched within the body of the parent but ihe lurv;e con- 
tinue to reside there until then- transformation into pupa . 

As regards, the habits of dipterous insects, they will be 
found under the heads of the several families and genSrft; 
we shall therefore conclude by noticing the two great i 
tions into which this order is divided by Mocquart. These 
are the Nemoccra and the Bracliocereu 

The species of these two sections are distinguished Cfiii 
by the number of joints of the antenna* onf palpi, Ti 
characters are as follows : — 

Section 1. Newocera. Antenni© Aliform or setaceoi 
often as long OS the head and thorax together, and composed 
of at least six joints, l*iil|ji composed of four or five joints ; 
bod} generally slender and elongated; head small; pro- 
boscis sometimes long and slender, and inclosing 

sol ae t i i n e s sho rt and thic k , a nd ha v i n g b u 1 1 w burr 
thorax huge and very convex : leg- sin 

with elongated basal cells. 

Section 'i. Br&chocera. Antenna; short, composed of 
three joints; the third joint generally furnished with a 
stylet ; palpi composed of one or h bead usually 

hemispherical, and as broad as the thorax ; proboscis cither 
long, slender, coriaceous, and protruded, or short, thick, 
and retracted, and containing either six, four, or two I 
thorax moderately canYBX ; kegs usually of moderate lent; 
wings with the basal cells rather short. 

The principal works on dipterous insects are, Wiedemann, 

* The meat development of the •cutelUim in tlie InMMtl of ilui gfniftl hu* 
In parallel Id the order Llcauptera, f.»r in the fenuiTe'yra ll ' c *cut*Uua* 

fiiptera Erotici, l vol. 8vo. .821 , fcfetgen, Sysfwatische 

mfomgderbek nflugtMngwn 

ten, 6 vols. hvo. wiiii figures; Haoqiudrt, in the 

u BuflfoHt Hisfoire dc* Insect es, ■ Dipt Are Svo, 


of Bast Indian exogenous polypetaloue trn's, allied 

to Malvaceae. They have a tubular i icqtial permanent 

ralvx, with live lobes, which after flowering beeonir U utv 

and vcrv much enlarged, surmount iirr the fruit without 

ing to it. There ore Hve petals, with a contorted 

OMbv&tion* an indefinite number of awl-pointed nnrrow 

anthers* and a few celled superior ovary, a iih two pendulous 

■ l U ; of the>e all are eventually abortive, 

; one, which forms the interior of a hard dry leathery 

I: p. The seed W solitary, contains no albumen, and 
*as an embryo with two larne twilled and crumpled coty- 
, ami a superior radicle. The leaves are long, broad, 
tttemate, lulled inwards before they untold, with strung 
Straight veins running obliquely from the midrib to the 
in, and oblong deciduous stipules rolled up like those 
of a M 

The different species produce a number of resinous, oily, 
her substances; one a sort of camphor {Dnjobaltt* 
ithera fragrant resin used in temples; a third 
Gum Animi ; while some of the commoner pitches and var- 
nishes of lnditt are procured from others. 


jDiptcrotarpiM fricilli^ 

of tho lUntm ; 8, * riws fruit unrounded by the only* who»* • eg- 
< tr«'b«Gaino lari^o <uel letfy, tail vcty wm 

DIFFER A L. [Cmi Architecture.] 
DIVTERIX. [CouharounaJ 

Dl ITEROUARPUS, a genus of East Indian, and chiefly 

1 the following as the 
J character: ' Calyx irregularly fne-lobed at the 
two opposite segments very long and ligulate. 
convolute when unexpanded. Stamens 

ing in an awl-shaped 
■ ■ ■ . and one-celled and one-seeded 
►rtion, incl « enlarged calvx.* The 

bed as enoi s abounding in n 

juice, ll trunks, an ash-coloured bark, 

limbs, and oval leathery entire leaves wit 

flrer&oreltu or pink, and de- 

liriously fragrant The pubescence is always' ate I late when 
present. The resinous juice of D. trinervis, a tree from 150 
to 200 feet high, inhabiting the forests of Javu, is made into 
plaisters for ulcers and foul sores; and when dissolved in 
spirit of wine, or formed into an emulsion with white of 
e<ig. acts upon the mucous membranes in the same way as 
m of copaivu. Dryobalanoi s Camphors, the Camphor 
tree of Sumatra, is usually referred to this genus j but, 
according to Blame, is really a distinct genus. [Dryoba- 

D1PUS. [Jerboa.] 

DIPYRE or leucotite, a~ silicate of alumina and lime, 
which occurs in small slender prisms, the primary form ot 
which has not been determined; their colour is greyish or 
reddish white, and fasciculated into masse-. Internally the 
lustre is shining; vitreous; opaque ; hardness sufficient to 
scratch glass; specific gravity about 2'6. It is Ibuirid in the 
Western Pyrenees. Byanah-i* it yielded— Mlica nu, alumina 
24| lime lu, and water %, When heated by the blow-pipe it 
becomes milk white, and then fuses into a blebby colour- 
less ghiss. 

DIRECT and RETROGRADE, 1 wo astronomical terras, 
the former of which is applied to a body which moves in the 
same direction as all the heavenly oodies except comets ; the 
second to one which moves in a contrary direction. The mo- 
lions of the planets round the sun, of the satellites round 
their primaries, and of the bodies themselves round their 
axes, all take place in one direction, with the i only 

of the comets, of which about one-half the whole number 
move in the contrary direction. The course of these celestial 
motions is always from west to east, which is the direct 
course. The retrograde is therefore from east to west, The 
real diurnal motion of the earth being direct, the apparent 
motion of the heavens is retrograde, so that the orbital 
motion of the sun and moon has. so far as it j*oes, the effect 
of lessening the whole apparent motion: or these bodies ap- 
pear to move more slowly than the fixed stars. With regard 
to the planets, the effect of the earth's orbital motion com- 
bined with their own, makes them sometimes appear to 1 
trograde more in i! mild do from 

earth's diurnal motion only. [Planetary Motions.] In 
1, at in of the seventeenth century, the direct motion is said 
to be in eonsemtentiOt and the retrograde in antecedentia. 
The most simple way of remembering' direct motion, is by 
tiling to mind the order of the signs of the zodiac. From 
Aries into Taurus, from Taurus into Gemini, &c., up to 
from Pisces into Anus, is direct motion ; while from Tau 
inlo Aries, from Aries into Pisces, &c M is retrograde moti 

DIRECTION, a relative term, not otherwise defina 
than by pointing out what constitutes Sameness and dif- 
ference of direction, Any two lines which make an angle 
point in different directions ; a point moving along a strai 
line moves always in the same direction. Permanency of 
direction and siraightness are equivalent notions, A body 
in morion' not only changes its direction wilh respect to 
oilier bodies, hut also the direction of other bodies with 
respect to it, 

The must common 'measure of direction, for terrestrial 
purposes, refers lo the north as a fixed direction, and uses 
the points of the compass. But any line whatever being 
drawn from the point of view, the directions of all other 

points may be estimated by measuring the angles wL 

in them to the point of view make with the 
standard line. 

When a point describes a curve, it cannot at any one 
moment be said to "be moving in any direction at all; for 
upon examining the basis or our notion of curvature, we 
hud that it consists in supposing a line to be drawn, no 
three contiguous points Of wnlch, however near, are all in 
tme straight tine. Bui this is a mathematical notion, 
which is contradicted in practice by any attempt at a curvu 
u hich we c;iti make on paper. For it is found that, as n 
be the case from the proposition mentioned in the article 
(?ol ii., p. 2561, wlu ri two points of a curve are taken 
near to each other, and joined by a chord, Ihe w: 
interval between the chord and the arc disappears or be- 
comes imperceptible long before the chord sap- 
irises the notion that a curve may in fact be 
fit lines, each of which has of 
mj a definite i. But though such notion must 
be abandoned in geometry, yet ii leads ro the stricter notion 

>>r of a straight lino of 
which, us soon as the term is explained, we unhesitatingly 

D I R 


D I R 

admit': 1* Thai if a line moving on a curve be said to have 
a direction at all at any point, the direction must he that of 
ongent at that point ; 2. That it is highly convenient to 
moving m a carve is moving in a eon- 
\Uy varying directum. Here, as in other cast 

CravATURK» Sec], we obtain exactness by making 
ls drawn from the inexactness of our senses a] 

which first gave them r but to the final 
awards which we see that we should approach [four 
I were made more and more exact; but which, at the 
time, we see that we should never reach as lung as 
E EXECUTIF was the mime piven to the 
power of the French republic by the constitution 
year 3 (1795), which constitution was framed by 
e party in the National Convention, or Supreme 
ature of France, after the overthrow of Robespierre 
5 [Committee op Public Safety.] By 
sti lotion the legislative power was entrusted to two 
t five hundred members, and the other culled 
1 consisting of 250 members. The election 
<1: every primary or communal assembly 
an elector, and the electors thus chosen assembled 
e departments to choose the members for 
Cert [iiti property qualifications were re* 
tor. One-third of the councils was to be 
[he Council of Elders, so called 
were required to be at least forty 
power of refusing its assent to any 
r by the other council. The exe- 
to five directors chosen by the 
es presented by 
e Hundred. One of the five directors 
every year. The directors had the ma- 
millary 'force, of the finances, and of the 
iits; nod they appointed their 
I other public functionaries. They 
t national palace, the Luxembourg, 

i having been laid before 

if the people was approved by them. 

i w ih e Co 1 1 ve n t i i - 1 1 dc c i ee d t h a 

of thr new councils should be chosen out of its 

en*. J rise to much opposition, especially at 

the sect ton?*, or district municipalities, rose 

the Con Vint loin but were put down by force by 

on the 13th Vendemiaire (4th of 

1 1 1 1 the new co u n c ils w e re forme d, 

ut of the members of the ConYen- 

, au-1 »cw elections from the departments. 

>se the five directors, who were 

\, Rewbcll, Lotourneur, and 

ng voted for the death of the 

invention, alb r proclaunin 
nment of the laws, and the oblivion 
pmsi, and changing the de la 

closed its 
lied, !u policy 
liatory, but it stood < 
ttwo parties, th< 

I monarchy of 1 7l> I , 
and the n pporled by the 

ic latter, headed by 
, . [aim ign of general happii 

\* tn make a iietf 
, made an attack on the Bit 
the guard, and Baheuf 
ii derailed, and By 

n a new thud of the mem 
of various shades obtained 
The policy of the Directory, 
now strongly censured m 
Aed tor peace and economy, and for a 
migrants and the priests. 
ie was animadverted 
deputy from Lyon, made a speech 
of public worship.. The 
neetuiv: of the partis 

meantime ap- 

rue ^ide, as well as 

rhe Marbois, and others Carnot, 

Jiucd to mediate between the two, 

parties, but to no effect The Directory being alarmed, 
called troops to the neighbourhood of Paris, win. h v 
unconstitutional measure. At length Augereau came * >lh 
a violent message from Bonaparte and the victorious 
of Italy, offering to march in support of the Do 
threatening the disguised royalists in the councils, en 
the opposition. This was the first direct interference of i lie 
armies in the internal affairs of France, The mar 
the Directory, consisting of Barras, Rewl 
vcillere-Lepuux, appointed Augereau military commander 
of Paris, who surrounded the hull of the councils, arrested 
Piehejjru, Willot, Ramel, and prevented by force the other 
opposition members from taking their Beats, 1 ' h . 
maiuder of the members being either favourable to I he 
Directory, or intimidated, appointed a commission which 
made a report of some conspiracy, and a law of public 
safety was quickly passed, by wfrieh two director*, Barthe- 
lemv and Carnot, and fifty-three, members of the councils, 
were exiled to French Guiana- Carnot escaped to Ger- 
many, but Barthelemy was transported. The Directory 
added to the list the editors of thirty-five journals, besides 
other persons. Two new directors, Francois de Ncufcha- 
teau ami Merlin de Douai, were chosen in the room of the 
two proscribed. This was the coup d'etat of Fructidor 
(September), 1797. There whs now a nariiaJ return to a 
system of terror, with J his difference, tnat imprisonment, 
transportation, and confiscation of property, were substituted 
for the guillotine. The laws against the priests and emi- 
grants were enforced more strictly than ever. By A law of 
the 30th of September, 1797, the public debt was reduced to 
one-third, which was called consolidated, and was arknow- 
ledsjed by the state, the creditors receiving m lieu of the 
other two-thirds bons, or bills which could only be em- 
ployed in the purchase of national property, and which fell 
immediately to between 70 or 80 per cent. Forced loans, 
confi ud the plunder of Italy,were the chief tlnan- 

cial resources of the government The paper money had 
lost nil value. [Assn;\ATs.] Government lotteries winch 
had been abolished by the Convention, v. 
by the Directory. A ministry of police d, which 

interfered with the locomotion of individual irina 

passports and cartes de suretc, and ud domi- 

ciliary visits under , >n. The periodical 

press was arbitrarily interfered with. In the miii 
this the Directory was mainly supported by the influence 
Bonaparte's Italian vj followed by s of Cam- 

pofbrmio with Austria. But an act winch threw the greatest 
obloquy upon the Directory was its Unprovoked invasion v\ 

Borland in 1 79ft, Carnot, from his exile in Germs 
was loud in his denunciations pf this political crime, which 
he said 'verified the fable of the wolf and the lamb.' The 
republicans in the interior were also great] >fled 

with the directorial dictatorship, and as by the new elec- 
tions of 1799 they mustered itrong in the councils, they 
openly assailed the government, which was no longer 
supported by the presence of ftotuparte, then in Eejpt. 
Al the same time a new coalition was formed against 
France, consisting of Aust I Turkey, 

h armies met with grt-at reverses both in 
Italy and on the Rhine. In one short campaign they 
lost all Italy except Genoa. All this added to the uu- 
rojiularity of the Directory, which thai 1 of 

Barras and La ReVei both of ihe first nam 

(ion, and Treilhaid, Merlin de Douai* and The 

council- demanded th< dismissal of Treilhard on il 
ut* informality in his nomination, and of I ftevetlldre and 
Werlip de Douai on account of eeveral charges which were 
preft n 

>n, and wet hier, R<»yer Duoo% ,md 

Moulitis. three obscure men. Tins change look place in 
June, \?U9. At the same time the councils circumscribed 
the authority of the Directory, re-established the supre- 
macy of the legislature, and removed the restrictions on 
the press. But soon after, July 17! 3 a mea- 

sure worthy of the v itt This was 

the *law of hostages, 1 bv which the relatives of the emi- 
grants* the ex-nobh were made an wc ruble 
for any revolts or other offence against the republic, and 
liable to imprisonment at the discretion of the local authori- 
ties, sequestration of their property, and even I ion* 
The authority of the Executive Directory had now beet 
very weak, and the councils themsel 
between the violent republicans, or ja«»bu\s^\s\iQ n^\^ W 

D I S 


D I S 

measures of terror, and ihe moderate republicans who 
I d lu act legally according to the constitution of the 
, III. The policy of the government Was consequently 
vacillating* Talleyrand, the minister for foreign affairs, 
in his resignation. All parlies had exhausted theni- 
Mrives by ineffectual struggles while the mass of the people 
• 1 passive, befog weary of agitation: this general pros- 
tration prepared the way fur Bonaparte's ascendency in the 
following Bmmaire, when the constitution of the year 3 
and the Directory were overthrown, after four Tears exist- 
ence. The principal charges against the Direr tory are 
slated under the head B arras. See also Histoire dtt Di- 
fif t 2 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1802. The law of the 
POSMcription was passed under the administration of the 
Direct or v. 

DIRKC IRIX. {Lined direct r i C, a directing line.) This 
term is applied to any line (straight or curved) which is 
made a necessary part of the dc-eripfion of any cune, so 
that the position of the former must be given before 1 hut 
of the latter is known. Thus in the question, 'required 
the curve described by a point in a straight line the two 
ends of which must be on two fixed straight lines, 1 the two 
fixed lines are directrices. Custom has sanctioned the 
»al application of this term to lines connected with a lew 
curves, and particularly with she ellipse, hyperbola, and con- 
choid of Niooraedea. But tn reality, with the exception of 
the circle, there can he no curve which is without one or 
more Lines tq which the name of directrix might be given. 

DIRGE, in music, a hymn for the dead, a funereal song. 
This word is a contraction of Dirige, the first word of the 
antiphona, ' Dirige, Domine Deus, 1 chanted in the funeral 
ice of the Catholic church. The abbreviation seems to 
have crept into use about the middle of the sixteenth cen- 

DISABILITY (Law), an incapacity in a person to inhe- 
rit lands or enjoy the possession of them, or to take that be- 
nefit which Otherwise he might have done, or to confer or 
i e or benefit on or to another. All persons who 
are disabled from taking an estate or benefit are incapable of 
granting or conferring one by any act of their own, but many 
persons who are by law* incapable of disposing of property 
may take it either by inheritance or gift, 

bility is ordinarily said to arise in four ways: By the 
of the ancestor ; by the act of the party himself; by the 
act of the law ; or by ihe act of God, 

By the act of tfie ancestor* as where he is attainted of 
treason or murder, for by attainder his blood is corrupted, 
;md his children are made incapable of inheriting. But by 
the slat, : 7 > and 4 W-IV-, e. 106, $ 10, this disability is now 
lined to the inheriting of lands of which the ancestor is 
I at the time of attainder: in all other cases a de- 
scent may be traced through him. 

By the act of the ; arty himself, as where a person is him* 
rill attainted, outlawed, &c, or where, bv subsequent deal- 
te, a person has disabled himself from per- 
forming a previous engagement, as where a man covenants 
to [Kraut a lease of lands to one, and, before he has done so, 
sells them to another. 

By the act of late, ai when a mrm, by the sole act of law 
without any default of hisown t isdisab1ed,asan alien born, &c. 
By the art <>/ Qodt as in cases of idiotcy, lunacy, 8te,, but 
Ibis last is properly a disability to grant only, and not to 
take an estate or benefit — for an idiot Of lunatic may take a 
lit cither by deed or will, 
There are also other disabilities known to our law, as in- 
fancy, and coverture; hut these also are confined to Ihe 
inferring <>f interests. 

Married women, acting under and in conformity to 
l OWSaa 1 and formerly by line* but, since the 3rd and 4th 
W. IV., uted under the p-TOT ifJon* 

convey lands ; and infants, lunatics, and idiots, 

being trustees, and not having any beneficial interest to 

m them, are by various statutes enabled to 

dispose of them under the direction of the Court of Chan- 


Particular disabilities also are created by some statutes; 
Instance, Roman Catholics, by the 111 Geo. IV., c. 7 

m Act), are disabled from present in 

el foreigner* (Although naturalized) cannot hold 
offices, or tal if land under the crown. [Dbnizkn.] 

D 1 S B U D D I NG, in horl i s t s i n removing 

ttie buds of a tree before they have had time to grow into 

youn^ branches. It is a species of pruning which has fat 
its object not only training, but also economy with r< gard to 
the resources of a tree, in order that there may lw? a gru 
supply of nourishment for the development of Lho e buds 
which are allowed to remain. 

If the roots are capable of absorbing a given Quantity of 
nutritive matter for the supply of all the buds upon a 
stem, and if a number of those buds be removed, it must 
be evident that those which remain will be able to draw u 
gmtef supply of sap and grow more vigorously than |] 
otherwise would have done. This fact lias furnished the 
idea of disbudding. 

This kind of pruning has been chiefly applied to peach 
and nectarine trees, but the same principle will hold good 
with all others of a similar description, and might be prac- 
tised upon them if they would repay the labour so expended. 

The French gardeners about Montreud and in the 
canity of Paris have carried this practice to a great extent, 
and with considerable success. 

Several of then methods have been described by Dr, Neill, 
the secretary of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, in 
his horticultural tour. In one of them, termed & la Sieulle, 
ktrd invented by Sieulle, gardener at Yaux Praslin, near 
Paris, the training is made to depend entirely upon the 
exactness of disbudding. 

The peculiarity of Siculle's method is as follow* :— After 
lock has been budded, two branches are trained at 
lull length to a trellis or wall: late in autumn or in winter 
all the buds, with the exception of four on each shoot, arc 
neatly cut out, or disbudded; these four m their turn 
form shoots in the succeeding summer, which are cut down 
to about one-third of their length in autumn, and also dis- 
budded in the same manner as the two principal branches 
ai' the preceding year. This kind of pruning being always 
performed prevents a superfluous development of buds 
and the consequent necessity of cutting them out as 
branches in the following season. Du Petit Thouars, whose 
opinions are entitled to much respect, passes a high eulo- 
gium upon this system of Sieulle: he says, * by this method 
the younf* tree is "mo re quickly brought to fill its place upon 
the espalier ; it is afterwards more easily kept in regular 
order: many poorer flower-buds are alloweu to develop 
themselves, but the necessity of thinning the fruit is thu 
a great measure superseded, and the peaches produced are 
larger and finer. 1 

l)i;iuoutier*s system of disbudding is somewhat different 
from Sieulle's, Instead of performing this operation la! 
SUturnn, fa defers it until spring, when the buds arc 
folded: all those upon the young shoot of the previous year, 
with the exception of the lowest and the one above the 
lushest blossom, are then carefully removed ; of the two 
which are left, the first is termed the bourgeon de rt m- 
placement for the next year, and the latter is allowed to 
remain to draw up the sap for the maturing of the fruit. 
This method of pruning, as far as disbudding is con- 
cerned, is precisely the same as that practised by Seymour, 
of Carleton Hall, in England. 

It must not be thought however from this statement that 
the training of Dumoutier and Seymour is the saim 
that their trees assume precisely the same appearance : for 
example, Dumoutier's branches proceed from two principal 
arms, Seymour's from one in the centre: in the system of 
the former, the fruit- bearing branches are on both sides of 
the old wood; while in that of the latter they arc only 
allowed to grow from the upper sides. 

Disbudding in spring is frequently and beneficially prac- 
tised by many intelligent gardeners, both in England and 
Scotland, upon English fan-trained peach-trees, with a 
view to thinning the young wood, taking caru to l 
enough for the production of fruit in the following 

When spurious buds can be removed from peace or nec- 
tarine tn lovelopment, with the certainty of those 
succeeding which are allowed to remain, it must be of ma- 
terial consequence, as the latter will not only be better 
supported, but will also receive a greater quantity of light, 
so essential to mature and ripen the young wood. I 
fortunately however Sieulle's plan cannot be practised with 
any decree of success in England: those buds which are 
left, and upon which so much dependence it plan 
do ROt grow : a vacancy is the consequence, and the tree is 
deformed. The climate of Montreud is much more favour* 
able to the growth of the peach-tree than that of Britain ; 
and although the winters of Paris are severe, jet the mean 

D I S 

D I S 

Urn i 




of summer heat is much greater there than in any 
and perhaps the peculiar nalun 
ees much more yielding to art there than 

er useful the plan of disbudding 
urnn or winter may he in the gardens of Frai 

■ practise it to any extent hi those of 

ul "I v tried in the garden 

Horticultural Society, hut has long since 

r heen proved, both there and from the 
i men in private situations, that a judicious 
the buds after they have been unfolded in 
i an experienced individual can foresee the 
which he In about to leave, and to which he 
in the following year), is of j^reut utility. 

used for r of a circular 

itlv fur a thin plate of any substance, 
referring to the appearance 
i nl a disc of metal. 

MILITARY, the series of duties which 

mod by military men. It also signifies a 

ilufions by which th erve in 

: in all matters relating to the prac- 


i plea by a tenant in any Court 

a he disclaims to hold of Ins lord. This 

a forfeiture of the lands to the lord 

apparent!) feudal. And so likewise if 

! I he particular tenant does any act 

whji i a virtual disclaimer, m if he claims a 

gr*j, mled to him, or takes upon 

: tho» only to tenants of a su- 

if he affirms the reversion to be in a stranger, 

ls his tenant, collusive pleading, and the like, 

i amounts to a forfeiture of his particular 

1 ri^ht sur disclaimer was the old ibrtn 

advantage of the forfeiture; but as 

i that the tenant might be treated as a tres- 

pre« -ure to quit was not necessary, the more 

nicnt action of ejectment was generally used, and 

at, 3 &£ 4 W. IV., c. 27, the proceeding 

disclaimer L» abolish- 

, his plea denied that he w:is of the 

i disclaim ; and there is a 

I , as where on an arraign- 

ml. the goods, in which i 

the goods. 

in a suit in Chancery is also called 

as where a defendant, in his answer to the 

u in s all interest in the matter in 


te is given either by deed or will to a 
e may by deed (which need not be en foiled, or, as 
matter of record) disclaim all inh 
but it seems that for this purpose a deed if 
»arY, and that a parol disclaimer would not be sufficient. 
is said to disclaim when he renounces 
will of his testator; and thi^ is generally 
>al renunciation before some judge spiritual, 
ider his hand* in either case the dis* 
1 in the spiritual court ; but where 
A lands to the executor, the dis- 
smllj made by deed, for although a dis- 
«uhl, it set 
red us affording evi-j 
ids, of the fact 
I N U ITY (Algebra, &<\). Continuous changes 
that no two slates e\i*t without 
having been in existence 
on a line of 4 inches con- 
that on a line of a inches con 
i ble area between 
ich is not equal to the square 
ween 4 and 5 inches. That is, 
lously, the square described 

of discontinuity arises from the 

udes by numbers* Arith* 

inuous change of mag- 

, 4, ten. equal parts, 

infinite numbers of lengths 

enied by anv whatsoever of the re- 



suiting fraction of a bet Hence the difficulties of 1\c<>m - 
magnitudes, which srise from the failure of 
the attempt to represent flowing or aoulimurus changes by 
the means of changes which always suppose finite 
:<> in passing from number to n umber. 

But the arithmetical ditfu ultv, being introduced antece- 
dently to the express consideration of discontinuity, is rarelv 
heated as belonging to this subject. In the higher parts of 
mathematics the necessity for the consideration of discon- 
tinuous expfesaiona began with the investigation of partial 
differential equations. In the introduction of the arbitrary 
fuucfc i those equations require, discontinuous func- 

Werc thought to be admissible by Euler, an opinion 
which was controverted by D'Alcmhert, and supported, con- 
clusively, it bus always been thought, by Lagrange. It is 
our own opinion that not only the arbitrary function of a 
partial equation* but even the arbitrary constant of a com- 
mon equation) may he allowed to be discontinuous, unless 
the contrary be B condition of the problem, BCpteaaed or 
implied. By a discontinuous constant* we mean one whieh 
preserves ofte value between certain limits of the value of 
the variable, which then suddenly changes its value, pre- 
serving the new value till the variable attains another limit, 
and so on. 

The subject has begun to force itself on the attention of 
mathematicians, and several remarkable eases have been 
pointed out in whieh oeeanclusj I ar- 

i iw I at for want of considerations connected with discon- 
tinuity. There is a full account of the state of this question m 
Mr* Peacock's* Report on Analysis.' tftttp»BHl J v, j 

DISCORD, in music, fc sound which, When luard with 
another, is disagreeable to the ear, oniei iccording 

to the rules of art. Discords are the 2nd, sharp 4th (Tri- 
lonusj, Hat ath (Somidiapeute), minor or lint 7th, and 

or sharp 7tk The ratios nf these me 9 s B» 
61 : 4o. 9 : 5, and 15 ! ft The 9th (9 ? 4) ii also 
and though only the octave lo the tftd, idered in 

harmony as a very different interval, and treated in a dif- 
i manner, xhe -itln 1 1 8] Ll either discoid or concord, 
according to the manner in winch it is cd 

[Concord.] Discords commonly, but not always, are i r*:- 
pared; f, e. t the note which is to bed iscoi'Q, is 

tirsl heard as a concord: and their resolution is absolutely 
■ f. e., the discord rflost concord, 

though the resolution is occasionally retarded. Exam pie 

<'.'<7j(3) (8)(2)(3) (3K9K3J 



: T l 




6 7 4 6 9 £ 

The perfect fltli in the chord of *, and the 3rd in the 
chord of t, are treated, so far as regards resolution, as dis- 
cords. Examples — 

(3) (3) 

<%) to) (3) 

I ©L_ _^ — ,qU 



El, ST 


; C _-_i 

6 § G | 

DISCOUNT, a sura of money deducted from ■ debt m 
consideration of its being paid before the usual or stipe I 
iiim\ The circumstance on which its fuirii. nded 

is, that the creditor, by receiving Ins money before it be 
the interes* of the muney tlui 

aal. Consequently, he should untj l* 1 ' 1 

out t ig the period in question, will n 

ili L . ■, hi at the lime when it would I 

come due. For instance, ml. Ss> to \i« v^^ !$ vW ^ x ^ * 

D I S 


D 1 S 

three years, what should be paid now, interest being 4 per 
cent, r Here it is evident that if we divide the whole debt 
into 1 12 (or 100 -f 3 x 4) parts, 100 of these parts will make 
the other 12 in three years (at simple interest), whence the 
payment now due is the 11 2th part of 10,000/. or 89/. 5*. 9cL 
The rule is, n being the number of years (a fraction or num- 
ber and fraction), r the rate per cent., and D the sum due, 

Present value = ; discount = 



In practice, it is usual not to find the" real discount, 
but to allow interest on the whole debt in the shape of 
abatement. Thus it would be considered that, in the pre- 
ceding example, three years' discount upon 100/. at 4 per 
cent, is 12/., or 88/. would be considered as the present value. 

In transactions which usually proceed on compound in- 
terest, as in valuing leases, annuities, &c, the principle of 
discount is strictly preserved. The present value in the 
preceding case is, in its most usual form, 

, and the discount D — ; 

(1+P)» (1+P)» 

where p is the rate per pound (not per cent. : thus it is '04 
for 4 per cent.). But recourse is usually had to the tables of 
present values which accompany all works on annuities or 
compound interest. [Interest.] 

The name of discount is also applied to certain trade 
allowances upon the nominal prices of goods. In some 
branches of trade these allowances vary according to the 
ciicumstances which affect the markets, and what is called 
discount is in fact occasioned by fluctuations in prices 
which it is thought convenient to maintain nominally at 
unvarying rates. This system is practised in some branches 
of wholesale haberdashery business, and we have now 
before us a list of prices furnished to his customers by a 
manufacturer of tools at Sheffield, in which the nominal 
price of each article is continued the same at which it has 
stood for many years, while to every different species of 
tool there is applied a different and a fluctuating rate of 
discount, this fluctuation constituting in fact a difference 
of price between one period and another : the rates of dis- 
count in this list vary from 5 to 40 per cent, upon the 
nominal prices of the different articles. 

The term discount is also employed to signify other mer- 
cantile allowances, such for example, as the abatement of 
12per cent, made upon the balances which underwriters, 
or insurers of sea risks, receive at the end of the year from 
the brokers by whom the insurances have been effected. 
The word discount is further used, in contradistinction to 
premium, to denote the diminution in value of securities 
which are sold according to a fixed nominal value, or ac- 
cording to the price they may have originally cost. If, for 
example, a share in a canal company upon which 1 00/. has 
been paid is sold in the market for 98/., the value of he 
share is stated to be at 2 per cent, discount. 

DISCOVERY, in Law. [Equity.] 

DISCUS (&<tkoc, discos), a quoit of stone, brass, or iron, 
with which the Greeks and Romans diverted themselves 
in the public games. The word is Greek. The discus, 
when perforated like our modern quoit, was thrown by the 
help of a thong, put through the middle of it. It was at 
other times of a solid piece, and was then hurled directly 
from the hand. This last method is illustrated by the ce- 
lebrated statue of the Discobolus, or quoit thrower, attri- 
buted to Myro, an antient copy of which is among the 
marbles of the Townley Gallery. The figure is represented 
in action at the precise moment of delivering the discus. 
Ovid (Metam., li. x., v. 175) and Statius (Theb., vi., t?. 646) 
have both described the diversion of the discus ; see also 
Petri Fabri Agonisticon, sive de Be Athletica, Ludisque 
Veterum, 4to.,Lugd. 1595, li. ii, c. i. 

The term discus was likewise applied to circular shields 
or bucklers, of a large size, placed in the temples, on which 
great actions were represented, or the names of those who 
had devoted themselves to the service of their country in- 
scribed. One of the former of these is in the Townley 
Gallery at the British Museum, Room iii., No. 36, con- 
taining the names of the ephebi of Athens under Alca- 
menes, when he held the office of cosmetes. Such too 
was the shield of Scipio Africanus, found in the Rhone in 
1656, engraved in Spon's * Miscellanea Erudit® Antiqui- 
tatis,' edit. 1685, p. 152. Anacreon has an ode on a disk 
of silver, representing Venus rising from the sea: OtL 5l» 

E/c Aurirov lx ovra * A^poJirijv. See likewise Montfaucon, 
Supplem. de VAnt. Expliq^ liv. iiL, p. 64. 

DISDIAPA'SON, the name given by the Greeks to a 
scale of two octaves. [Diapason.] 

DISK, a term in botany signifying any ring or who 1 of 
glands, scales, or other bodies that surround the base of an 
ovary, intervening between it and the stamens. In its most 
common state it is a fleshy wax-like ring as in the orange ; 
it frequently forms a yellowish lining to the calyx, as in the 
plum and cherry, and not unfrequently rises up like a cup 
around the ovary as in the tree pseony. The latter renders 
it probable that the disk is nothing but an inner whorl of 
rudimentary stamens. Previously to the expansion of the 
flower the disk contains ffficula, and is dry and brittle ; but 
after the blossom unfolds it perspires a sweet honey-like 
fluid, and becomes tough, absorbing oxygen and parting 
with carbonic acid. This phenomenon is similar to what 
occurs in the germination of seeds, and has led M. Dunal to 
the opinion that the conversion of the fsecula of the disk 
into sugar is for the purpose of forming a store of nutritive 
matter for the stamens and ovary at the time of fertilization, 
just as the same phenomenon in the germination of seed is 
for the purpose of supplying food to the young embryo. 

DISLOCATION. Various parts of the body are liable 
to be displaced by the direct application of violence or by 
more gradual causes. But the term dislocation is commonly 
appropriated to displacements occurring about the joints. 
In this sense it is nearly synonymous with luxation, but 
not entirely ; for the latter term carries with it more of 
the idea of external force, and is not quite so generally ap- 
plied. It is usual, for instance, to speak of the dislocation, 
not the luxation, of the internal cartilage of the knee; and 
the latter term is seldom if ever used in describing the dis- 
placements of the small bones of the wrist or instep, or of 
single vertebrae. 

The injuries classed under this title may be effected by 
external violence, or by the undue contraction of muscles, 
or by both of these causes combined ; and they result in 
some instances from disease within the joints themselves, 
by which their ligaments are weakened or destroyed, and 
their sockets rendered insecure by ulceration and other 
gradual changes. 

When, by the protrusion of the bone through the skin 
or otherwise, the dislocation is complicated with an external 
wound exposing the cavity of the joint, it is said to be com- 
pmnd : and, as in the parallel case of fracture, this aggra- 
vation of the injury is very serious, and the most skilful 
management is required to save the life or limb, where the 
injury happens to one of the larger joints. 

The particular dislocation takes its name either from the 
joint itself or from the furthest bone ; and various terms ore 
added to indicate the direction of the displacement, or the 
new situation of the head of the bone. Thus the most com- 
mon form of the accident at the hip is called * a dislocation 
of the head of tike femur' (thigh-bone) ' bachcards upon the 
dorsum ilii ' (Hat part of the haunch-bone). 

Any bone may be displaced in any direction, but the ac- 
cident happens most frequently in those joints and direc- 
tions in which the extent of motion is the greatest. Thus the 
most common dislocation is that of the shoulder, which is 
the most movable joint ; and its most frequent variety is 
that in which, the head of the humerus (or bone of the 
upper arm) is drawn downwards into the axilla (or arm -pit) 
by the sudden contraction of certain strong mus.cles. This 
happens when the arm is raised to the utmost, as in reach- 
ing to close a window ; that is when it has moved through 
an angle of 180° degrees from its natural position. The 
most usual dislocation of the hip is that, already mentioned, 
on the dorsum ilii for the same reason. It is generally pro- 
duced by sudden pressure or a blow on the knee when the 
thigh is bent upon the abdomen ; the head of the femur is 
thus driven backwards from the socket, and is then drawn 
farther back and upwards by the powerful muscles of the 

The jaw is sometimes thrown out of joint by the mere 
act of yawning; and that accident happened to a gen- 
tleman known to the writer in opening his mouth to 
make the usual response at church. The word was cut 
short at the first syllable ; for in such cases the chin sud- 
denly drops and is thrown forward, and it is impossible by 
any effort to shut the mouth. This distressing but irresisti- 
bly ludicrous accident may be relieved immediately by any 
bystander wrapping a napkin zound his thumbs and placing 

D I S 


D I S 

firmly against the back teeth, so as to press them 
I. while with the fingers and palms the ehiii II 
tl and pushed backwards. But the operator 
ihould h* on the alert to withdraw his hands the moment 
the jaw snaps hack inloils place* or he may receive a very 
unpleasant ml r" the success of his efforts. 

ii from these instances how important 
a part i* played by the muscles in determining both the 
oecurrenc** and direction of these accidents. Hence arises 
in part their n ■ n wondered at, during infancy 

and ehddhood ; fur though the flexible joints of the young 
h*Te a greater of motion than those of the adult, 

utm ni alai power is not onlj weaker n compared with 
Ai * of their ligaments, but is much more tardily 

tfcwwn into action, as may be observed in their tottering 
put. The Fragility of their hones is another cause of this 
odering them more liable to he broken 
then external violence* The only dislocation 

that is at all ■■ ti children is that of the hip, which 

the QMmquence of Berofulooi ulceration of lbs hga- 
\ en- -Let, and of the ball-shaped head of the 

1 within it. 

prepared by what has been said to 
and violent contraction of" the 
i consequent upon these displacements is the chief or 
out? obstacle to their reduction. 

ted by a process technically called 
rrtrtuton, consisting in the application of force m ;» proper 
-tarn, and steadily kept up till the muscles are fatigued. 
Tb* bead of the bone is thus drawn down a little below the 
level of the joint; and being lifted over the edge of the 
socket, slips easily into its place upon slightly relaxing the 

force is often required to he 
<m«*k?rabh'. und in such eases it is customary to make 

block of pullies, the bone which contains the socket 
hairing been Bret securely fixed to a staple in the wall by 
proprr band acres. Luxation of the hip is here supp 
forUu*«»r ) inferior to that in strength that 

•^placements may generally be reduced by less im- 
raeans. It is sometimes necessary to favour the 
ef the muscles by emetics, warm baths, and 
iml it is reckoned a point of good management to 
fT the attention of the patient during the extension by 
alloying him with questions and even exciting him to anger. 
Almost all dislocations arising from accident may be 
reduced m this way, and the joint rendered nearly or quite 
a* perfect Bis before : but this can only be done on condition 
effect rest during a period sufficient for the firm union 
ihe ruptured ligaments; for if this precaution be not 
MrkUy observed, and the ligaments are suffered to be 
stretched by motion while the uniting substance is soft and 
is ever afterwards liable to re- 
should be lost in seeking assistance, for the 
fettling that comes on iders the naturu of the 

t obscure, and the redaction extremely difficult and 
When a joint has been unreduced for a certain 
wies with the particular joint, and with the 
:ith of the individual — the weaker having the 
adrairtae :<^pect — it is unwise to make any attempt 

parts have now become consolidated and 
*UpU'l lo iheir new situation, and either the limb is pee- 
. fixed or a ; is under process of formation, 

to the Utter case the substitute is often better than might 
te exfieeted ; and as this curious provision of nature cannot 
to tinproted upon by art, it is better to leave it alone. 

The iBQftt dangerous dislocations are those of the ver- 

tebro or bones of tl because- in that case all the 

parts of the body below the injury ate paralyzed. But the 

■hr» are so curiously locked together, and have singly 

1 are at the same time so well > 

it they are seldom dislocated 
by a Rcient to break as well as to displace 

10 injury is almost always fatal, and instantly 
- place above the origin of the 
:»e fourth vertebra of 
the t*ec* cutioner in hanging a cri- 

, but he more often fails than 

I thni work to d 

iilarly. The reader will 
lie subject under the 
treatise upon it is the 
kfge work vl 

DISMAL SWAMP. [Carolina, North; Virginia.] 
DISPART, the difference between the temidiameter of 
the base ring, at the breech of a gun, and that of the ring 
at the swell of the muzzle. 

On account of the dispart, the line of aim, which j 
plane passing through toe a\is of the gun, always makes a 
small angle with the axis; so thai the elevation of the 
hitter above the horizon is greater than that of the lift 
aim: an allowance for the dispart is consequent!} q 
in determining the commencement of the graduations on 
the tangent scale, by which the required elevation is given 
to the gun. 

DISPENSARY, an institution supported by voluntary 
contributions for the supply of the poor with medical 
surgical advice, and with medtemes gratuitously, Institu- 
tions of this kind are of very recent origin. [They differ 
from hospitals in this, that the sick, when too ill to 
personally at the institution, are visited at their o\\ u homes 
by the medica I ol 1 i c ers of the e h a r i ty. Each i 
deed is restricted to a certain district beyond the limits of 
which the patients are not visited at their own houses. To 
every dispensary there are always attached one, and some- 
times two physicians; one surgeon, and often ft consulting 
surgeon, and a resident medical office! wim dispenses the 
medicines prescribed by the physicians and surgt 
Every Bubscrihpr to the institution who pays annually a 
certain sum is called a governor, who is entitled to have at 
least one patient always on the hooks ; a person who stlb- 
serib in one sum is called a Ufe-goYe] 

who may have two or inure patients on the list. The me- 
dicines which are commonly purchased in con 
quantities at a tune and at wholesale prices, are dispep 
in unexpensive forms, and in this manner the extent of ihe 
relief afforded is p-eat, while the is trifling. No other 
kind of charily affords so much real assistance at so small 
an expense, and perhaps fewer objections apply to this Ihan 
lo any other mode of giving eleemosynary aid to the poor. lis 
peculiar excellence is that it enables the sick poor to obtain 
advice on the very first day of their ilhie- E 
metropolitan hospitals arc often so full that urgent eases are 
constantly obliged to wait days and even weeks before ad- 
mission can be obtained ; but by means of the dispensary 
poor families, and even the head- of 8U« h families in regular 
employment, may procure medical and 
without leaving their occupation even for o day. It would 
be a great improvement in the principle of these institutions 
if some contribution towards their support on the part of 
the poor themselves were required to entitle them to avail 
themselves of ihe advantages which they afford. This would 
remove the only objection thai can be urged against such 
establishments, and would enable the independ 
without asking charity, to procure the best advici 
sick family at a mucji cheaper rate than he can possibly do 
at present, 

DISPENSATION (Law). The only kind of dispensa- 
tion now used is thai by which the Lisbon of a diocese 
licenses a clergyman within his jurisdiction to hold tw> 
more benefices according to their value, or to reside ouj of 
the bounds of his perish, or diipease* with some other i 
ticular of his strict duty. 

Formerly, not only in but 

also in the civil and criminal - 
sations occupied a large space. The} formed 
of the revenue of the coui*t of Rome ; for the po] 
pensations prevailed against the law of the cm 
many if not most instances, indeed in all o1 ms< 

tical nature; tl was however aboli 

stalute 29 Henry VII I., e. £1 ; and the 
to grant dispensations not 
only to the law of the land, wa^ granted lo tl 
of Canterbury under certain i 

jy to state that from the spirit of the tint 


Iiurely eoch isancc, and in th 

me the lei 
the archbishop 
marriage, «c^ has been c 

Formerly also Ihe 
which it pould exempt a | 
to tli .tlm : the In 


exactly defined, but in 

il during the reign of Janiu 

j i. WWH '*.' l»Y -■'"-- 

D I S 


D I S 

SBill of Rights on die accession of William anil 

DISPERSION. Light, as we receive it from lite sun or 
from other original sources as a star, a fire, a caudle* &c.» 
appears to the senses a*» a simple undecompo&ablu element 
by the instrumentality if whu-h objects are perceived ; and 
as for the peculiar colours of hodies, we naturally consider 
thein, according to our early impression*, as belonging to 
the bodies themselves* or inherent in them. We are partly 
undeceived in tins view by the changing colours of birds 1 fea- 
thers, soap-bubbles, compound silk textures, &c\, but we are 
BQtaUed to trace the immediate cause of the colours of bodies, 
whether permanent or transient, by the analysis of light 
furnished by the well-known experiments of the glass-prism* 
The triangular prism used for this purpose is a solid, ter- 
minated by two equal and exaclly similar triangles and 
having besides three plane faces of a rectangular form, con- 
A 1 1 > the sides of (be triangles and by right lines or 
s joining corresponding angles of the two triangular 
-above-mentioned; and any imaginary right line with- 
in it parallel edges around which the prism is 
capable of revolving is called theu.rY* of the prism. 

Iu the annexed figure the triangle BAG represents a 
section of the prism parallel to its basis or perpendicular to 
its axis. D E we shall suppose to be a ray or exceedingly 
narrow beam of solar light incident from vacuo or air on 
the prism at E; this rft) of white light enters the prism at 
thtit point, and having undergone refraction by I he dense 
medium of ihe glass, no longer proceeds as a simple ray E F, 
but j divided into various rays of different co- 

lours over the space represented iu Ihe figure by/E F, and 
emerging at/ F from the prism, undergoes another refrac- 
tion, such i hit the portion f g of the ray proceeding from 
still more refracted than the portion FG from F, since 
the sines of (he angles of incidence and refraetion bein^ in a 
ratio, that portion will be most refracted which 
has the greatest incidence: let now tins dispersed beam 
g/FQ be intercepted by a screen or wall P K, and 
from which extraneous light is as much as possible ex- 
cluded, we shall then find the elongated space FG bril- 
liantly painted over with tints passing gradually and insen- 
sibly ip red to an attenuated violet, in the following 
r, as described by Newton, and since very generally 
concurred in,— red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, 
violet, This experiment, which first opens the analysis of 
light, is easily made by letting a beam of light pa^ throi 
a small circular hole in a shutter, in a darkened room, un 
a glass prism such as above described, the and 
dispersed ray being received on the opposite wall, Bailing, 
orrloio, > the poM» -■ prism. It would 
be still more effective by concentrating the light incident 
on a double convex lens in its focus, so that the beam E F 
may emanate more nearly from a point than it can when 
received through the hole of a shutter; for in the latter 
case rays are admitted which are inclined to each otln 
the an^le subtended by the sun's disc to the eye. This 
primary experiment is, however, so familiar to almost all 

I amateurs of science, that it will not be here necessary to 
enter into details respecting its most successful application, 
o the image of the sun or a star, cm 
formed by admission through a ratal] narrow line, 

and the refraction of the prism, the coloured spoce Gg t 
which has the same angular breadth as the object in a direc- 
tion parallel to the axis of the prism (the screen being sup- 

* For the history of llii* abuse see Pr> nm i, s ' Anim,idvct»ioni on 111* Fourth 
P»tyVi ' Jus Parliam,", c, 7; «nd ■ Ladies Tracts/ 327; the ■ Btrtli 
*6d PwntAfe, Riie and Fall, of NotkobstanW 

Mi d also parallel to it), but which is considerably elongated 
in the perpendicular direction, is called the spectrum; and 
that angle of the prism BAC the sides containing which 
B A, AC, have been traversed by the ray D E F G is called 
the refracting angle of the prism. 

Suppose, now, that a small orifice O is made in the screen 
at some point of the spectrum, so that rays of any particular 
colour, green for example, may be transmitted through it; 
and let the transmitted portion be again subjected to refrac- 
tion through another pmm, this beam being supposed vciy 
small, to ensure its purity or near uniformity of colour. It 
will not, after refraction, be again decomposed, ur undergo 
any alteration of colour, except in respect to brilliancy, 
arising from absorption by the second prism : thus showing 
that light incident on the first prism, when once decom- 
posed into homogeneous elements by refraction, is tl 
least by refraction, not further decomposable. 

If the original prism BAC be turned gradually round iti 
axis, preserving always to the incident Hi^lil tbe same ie- 
fracling angle A, the spectrum Gg maybe made tode» end 
towards K, but after arriving at a certain point where the 
deviation, that is the inclination of D E produced to KG, is 
a minimum, it then reascends, and it is usual to make 
the chromatic experiments in this definite position of mini- 
mum deviation. This occurs when the position of tin 
is such that the angles of incidence and emergence, or their 
complements D E R, G FG, are equal: for when the moving 
point G has reached its lowest place, it is for a moment m 
the condition of a fixed point like the [Hiint D, through 
which we may suppose the incident beam admitted ; 
rays proceeding from D, notwithstanding a small variation 
of incidence arising from the rotation of the prism, n 
as if it were a fixed point ; and since iu dioptrics, it is of no 
consequence to the path in what direction we supj 
rays to move, it follows that ravs proceeding from G, notwith- 
standing a small alteration of the angle C F G, would arrive 
at the fixed pointer orifice D; and consequently the data for 
the determination oi the angles D E B, G F C, in the position 
of minimum deviation, are precisely the same, and therefore 
these angles must then be equal. 

This being premised, the following easy calculus will 
give the necessary angle of incidence to produce a minimum 

Since the angles of incidence and emergence are equal, 
the angles formed by the interior ray E F with both 
the prism are equal, or the triangle A E F ii an isosceles; 
let 2 a he the retracting angle of the prism, then drawing 
A M perpendicular to E F, we have z. EAM = o, which. 
iie complement of A EM, is necessarily the angle of 
refraction ; if therefore p lie the index of refraction I 
of any given colour, the angle of incidence P, corresponding 
to a minimum deviation, is gi\en by the equation, 
Sin. (P) = p sin. fa) 

For distinctness, suppose the preceding index of 
tiou ji to belong to the extreme red rays, and let // be the 
index for the extreme violet rays of the spectrum 
if P* denote the angle of incidence corresponding to the 
minimum deviation of the latter, we have 

Sin, P'=ji' sin. a ; 
and since a is always less than a right angle, and |i' is 
than ft, therefore P' is greater than P. In other 
words, when the red rays of the spectrum, having arrived 
at their low t a on the screen, begin to : 

the continued rotation of the prism, the violet n 
descend a little before they arrive at their lowest p. 
Under these circumstances, the extent of the sp< 
contracts from both ends, and an angle of h 
intermediate to P and P', which do not greatly differ, cor- 
responds to the minimum or brightest spectrum; and it 

would be probably useful to observe what class of rays, 

defined by Fraim holer's lines, had then obtained their 

i ; that is, such whose index of refraction 

n. a 

'rave seen that compound light, the sun's for ex- 
■mplc, may be decomposed into its homogeneous consti- 
tuent rays by refraction through a transparent prism, Con- 
tftst*l> it tuny be recompounded into light similar to the 
!y by making the rays, thus separated, by 
n to occupy the same place. This ni.iy 
" cted by placing a prism of exactly similar material 
ijriu to that already used, with its refracting angle 
in a direction opposite to that of the former, sd thai 

09 of both prisms may bo parallel ; for the 

' the second prism are in the same condition as if 

heir direction inverted, that they may repass 

thu first; and therefore they emerge in a similar 

and ray with the original, which may also be easily 

aed by experiment. 

The r ig from the second face of the refracting 

{iri>m may also be "collected by means of a double eon 
ls all to meet very nearly in its principal focus, 
the imajje he received on a sheet of paper, the 
original compound light will he reproduced. 

i the light of the sky, admitted through a small hole 

Let in a dark room, is refracted by a prism, if an 

1 behind the prism in the position which the 

would occupy on a screen, the We will appear flf 

rular colour of the ray which reaches the eye, 

nually from one colour to another as the eye 

iifferent parts of the spectrum. 

malysis of light, together with the pheno- 
to the transmission and absorption of light, 
Newton to conclude that the colours of natural bo- 
dkb it qualities of those bodies, but depend 

powers of reflecting, transmitting, or absorbing 
irs more than others from the com- 
ght incident on them ; for all bodies placed in 
*nogeueous light of any colour appear themselves to be 
tbaf colour, though the vividness of tint il 
• hen placed in that coloured light which they reflect most 
copiously. Hence also arise the different colours of the 
liquids exhibited frequently in chemists' shops, according as 
they are viewed by transmitted or reflected light which would 
necessarily be complementary colours if no absorption 

i of light occurred in its passage through (tie thud. 

1 mrs may be imitated by mixing 

Wtakenas in the spectrum of greater and less refrangi- 

» . as orange from red and yellow, Sec, but such compound 

>rs are not identical with the homogeneous light of the 

nine colour, being immediately decomposable when viewed 


U would be difficult, if not altogether impracticable, to 
judge of the dispersive powers of transparent media by mea- 
eano| gth of the spectra which they produce in a 

pn> if form, in ^consequence of the indefinitenc- 

The light at the violet end is so feeble that it 
some continued application of the eye to perceive 
< -we had first imagined the spectrum termi- 
nated: and, on the other hand, the influence of imagination, 
after *o have recognised it, is apt to extend it momentarily 
fortunately Nature has herself fur- 
x*de of definite limits in the beautiful discovery 
made by Wollaston and Fraunhofer of the existence of dark 
space** hands transverse to the length of the spectrum, and 
new generally designated Fraunhofer's lines. 

TheM.' bands are best observable by forming the spectrum 
ti a I ammo us line instead of a point, by means of a prism 
•r greal purity, and viewing it tn rough a telescope of good 
me of them may, when care- 
fally pointed out, be recognised by the unassisted eye, and 
liter on* recojrnition are in future easily found. They are 
♦I*. iit of light, of very unequal width, and 

ads near the extre- 
, as definite limi 
itcna for the di: owers 

cry remarkable that these 
mmher and relative position for 
' when 1 1 


ie lines lii 

)f star-light, lire liuht, candle-light. 

&c,» each essentially different source having a peculiar 
system of deficient rays. 

Substances which have not a great difference of refractive 
powers possess frequently very different dispersive powers, 
and the angular dispersion by a medium is not proportional 
to the angular deviation, and therefore by a system of 
prisms, two or more, white light incident on the first may 
be reproduced from the last, though on the whole refracted 
iii .in its original direction. Such a system is called ar/. 

Conversely, by forming an achromatic system experi- 
mentally, where the angles of the prisms are small, and in 
the position ol minimum deviation, if the dispersive pewet 
of the material of one of them be taken as a standard, that 
of the other may be readily obtained, the dispersion being 

3 fi 
measured by ~^T| f being the index of redaction, and $ p 

the difFerenre of its extreme values for any class of rays. 
This method has been much used in practice, particularly 
by D0II0111I. 

The formulas for achromatic ity in systems of prisms or 
lenses, though not difficult of investigation, are in general 
too complicated and tedious for a popular work ; (see A/r- 
muirps de Science*, 1765 ; Mem. par D*AlemlV 

The rainbow is a beautiful natural exhibition of the dis- 
persion of light into the spectral colours, [Rainbow,] 

To find the longitudinal chromatic aberration of a lens, 
or the interval of the axis between the foci of extreme red 
and \ iolet rays : 

Let the red rays converge to the point R, and the 
to the point V iii the axis. 


Let /, F be respectively the focal distances for the given 
system of rays, and a parallel system ; than the fundamental 
equations lot lenses (neglecting their thickness), give 

-— r; = constant, since the rays of all colours in the com- 
pound incident beam have a common origin ; now differen- 
tiate relative to /i, the variable index m; hence, 

flf /* <TF 
Sftl^W djt ' 

hut since F is proportional to ^ - 


, therefore « 

1 rfF 



* and if # p denote the total variation of /i from extreme 

red to violet, and £ f the corresponding variation of/, or 
longitudinal aberration, and finally A, the dispersive power 
of the medium, we have 


d/ . P I? . P 

To find, tn the same case, the radius of the circle of !• 
chromatic dispersion 

By referring to the same figure, we may observe dial | 
foci RV are respectively the vertices of red and violet 
conical surfaces, having the lens as a common base. Lit 
these surfaces intersect in n circle, of which the radii i- 
DE ; then it is plain that all the intermediate coloured 
rays pass through this circle. It is therefore that of least 

The preceding figure, representing a plane section of the 
whole system taken through the axis, it is obvious that, 
from the smallnessof R V relative to C R, the angles C V B, 
CR A, are sensibly equal, or the triangle V R D is exceed- 
ingly nearly isosceles, and therefore D£ bisects V R, or 

if CA h f 

E R = y, and DE = E R . ^ = - , |, C A, and for pa- 
rallel incident rays DE m - , CM 

DISSECTION. The art of separating the \ ^u- 

u^\ bodies in such a maniiet *& V» fo*\\&^ v&kax tXvos.Vas%. 

It is an art finally applicable to both divisions of the 
organic kingdom, and indispensable alike to the discos r> 
of tfaa structure of plants anil animal- The ground* 00 
which, fur the well-being of the community, every facility 
should be afforded to the cultivation of this art, as far an 
Bide human dissection, have been already fully slated. 
\\] It is satisfactory to observe that the preju- 
dices which formerly obstructed Ihia practice are rapidly 
disappearing andlhal even the QtOftJ uneducated are begin- 
ning to appreciate its ureal importance and its signal utility* 
DISSEISIN. [Seisin.] 

DISSENTERS, the general name for the various Pro- 
testant religious sects in this country that disagree in doc- 
trine, discipline, or mode of worship with the established 
church. The Jews and Roman Catholics are not com- 
monly called dissenters. The origin of Protestant dissenl 
from the church of Engh fly t raced back to the year 

I j 48, in the reign of Edward VI., when a conlrov 
among the adherent <>f tin new Reformation inconsequence 
of the Excellent Hooper (afterwards the martyr) scrupling 
to be consecrated as bishop "f Gloucester in the custo: 
canonical habit, which he deemed objectionable as a relic 
of Romanism. Hooper eventually received consecration 
without being attired in canonicals, At this time the two 
parties received the names of Conformists and Nonconfbr- 
?. Very soon after that of Puritans came into use as 
the general appellation of the dissenters; and it continued 
to be that by which they were commonly distinguished down 
to the close of Ihe civil wars in the next century. The to- 
leialiou of the dissenters, even in the must limited extent, 
dates only from the Revolution ^ during the century and a 
half that elapsed between the Reformation and that event, 
with the exception only of the short period of the Com- 
monwealth, during win. ie Presbyterians and after- 
wards the Indepeud be ascendency, they continued 
to be persecuted bi ion of restrictive and penal laws 
of almost constantly in n » rity. It has taken almost 
the century and a half more, that lias passed since the revo- 
lution, to raise the dissenters from being a merely tolerated 
body to a free participation in the rights of their fellow sub- 
pits by the abolition of the Test and Corporation Acts, in 
1828. If tbe relaxation of the marriage law, that has since 
taken place, shall be followed by the abolition of church 
rates, trie dissenters will be placed as nearly on an equality 
in all respects with the adherents of the established church 
[\ is possible that they should be, without the established 
Irch itself being abolished. In the early times of dissent 
the greet classes of dissenters were the Presbyterians, the 
I 'i dependents, the Baptists, and the Quakers, and they still 
continue to be the most numerous sects, unless we aieto 
include the Methodists, or followers of Wesley and Whit- 
field, some of whom are avowedly dissenters, and others 
and are also subdivided into Wetlejan Methodists, 
Primitive, &e. The minor sects of dissenters now make a 
i£ list j hut many of them mai I only *ub- 
divisions of or included in the four leading denominati 
From an examination of the best materials (which 
bov, i fur the i i dis- 
sent* Mr. Maeculloeh is inclined to think that the entire 
number of Protestant dissenters in England and V 
does not exceed 2,400,000. or, at most, & 5 00,00 U, L ' v ^ n Hi- 
ding the Methodists, who may amount to about f (300,000, 
the British Em j ire, ii., 413, 416 J 
But this estimate, We are inclined to think, is too low, 
The most numerous classes of dissent* ! on 
lied in a separation from the established church in 
1 7 in. They are called generally Secede] e di- 
vided into Bu Anti-Burghers, Original Burgl 
atid Original Seeeders, There are also the body • ■: 

called the Relief Church, who separated from the esta- 
blishment in l?oS. The only considerable body of S< 

Hters of older standing, with t'l. f the Epis- 

copalian*, are the Camerunians, or Reformed Presbyterian 

s of the ' 
the seventeenth century. Mr. Maccujloch calculates the 
whole number of dissenters in Scotland {exclusive of about 
140,000 Roman Catholics) at about 360,000 per* 

suns, In In-land, exclusive of lb 
alone outnumber the adherents ofthe established 
proportion of 7$ to one, the principal djsaentci 
ibyterians, who are d kilned to t! 

jftetians amoun 
nd 700,000, and are more th 

as all the other bodies of dissenters in that count! 

her* (Bepfjri of Committiontri rf ttvligioits his: 
Hon m Ireland* 1 83a.) [Doddridge.] 

DISSEPIMENTS, the partitions in the inside i 
which are formed by the union of the sides of its con 
carpels. Dissepiments are therefore necessarily alternate 
wiiti the stigma. When partitions which do not bear 
relation to the stigma occur in the inside of a fruit the) 
called phragmataor spurious dissepiments as in the cuthar- 
locarpus fistula where they are horizontal, and in verbena 
where they are vertical. 

DISSONANCE, in music, a term synonymous with dis- 
cord, [Discord,] 

DISTANCE. The only remark which we need make 
upon this common word is that it is very frequently appl 
to attgulttr distance meaning the angle of separation which 
the directions of two bodies" include. Thus the spectator's 
eve being at O, the angle A OB is the angular <lis< i 
(frequently simply called the distance) 
andB. In the apparent sphere ofthe heavens, distance al- 
ways means angular distance. The term ap p a rent distance 
is frequently applied in the same cf 

DISTEMPER, an inferior kind of colouring u 
both internal and external walls, but principally fur the 
former, instead of oil colour, being a cheap substitute. 

It is composed of whitening mixed with size of a i 
quality, in the proportions of twelve pounds of whitening to 
one of size. The size is boiled and red u ceil to a \n 

latency by the addition of water, after which 
the colour is added to form the necessarj tint. Cos 
colours are used for distemper than are employed in oil 
painting and colouring. Scene painting is executed in 
distemper, and paper stainers employ distemper colour in 
printing and staining papers fur walls. The colours used 
mi these cases are however of a better quality, and the 
employed is made from the hide of the buffalo, or parch- 
ment cuttings. The proportions of size and whitening in 
paper staining depend on the strength ofthe size. In five 
quarts of distemper, if the size is. slroiuz, one- fourth part 
will be sufficient ; it weak, about one half In mixing the 
size and whitening much depends on the judgment of the 
workman. The distemper is used in a chilled state. Five 
quarts will stain about eighty-four yards of paper. 

DISTHENE, a variety of Kyanitb. 

DISTICHOUS, a term in botany, Bignii 
two rows, as the grains in an ear of barley, and the flora ti 
let of a uak jug-grass. 

DISTILLATION is a them teal process for applying a 
regulated heat to fluid substances in covered vc- 
peculiar form called Alembics, in order to separate their 
more volatile constituents in vapour; and for conden 
them immediately by cold itlto the liquid state, in 
I, styled a refrigerator. 

The Arabians seem to have practised, in the remotest 
art of extracting the aromatir 
and their flowers, in the form of distilled waters, I 
the luxuries of oriental baths. They are also support 
have beta the first to extract from wine a 

distillation, The term ale* il 
applied to such distilled spirit, and which is s opposed to he 
Arabic*, appear* at first sight to favour that idea, but 
as it was antiently employed to designate mereb 
tremily, tenuity, or impalpable state of pulverulent I 

Hid for tbe auove conclusion, 
From certain passages in Pliny and Galen there can be 
doubt that the Greeks and Romans were well acquainted 
With the distillation; of aromatic waters. Indeed Ni 

k poet and physician who lived 140 years before the 
Christian n?ra, employs the terms <fyi,3t£ ambtr and distilla- 
tion in describing the preparation of rose-water. Fium 
ambix. which signifies a pot the Arabic name alamb if 
alembic is derived. The words pot and poieen are used in 
the same way bj the modern Irish to designate a still und 

L21IUOUS product. It is obvious that distillation m 
have been a familiar process to the countrymen of Avi- 
eenna, since, in hi- of catarrh, he compares the 

human body to an alembic; he regards the belly as the 

and the head tal, through which 

the humours distil, passing off by the nostrils as its b 
Arnoldus do Villa Nova, a chemical pi 

I used 

D I S 


D I S 

twnth century, is the first author who speaks explicitly of an 
-pint obtained by the distillation of wine, and 
nbes it as a recent discovery. He considers it to be 
>ng sought after in vain. His 
oond Lully, of Majorca, declares this admirable 
of an emanation of the Divinity, an 

element newly revealed to man, but hid from antiquity 
because the human race wore then I to need tins 

hovers revive the energies of modern decre- 

furthcr imagined that the discovery of this 
aqua cifsr, tiled, indicated the approaching con* 

ftummatioti of all tilings — the end of the world. 11 
red as to i of this remarkable c 

past influence upon the condition of 

wan, nnce to both civilized and uncivilized nations it has 

finitely greater evils than were threatened in the 

: Pandora, 

In ins * Chemical Theatre, 5 written towards the conclusion 

h century, Raymond Lully describes the 

>n of ardent spirits thus: — 

and well-flavoured red or white wine, 1 says he, 
be digested during 2u days in a rinse vessel by the 
heat of fermenting horse-dung, and to be then distilled 
in a sand bath with a very gentle fire. The true water of 
11 come over in precious drops, which, being rectified 
h) three or i distillations, will afford the won- 

derful quintessence of wine/ 

its purity, 1 adds he, ' if a rag be dipped in it, 
iE*i kindled, it will not bee , bul consume away/ 

AH the older writers imagined that aqua rittp imbibed 
from the are its inflammable, heating, and exhilarating 
qualities; so in order to increase these qualities to the 
utmost, they prescribed tedious and repeated warm diges- 
tions of the wine before it was put into the alembic, and an 
exceedingly slow distUlation that each drop might come 
i with ftre. 

*ent article we shall consider distillation solely \ 
to the production of alcohol* The process, 
applied to distill others, and oils, belongs 

lianrai , &c. 

livules itself into two branches: 
hoi; L 2 t its elimination from the 
ingredient* with which it is mixed, 

ranees employed in this country in the ma- 
a u farm re of ardent spirits upon the great scale are dif- 
ferent kinds of corn, such as barley, rye, wheat, oats, 
U>ekwhe*it. and maize. Peas and beans also have been 
sceasioissUy used in small quantity. The principles in 
BSSBst grains from which I lie Bpirits arc indirectly- ptoduoed 
I .7 h um] a little sweet mucilage, which, by a peculiar 
fsjaoeaa called mashingt are i into u species of 

•agar. It is the- micd which is the immediate 

uafteratrjr by the process of fermentation* 

ustidt estimated that two pounds of starch properly 
t:»ratr»l *o4il<] yield one quart of whiskey, of Specific gravity 
_ kinds of corn afford of spirits of the 
wtf strength the quantities annexed to them in the scale: 

I #0 pounds of wheat . 40 to 45 pounds of whiskey. 
. 36 to 42 

y . 40 „ 

. n heat 40 n 

o ,40 „ 

may therefore conclude, Rays Hexmsliidt, that 100 

ad* of tvn pon an av« pounds of 

iiy- We shall presently 

i »i ii pj ■ lu :e uiueh 

i -Her 

>i the raw grain, and 

■d, as in the production of malt 

process of malting is that incipient growth called 

it of a portion 
sf the carbon of the starch, in the form uf carbon u 
lie? ultimate vegetable elemeti combined in such 

s prepoii i F sugar. Malting is 

ta« DiQ«t cnV converting starch iuto suear. 

known from the researches <>f Saussure, that if 
me time at summer 
it will undergo a remarkable 
being converted into a species of 

taoptfaliire* with 
150. nearly one- 

ar, and one-fifth into gum* A similar change is more 
rapidly effected upon starch by boiling its pasty solution 
with one-hundredth pari of its weight of sulphuric acid. The 
recent discovery of diastase by Persoz and Payen has en- 
abled us to effect this curious conversion with much greater 

ttntj, and to a creator extent than was possible by the 
gluten or the and. If 8 or 10 parts of ground malt be mixed 
with 1 no parts by weight of starch previously diffused 1 hrough 
400 parts of water, at 140° Fahr., and if this mixture be 
kept at a temperature of from loS J to loft for three oc 
hours, the nearly insipid pasty liquor will become a limpid 

n T which maybe evaporated by a gentle heat into an 
ttnerystalliiable sugar, capable of being used ns a substitute 
for ordinary sugar, not only in the vinous fermentation, but 
in many operations of the confectioner* The same change 
which lakes place upon pure starch in the abo\ 
ment is effected m the process of mashing as carried on m 
breweries and distilleries. A larger or smaller proportion 
of the/ecu/a of the corn is thereby converted into sugar, 
a iul thus brought into a state fit for producing alcohol by 

The manufacture of whiskey or ardent spirits consists of 
three distinct operations; first, mashing; second, fermenta- 
tion; third, distillation. 

1. Mashing.— Either malt alone, or malt mixed with 
other grains, and coarsely ground, is put into the mash-tun, 
along with a proper proportion of hot water, and the mix- 
ture is subjected to agitation by a mechanical revolving ap- 
paratus exactly similar to that employed in the breweries 
for the manufacture of beer. When malt alone is used, the 
water first run into the mash-Inn among the meal has 
usually a temperature of 160° or 165° Fahrenheit, but when 
a considerable proportion of raw gram is mixed with the 
malt, the water is let on at a lower temperature, as from 
14a° to 155°, for fear of making such a pasty magma as 
would nut allow the infusion or worts to drain readily off", 

The following are the quantities of malt and raw grain 
mixed which have been round to afford a good product of 
whiskey in a well-conducted Scotch disiiilery :— 

252 bushels of malt, at 40 pounds per bushel. 
948 do. barley, 53} do. do 

150 do, oats, 4"4 do* do. 

1*»0 do, rye, 53] do, dj 


From each bushel of the above mixed meal 2J gallons of 
proof whiskey (specific gravity 0.021) may be obtained, or 
18} gallons per quarter* A few distillers are skilful enough 
to extract 20 gallons from a quarter of that mixture, Ten 
imperial gallons may be consitlerod a fair proportion of water 
to he introduced into the mash-tun lor every bushel of meal 
at the first infusion. After two or three LoUTS 1 agitation, 
the w hole is left to repose for an hour and a half, and then 
the worts are drawn off to about one- third the volume of 
water employed, the rest being entangled in a pasty state 
among the farina. About two-thirds of the first quantity 
of water is now let into the tun, but at a temperature some- 
what higher, and tile mashing motion is renewed for nearly 
half an hour* A second period of infusion or repose en- 
sues, after which these second worts are drawn off. Both 
infusions musljbe cooled as quickly as possible down to the 
tempera lure 01 80° or r^ 1- Fanr„ oth teyare apt to 

run into the acetous fermentation by the rapid absorption 
of atmospheric oxygen. This refrigeration is usually effected. 
for some time in lar^e shallow cisterns, 
called coolers, placed near the top of the budding, where it 
may exposed to the aerial currents. But [\ 

\ passed through serpentine lubes 
-unded with cold water, or by the agency of ventOal 
blowing over its surface in extensive cisterns only three or 
four inches d 

After the second wort is drawn off, a third quantity of 
water, fully as great as the first, but nearly boiling 
run into the mash-tun, and well incoi frith the 

magma by agitation; after repose, this third wort is also 
drawn off, cooled, and either a ixed with 1 

ceding worts, or after it has been Concentrated l»\ boil 
down; in most eases however it is in- 

stead of water for the first infusion of a fresh quantity of 

As a revenue of five and a half millions sterling is do* 
rived from the whiskey distilleries, their operations su;^ vxW- 

D I S 


D I S 

d to a very strict code of regulations, which are ad- 
ministered and enforced by the excise. One of those pre- 
scribes the range of specific gravity at which the worts may 
he lawfully lei down into the fcriii'-'iitiiiL! tuns. The dis- 
tiller must give notice to the (Boer in attendance, 
before commencing a round, whether he intends to distil 
iYoiu mall tlone, or from a mixture of it with raw grain, 
and of lhi i density he intend* his worts to by when iijUh 
duecd Into the fermenting hacks. He may change this no- 
ticc :ii the end of a month or six weeks, when, upon another 
notice of six days, he may change hi* specific gravities. In 
England the law restricts the distiller to the densities be- 
in t.060 and LOW J m Scotland, between 1.030 and 
1. 07 a, which, fur brevity's sake, are called 50, 90, 30, and 
75, omitting the LOUU common to them all. Al these den- 
the quantities of solid saeeharuin contained in one 
barrel of 3<i imperial gallons, are 47.25 lbs,, S5lbs., 2&lba^ 
and 70.3 lb ively. 

The mashing and fermentation are jointly called briWtng, 

and the period in Which they are carried on is by law kept 

quite distinct from the distilling period, the one occupying 

illy one week, and the other another in rotation. About 

gallons of wort or wash are obtained from each quarter 

t j ployed. 

L above worts will have generally the den- 
of 1.078 when the gram ti good ana the mashing is 
well managed, and the second a density of 1,054, so that 
the mixture will have a specific gravity somewhat above 
1.060, ami will contain about 60 p mnds of extract per barrel. 
Now, by the excise rules, L00 gallons of such wort ought to 
yield one gallon of proof spirit for every five degrees of alteuu- 

ationwhicrj its specine gravity andergoes ui the fermenting 
Inn, so that if it falls from L000 to 1.000, 12 gallons of 

if spirit are supposed to be generated, and must be ac- 
i ted for by the distiller. If he understand his business 
well, he will be able to produce from 5 to It* percent, more 
than the law requires* Mr. Smith, in his examination be- 
fore the Molasses Committee of the House of Commons in 
i, states that in one year, reckoning by computation 
D the above data, he showed produce ibr 6 0,000 or 70,000 
i ns mure than the presumed quantity, and paid duty 
.uid that m 1830 he was charged for 80,000 
[Spirits actually produced beyond the presumptive 
>', according to the attenuated gravity of the v, 
In consequence of an alteration in the excise laws about 
twelve years ago, the distill. sl)owed to ferment 

WOflS of less density than they previously could, and have 

I able to effect a more product Nation. They 

bled theivbv to reduce the proportion of 

1 lie mixed meal. Formerly they were accustomed 

to use three pans of mult to four parts of barley, or two to 

three* but they Boon diminished the malt to one-fifth, and 

le-eighth, or one tenth, o! the whole grain* 

principal use of malt, besides its furnishing the sac- 

ehanne ferment called duisti ep the mash magma 

Lte the drainage of the worts. 

si which whiskey may be made in Holland is 

thus stated by Mr Smith :— When barley is 38s. per quarter, 

he reckons thai one gallon of proof spir corn 

1 1. _/ for the charge of manufacturing, 2d as the 

duty on malt employed, and Ji, Brf, as the duty on spirit, 

her to 10*. \0d. If we consider that from 

proof spirits may be made from etgh) 

or one oust we mu-,t think this 

■ iff] Bi ed. Indeed 

pirits may be bought di-tillcrsat a 

they can 
manufacture the article a dly, or that they 

i the revenue. 
11. Fermentation, 

This is undoubtedly the most intricate, as it is the 
important proea tillation, but nnfbrtunately one 

hitherto studied with too little regard to scientific j. 
by the distiller. Experiments have proved th&l the quan- 
barine matter converted inlb alcohol is depen- 
upon the p of ferine, 

into tit d too little ta used 

inosed, and if too much, tht 
i a dusagreeao orts are 

let down at the specific gravity of U id at s 

pnje from OCT 1 to JO* Fahr., and for every 


ughlv incorpoiated hy agitation with o 

When by the attenuation the density is diminishetl 
to 1.033 one ball gall, u tnwe i> added, ana another half 
gallon si the density of 1 .025, after which the worts usually 
receive no lint her addition ol yea>1. The temperature of 

the fermenting mass rises soon after the introduction of 

tat 8 or 10 decrees, and sometimes Unit it 

reaches m some eases the B5th or 90th degree of Fabron- 

cale. From the appearance of the troth or scum the 
experienced distiller can form a tolerably correct ju: 
as to the progress and quality of the fermentation. 
greatest elevation usually takes place within il 
houis after the commencement of the process The object of 
the manufacturer of spirits is to push the alt ecu 
as possible, which so for di tiers from that of the beer h 
who wishes always to preserve a portion of the 
matter undecomposed to give flavour and body to : 
veragfc. The first appearance of fermentation 
by a ring of froth round the edge of the vat usual I j 
an hour after the addition of the yeast ; and in the 
of five hours the extrication of carbonic acid from ti 
tides throughout the whole bodyjaf the liquor causes 
bubbles to cover ifi entire surface. The temperature 
while rises from lu to I j degrees according to circumstances, 

pester the mass of liquid, the 1" 
which it was let down into the Inn, and the col 
rounding atmosphere, the more slowly will the phenomena 
of fermentation be developed under a like proportion of 
yaast and density of the worts. In general large vat* 
aftbrd B better result than small ones, on account 
equality of t lie process. It is reckoned good work wh 
specific gravity comes down to 1,000, or that ol 
superior work when it falls 4 or 5 below it, or to O.fl 
After thine six hours upon the moderate scale the 
truth begins to subside, and when the attenuatioc 
advanced, the greater part of it falls to the bottom on BI 
of its density relatively to the subjacent fluid. In from 
forty tight to sixty hours the liquor begins to gr 

BS comparatively tranquil. It has been deemi 
vanta^eous towards the perfection of the fermentation to 

p the wash occasionally with a proper stirrer, 
some cases to increase its temperature a few degrees by the 
transmission of steam through a serpentine pipe coiled round 
the sides of the vat. Some have imagined that 
able portion of spirit is carried off by the great \< I 
carbonic acid evolved, and have proposed lo save it lv 
covering the vats air tight, and conducting the 
a pipe in the lids info a vessel cunt a ,-. 
norai of this apparatus is not worth the expense and ; 
whioo it occasions. The distillers content themselves 

frig their vats after the first violence of the 

under tolerably tight covers. 

Mr, Oetavius Smith, the eminent distiller of '1 1 
Bank, states in Ins examination 

uiittee, that the acetous fermentation is always proo 
taneously with the vinous fermentation : for judg 
the usual tests there is always a slight degree 
fermenting wash: that vinegar is in fact forming 
alcohol, or that while the attenuation is inercas 
acid is being formed. This important fact. v. I 
with our own experience, 
cious a test the attenui diminution of d 

the amount of alcohol generated and existing in a fer- 
nut] Ted wash. The scelk acid along with the un 

tnuoilaginous starch may, in 1 
the attenuating effect of the spirits as to produi 
gravitf Which shall indicate JU or lipu 
than is actually present in the wash. Hem l 
officers should be instructed to use test-stills in 

n b small aliquot part th 
lable alcohol contained in each back of wash Alter 
tion of the wash three samples should be taken j 
dipping cylinder, or sinking-jar, one from the bol 
from the middle, and one from the ton; which being nii 
and distilled would denote exactly the whole quantil 
i that mold possibly be extracted. 
Tins teat-still was (dearly described and forcibly j 
upon the attention of the exchequer by l v his 

fore the said Molasses Commit- 
tee. The distillers in general, as might have been ex- 
pected, scouted the idea of the possibility oi ting 
the quantity of spirits in a large back, from the distillation 
of a quart or a gallon of the wash ; but Mr, Steel .-bowed 
that by the disLdlutiou of lUvO grains in a gloss retort 


t) I s 

i of a pint), he had obtained a produce 

ery nearly with the result of 

of I he same wash in a 

proper still. And Mr. O. Smith, when closely questioned, 

I that means mi^ht he devised to enable an 

officer to perform the above analytical distillation 

precision as the man who had coa- 

LpporatUfl for him. The prevent 've check* or 

is called, which the excise apply to the fer- 

little against a fraudulent 

*an so easily introduce immediately 

befbrr t -or, towards the end of the fer- 

such a quantity of salt us will so alter the den- 

vity a» i 1 conceal seven or eight per 

iij the least injuring its quality 

turn. In fact, Mr, Q. Smith ncknow- 

1 extent the futility, or rather nullity, of 

that el, be says,'] conceive that any cheek 

docs not ap[ any nearer to the fact than that just 

jlluded Co (the attenuated gravity), is almost useless, mas- 

9 a distiller willing to evade the duly, could do so, 

crenoe between the charge of the wiccharometer 

I irit produced, allows ample room fur the 

smuggler/* Mr. William Baker, sur- 

describes a mode of 

fttraiggling the spirits which would enable the distiller to 

nuke the quantity run off coincide with the quantity shown 

*t the above fraudulent density. 'There was a pipe fast- 

ra»d before it came to the end of the worm* and it was 

rarmd through the wall into another part of the build- 

Tceive how easy it is, with the 

ry apparatus, to lead a small branch tube 

; the worm through the side or bottom of 

:: : i into i •.'i>n(-eah'd subterraneous receiver. 

It i*> to contrast the actual insecurity of the re- 

vtftiie fttitn the distillation of whiskey with the multiplicity 

of precautious taken to prevent frauds; self- interest on the 

<oe hand being so much stronger and sharper than duty on 

the other. * Examinations with us are constantly making ; for 

mm pie, we are surveyed this morning at six o'clock, the 

flAcers take their accounts and gauges, make calculations, 

aaddo a great deal of work, occupying several hours: at ten 

orlock tbey again survey, goioo^ over t Lie whole ground, 

aber* they continue a considerable lime, frequently until 

flker comes on duty : at evening too another 

•urrey taken place, similar to the former, but not by the 

ttue people ; then at evening, six, the survey is repeated; 

sj rvemng. ten. there comes another survey, by an officer 

who had not been engaged in any of the previous surveys 

qf that «Uy. He is not relieved until morning, six, of the 

it addition to which, we are subject to 

frequent and uncertain visits of the surveyor and general 

rzrrevor : we are never out of their hands, 1 t 

computed that every 5 degrees of attenuation, as it 

i, that is, every diminution of the number 5 upon 

die specific gravity in the third place of decimals, ought La 

produce I per cent, of proof spirit, or 1 (gallon out of luu, as 

- that if ihe wort be set at 1 .1155, and 

com down to 1.000, ll gallons of proof spirits are charge* 

th\e upon each lOo of iu In the fermentation of 

fqpr worts, 1 gallon of proof spirits was calculated for 

r,rrr four similar degrees of attenuation. But distillation 

fom sugar or m i>h is now illegal. With 

lam-wash, there is never more than four- fifths of the 

tacrharine matter decomposed into alcohol and carbo- 

in the beat-managed fermentation* and fre* 

ndeed much less. In ft pound of real 

/be resol luccessful process into half a 

ml <*f alcohoLor into about one pound of proof spirit) 

, hence a* i gar at the density of 1*060, con* 

IJ per rent by weight, or 16 percent by measure, 

i U nearly Hon. it should yield 

zfearlir 1 70 pounds from loo gallons, or 1 80 pound mi 

•noaf to 18 gallons of proof spirit; whereas 1 00 gallons 

corn wa±l d at the above density, are computed 

excise law to void only 12 gallons, and seldom pro- 

<jre than 13 and a small fraction. There is thus 

thunder? a a ide difference between the produce of spirit 

ler as fermented by the man of 

id uce obtained by our best malt and 

• H*7*jrl OH lh* u» 


). 534. 

**, fee, 1331, p. l«. ' 

79, Q, 2613. - 

mpel-rvad, diitiller, In Molttiiet G/iw- 

i s 

grain distillers. The main defect lies undoubtedly in the 
i saccharification of I he fecula of the com 
in the mashing process, which, in our opinion, "would re- 
quire tube entirely remodelled, and conducted upon sounder 
and more scientific principles. 

Id the huge fermenting vats used In the corn distillers 
of this country, the fermentation goes on far more slowly 
than when conducted upon the moderate scale referred to 
in the account of this process given above. About 1 gallon 
of yeast is added at lirst for every 100 gallons of wort, and 
a half gallon additional upon each of the succeeding four 
days, making in the whole 3 per cent, ; when less can he made 
to suffice, I he spirits will be better favoured. The fer- 
mentation goes on during from six to twelve days, according 
Co the modifying influence of the circumstances above 
enumerated. After the fifth or sixth day, the tuns are 
covered in, so as to obstruct, in a certain degree, tin 
charge of the carbonic acid, as it is supposed that this gas 
in excess favours fermentation* The temperature is usually 
greatest on the fourth or fifth day, when it sometimes i j 
to 8a° Fahr., from the starting pitch ol ;'fiii° or fi6*, When- 
ever the attenuation has reached the lowest point by the 
hydrometer, the wash ought to be distilled, hinee mime- 
diately afterwards the alcohol begins to be converted into 
acetic acid. This acidification may be partially repressed 
by the exclusion of atmospheric oxygen. 


There is no chemical apparatus which has undergone so 
many metamorphoses as the still and condenser. In its 
simplest form it has been already represented and described, 
[Alembic] It may be considered to have reached it! 
highest point of perfection, as to power and rapidity of 
work, in Scotland, when lire distillers paid a stipulated 
sum per annum to the revenue for the privilege of a still of 
tain size, and when therefore they derived a profit 
proportionable to the quantity of spirits they could run off 
in a given time, fa the year I7«j9, from a report presented 
to the House of Commons, it appears that the Scotch dis- 
tillers at that time were able to work off SO gallons of wash 
in eight minutes, and the duty was levied accordingly j 
very soon afterwards they contrived means of doing the 
same thing in about three minutes. The stills made for 
such rapid operation were shallow* and exposed a great 
surface to the fire. One of them is figured and described 
in Ure*s * Dictionary of Chemistry.' Since the year i 
the whiskey duties have been levied on ihe quan ity 
tilled, independent of the capacity of the still. Tins change 
has introduced a modification in the dtStiUfag apparatus, 
with the view of combining purity of product with ccuiiumy 
of time. The body of the still is still comparatively Ma 
as to expose a large surface to the fire; but the tapering 
upper | art, corresponding to the capital of an alembic, is 
made very long, rising sometimes 15 or 20 re it 

terminates in the worm pipe or refrigeratory for condensa- 

Great distilleries are usually mounted with two std!s. a 
larger and a smaller. The former is the IcoiA still, and 
B to distil from the fermented worts nolo 

spirit called it/tv icines ; the latter is the low-wine still, 
and rectifies by a second process the product of the first 
disiillaikm. In these successive distillations a quantity of 
fetid oil, derived from the corn, comes over along wiih i lie 
first and last portions received, and constitui , mi- 

bination what is styled the strong and weak faints in the 
language of the distilleries. These milky faints are care- 
fully separated from the limpid spirit by turning III 
as they begin to tlow from the worm -end into distinct 
channels, which lead to separate receivers. 

From these receivers the various qualities of spirit, low 
wines, and faints, are p for the purpose of redistillation, 
pumped up into charging backs, from which they are iuu 
in gauged quantities into the low-wine and spirit Iti 
The pumps afford many facilities to the fraudulent distiller 
for abstracting spirits without the cognizance of the excise, 
and thus injuring at once the fair dealer and the revenue. 
It would be easy to arrange a distillery' so that pumps 
would lie quite superseded, with their numerous joints and 
screw?, and to conduct the spirituous liquids from the ap- 

Iiropriale receivers to the chargers and stills, on successive 
evels, through a series of pipes, without external orifice. 

One of the greatest improvements in modern distillation 
Ll the accomplishment of this essential analvsis uCvVa^ > 
pure spirit at one onetaAvavu C\^m\aVnj Y«A \ifefcw Vara?! 

D I S 


D I S 

familiar with the pneumatic apparatus ofWouUe, without 
thinking; of its adaptation to distillery apparatus, when 
Edouard Adam* an illiterate operative, after attending by 
- lent a chemical lecture at MuMpclhcr, where he saw 
that apparatus, immediately employed it for obtaining fine 
brandy, of any desired strength, 'at one and the puBi beat/ 
He obtained a patent for this invention in July, 1801, and 
soon afterwards was enabled by his success to set up in that 
city a magnificent distillery* which attracted the admira- 
tion of all the practical chemists of the day, In November, 
1805, he obtained a certificate of improvements whereby he 
could extract from wine, at one process, the whole of 
alcohol, Adam was so overjoyed after nuking his 
first experiments, that, like another Archimedes, be ran 
about trie streets telling every body of the surprising re- 
sults of bis new invention. About the same time, Sohmaui, 
professor of chemistry at Montpellier, and Isaac Bcrard, 
distiller in the department of Gartl, having contrived two 
distinct systems of apparatus, each most Ingenious, and 
obtaining results little inferior to those of Adam, became 
in consequence formidable rivals of his fame and fortune. 

Into the description of these stills, of those of Derosne, 
Baglioni, &c., on the continent, or of their many modifica- 
tions in this country, the limits of this art tele do Dot allow 
us to enter. In the treatises of Lenormand and Dubrun- 
faut, the construction of stills is described with a minuteness 
of detail sumcieni the meet curious intju 

We shall content ourselves with in 0£ the scienti^e 

principles of a perfect spirit still, and with a deliiieaiiou 
of its outlines. 

The boiling point of alcohol varies with its strength, in 
contbrmitv with the numbers in the L 1 lowing table. 

Roiling pntnl l»y 

BoUittf point by 

slflc Gravity. 

ntmfi Se*lc. 

BpwSfiB QtnvUj. 

Pttumnelt'i Scuhi 


h a 


















I J 1-0 












+ 2U1'0 



Hence the lower the temperature of the spirituous va- 
pour which enters into the refrigerator, the stronger and 
liner will the condensed spirit be, because the noxious Oifle 
are less volatile than ah I come over chiefly with 

the aqueous vapour. A perfect still should therefore con- 
sist of three parts : first, the cucurbit or boiler; second, the 

rectifier for intercepting the greater part of the watery . 
tii lei, and the whole of the corn oil ; and third, the relY. 
rator. Such a construction is represented in Jig. 1, 2. and 3, 
in which the resources of the most refined French stills 
combined with a simplicity and solidity of construct iuii 
suited to the grain distilleries of the United Kingdom. 
Three principal objects are obtained by this arrau 
first, the extraction from fermented wort or wine, at one 
operation, of a spirit of any desired cleanness and strength; 
second, a great economy of tune, Labour, and fuel; third, 
freedom from all dauber of blowing up or boiling over by 
mismanaged firing. When a mixture of the alcohol, water, 
and essential oil, in tlie stale uf vapour, is passed 
through a series of winding \ Maintained at a re- 

gulated degree of heat, from 1 70° to 18'r*, the alcohol aJ 
in notable proportion, retains the elastic form, and pro<cn 
onward into the refrigeratory tube, in winch these pas^ 
terminate, while the wuier and the oil are in a great n 
sure condensed and retained in these passages, su aa to drop 
back into the body of the still, and be discharged with the 
elTele residuum. 

The lyitaG) of channels shown iiijf^. 2 is so cot; 
as to bring the compound vapours which rise from the 
alembic A into intimate and extensive contact with me- 
tallic surfaces, immersed in a water-bath, and maint^j 
at any desired temperature by a self-regulating tkermottat 
or heat-governor. The neck of the alembic tapers upwards 
as shown at B,Ji%. 1 ; and at C, fig. 2, it enters the bottom 

vestibule of the rectifier C F. F is its top ores 
vestibule, which communicates with the under on 
rallel Angular channels D, D, D* w hose width 

all cum pared with their length and height. Th 
eases are open at top and bottom, where they are soldered 
or riveted into a general frame within the cavity, incl. 
by the two covers F,C, which are secured round their ed 
E, E, E, with bolts and packing. Each case is occupied with 
a numerous series of shelves or tra>s, placed at small dis- 
tances over each other, in a horizontal or slightly inclined 
position! of which a side view is given m Jig, 3, and cross 
tons at D, D. IX .AV- -* Each shelf is turned up a little 
at the two edges arm the one end, but sloped down at 
other end, so that the liquor admitted at the top ma) be 
made to flow backwards ami forwards in its descent throi 
the system of shelves, as indicated by the spouts in flg, 
The shelves of each case are framed together by two of 
more vertical metallic rods, which pass down through them, 
and arc fixed to If. On removing the cover, the 

sets of shelves may be readily hfted out of the cases to be 
cleaned ; and are hence called moveable. 

The intervals I, I, I, Jig, % between the two cases, are I the bath-vessel G, G ; these intervals being considerably 
left free for the circulation of the water cow uiaed in | narrower than the cases, Fig. 4 represents in plai 

D I S 


D I S 

in 1 ! 




the surface of the rectifying cistern, shown by two dif- 
ferent sections in flgs. t and 3. H, K, ,/fr.v, 2 and 

jovernor, shaped somewhat 
-. Each !•',' is a compound bar, 

steel, and one of line alloy, 

r. having their up arid 

i are joined to the free ends of these 

a, which receding by increase of temperature, 

net through a lever upon 

d to the pipe of a cold water reservoir, 

1 by a .-crew-nut, that whenever the water 

ove the desired temper 

■ admitted through the slop-cock L and 

pttom of the cistern, and will displace the 

.tied Water by the over How pipe M. Thus a perfect 

be maintained, and alcoholic 

| oiideul uniformity be transmitted to the 

consisting of a double tube, 
a tigaag direction, but in one plane, and supported 
ins. The alcoholic vapour enters at 
*nds along the inner tube marked 
i ill il bee not:* condensed by the counter- 
vail)' ascending in the annular 
i or copper tube, and the outer cast- 
Fhe water of condensation enters into that 
ing supplied by the pipe D, 
The funnel into which 
oured must be somewhat higher than the 
at water is discharged, after having 
ioe temperature as that of the alco- 
lo its intlucnce. 

particles kept by any means at 
bad conductor of caloric; it 
tcq&ri • ivimum, conducting or cooling power, 

enfcf w articles are set in rapid and continuous 

•ruction of worm is calcu- 
the most complete refrigeration of the 
e smallest expenditure oi cold water, and 
at B in the coolest state. It has, 
iry recommendations, one to the dit- 
to i he i e venue. Its interior may be moat 
unscrewing the bolts of the joints C C, 
i s through the several straight 
»nsists; no offset or branch pipe 
is of ti practised upon the 
ifm tuba fir fraudul ml purpo 'es. The 

1 at the 
rieeew distiller; a few only being represented in 

Wt flgi sake of illustration. If a small portion of 

ti* over rim. be mule to trickle down and moisten 

'^ '1'Jt^tlf Hjr&Oea of Ihe tWQ Of three upper LeaJTlhj of 
vill by evaporation produce a considerable 
*egr*e of coolne^ - ieTe cold water. 

is worked as follows : into 
the ak ueh fermented liquor as will protect 

Us bottom from being Injured by the ilre, when it is not 
ilungrd to a bath of miniate of lime, but exposed direct); 
Is the j, men as the ebullition in the alembic has 

reu of the water bath GG to the de- 

MTed reel 170° or 1*0°, the therrno- 

tcd by its screw nut, and 
the: ucatson with the charging back 

l he opened by moving the index of the stop-cock O 
ilrmtal arch. The wash 
w descend in a regulated stream through the pipe 

il tube P P h and issue 

f distribution into the respocUve tial 

i iie manner of its progress is shown for one set 

> iq Jtm of the si ream in each shelf 

of tint in the shelf above and below 

le tdudf corresponding with the 


h or wine in a thin film over 

sorh an ample range of surfaces, ihe constant tendency of 

per limit of temperature is conn- 

out waste of time or fuel; for 

becomes bailing hot, and expe- 

s!cam distillation. Thus also a very 

iter through the thermostat stop- 

i the bath; such an extensive vapo- 

of the wash producing a far more refrigerant in- 

fhan its simple heating to the boiling point. It 


deserves peculiar remark, that the greatest distillation with 
the least fuel is bete effected without any pressure in the 
alembic; for the passages are all pervious to the rapodf, 
whereas, in almost every wa-h still heretofore coofrived for 
similar purposes, the spirituous vapours must ibrrc their 
way through succeaatfe layer- of Liquid, the ir»tul pressure 
from which causes undue elevation of temperature, obstruc- 
tion td the process, and forcing of the junctures. Whatever 
supplementary refrigeration of the vapours in their pas- 
through the bath may be deemed proper will be admi- 
nistered by the heat governor. 

Tli ulated by the thermostnt may however be 

used fur obtaining line spirits at one operation, without 
transmitting the wash or low wine* down through its interior 
passages; in which ca-e it becomes a simple rectifier. The 

empyreurnatie taint which spirits are apt to contract from the 
action of the naked fue on (lie vegetable gluten in ooniact 
with the bottom of the still, is somewhat counteracted by 
the rotation of chains in the large wash-stills; but it may 
be entirely prevented by placing the still in a bath of strong 
> Union of muriate of lime RK, Jig. I, regulated by a ther- 
mometer or, stdl belter, a thermostat. Th and 
effectual temperature of from '270° to 290° Fahr. may rea- 
dily be obtained. For further details, see the specification 
of Dr. Urc's patent stilL 

The quantity of proof spirit which paid duty in 183G was 
twenty-seven millions of gallons, thirteen indiions of whieh 
were made in Great Britain, and fourteen millions in Ire- 
land. Of the latter. able quantity was imported 
into tins island. The manufacture of whiskey does not 
seem to have been diminished in this count r) I 
in the United States by the influence of the temperance 

In 1332 .. 20,778,521 gallons paid excise duiv 

1834 ,. 23,.1 f ) 7,806 „ 

1836 .. 27,137,000 
showing an increase which is far out of proportion with 
that of the population. We may add to the last quantity 
three in ill ions of gallons on the score , in 

Licensed and illicit mslilleries; making thirty millions io bo 

the real amount of whiskey consumed by our population of 
twenty four millions. [Brandy, Gin, Rum, T 
• i:y 1 


DISTORTION, Deformity of tlie i ersoij may he advan- 
tage -■ ed for the purp rider two 
principal heads: mafformutinn and distortion. The former 
is, for the m »t part, congenital, a ill* chara 
ized by ihe deficiency or redundancy of pa imperfec- 
tion* and ii regularities of structure. The latter, arising 
generally afier birth, comprises all permanent deviations 
from the natural shape or position which are effected by the 
iniluem-e of external or interna] force in parts originally 
soft and flexible, or such as have acquired unnatural pliancy 
by accident or disease. 

It is to the latter class of deformities only that our atten- 
tion is for the present directed. Rut even thus Limited, 
the subject is so extensive that we must once for all refer 
the reader for more precise information on several of its 
most interesting subdivisions Io oilier professional works. 

I. Ever) r part of the body capable of independent motion 
is furnished with two sets of muscles, acting in contrary di- 
rections, the purpose of which is obviously to bring the part 
back to its place after movement in either direction. In 
the position of equilibrium these muscles are not in a atato 
of absolute relaxation even dor ins sleep; on the conttarj, 
they continue to act with considerable energy, ea h exactly 
counterbalancing the other. This is called their tone or 
tension, and it is calculated to give great steadiness to the 
part thus held at rest between opposite forces. But if one 
Bel oi the muscles should be suddenly cut across, the ten- 
sion of their antagonists still remainm.* m actio O, the con- 
nee would be a movement in obedience to ihe lalier 
till the contraction had reached its limit; and the part in 
question would permanently retail the position into which 
it bad thus been moved. The same effect would result if 
the muscle, instead of being divided, wen paralyzed by the 
interruption of its nervous communication with the bi 
Again, if the lone of one muscle were increased I 
or otherwise, so as to give it a decided 
its an the result would be similar. These con 

rations will suthciently explain the nalure of one lar^e class 
of distortions, namely, tho*e which result from affections 
of the brain, muscles* and fierce*. 

D I S 


D I S 

t. The simplest of these is the drawn mouth* or heim* 
plegia* It (irises in this way : m consequent- irava- 

sation of blood or some other cause, the Ai net io 1 1 - 
of the brain are interrupted ; the mnaclea of the- cheek on 
the same side, deriving their nerves from that part of the 
bruin, are paralyzed, and the retractors of the opposite angle 
of the intmili being no longer balanced by an equal Eb 
draw it up towards their origin* and retain it in that position* 

2, Strabismus, or squint in g, is frequently produced in I he 
same way by a partial paralysis of that muscle the other of 
which is to turn the globe of the eye in the opposite direc- 
tion, or it may arise from undue contraction of the muscle 

, on the same side, 

3, It is remarkable that hysteria is sometimes accompa- 
nied by a distortion of the last-mentioned kind, produced by 
a spasmodic contraction of the flexor muscles uf one of the 
joints, commonly the knee or Lip. Fur months or years 
(nil painful condition may last without mitigation: yet it 
may vanish all at onoe under the inlluenee of some power- 
ful impression of the body or mind. The entire loss of the 
voice, which sometimes comes on suddenly in similar con- 
stitutions, and after long resisting every remedy , as sud- 
denly departs, is probably an analogous affection of the 
muscles of the larynx. 

j //;■//-,• wck i> a distortion also due to irregular mus- 
cular action* It generally comes on gradually in infancy, 
and i a shortened and contracted state of the sttr- 

mhfimtoid muscle, ©f thai ilde to which the head is in- 
dined and from which the face is turned. Clubfoot is 
often nothing more than a similar contraction of the muscles 
of the calf, which draw up the heel and eventually disturb 
the integrity of the ankle joint. This complaint also comes 
on at an early age, and is sometimes congenital. By 
proper means they both admit of relief, and often of a cure. 

The list of distortions depending on a morbid condition of 
the muscular or nervous functions might easily be extended. 

IL But by far the most common and important class of 
these affections is that which originates in disease of the 

1. The firmness and rigidity of the bones depends upon 
the duo proportion of the earthy mailer, phosphate of lime, 
that enters into their composition. If the proportion of 
this fn gradient be too great, as in old age, and in the disease 
called fragilitaM ossit/m, they become brittle, and are broken 
by the slightest causes; if it be too small, they heroine un- 
naturally pliant* and are distorted by the pressure of the 
superincumbent weight, or the contraction of the muscles. 

The latter condition is prevalent with Other structural 
changes in the disorder called rickets; The medical name 
of this complaint is rachitis (from pa\*r, the spine), and was 
given to it by Glisson, who first described it, partly because 
he conceived the vertebra? to be the bones most commonly 
implicated ; but chiefly, it would appear, from the resem- 
blance to the English name, His doctrine was erroneous; 
and the error perpetuated by the misnomer has led to 
serious mistakes in practice as well as theory, The spine 
is undoubtedly liable to partake with the rest of the skele- 
ton in the mo ibid condition of rickets, but certainly not in 
a greater degree than the other bones. 

This malady seldom appears within the ordinary period 
of lactation, or after puberty. It is ushered in and attended 
throughout by general febrile disturbance, and is cl" 
connected with a peculiar morbid condition of r lie nun, 
functions. The opinion that it is of scrofulous origin has 
lately been strongly cyntroverted, and does nol in reality 
appear to be well supported by facts. It is most common 
among the poor, and in closely -peopled districts, as all the 
d leases of children are; but it is | is confined to 

r, or to children whoae constitutions are apparently 
the most feeble in other respects. Indeed it is a frequent 
remark, that the most robust and powerful men exhibit 
tokens of having been rickety in then childhood. Among 
such indications are small uess of the pelvis, with in war d Ot 
outward curvature and disproportionate shortness of the 
lower limbs. This sudden check to the development of the 
skeleton, constantly observed in rickety children, with the 
distortion arising from the unnatui M of the bones 

is the most usual cause of the short stature, as well as the 
proverbial ugliness* of dwarfs. 

In extreme cases of this complaint the head is generally 
small and pointed: no Longer supported by the yield 
and shortened neck, it links down bet* 
the occiput is thrown back and almost touches the hump 

1 firmed by the incurvated spine behind the chest: (he chin 
is thrust forward, giving an expression to the feature 
characteristic of the dwarf, and reata upon the breast bone, 
winch is very prominent : on each side the ribs are flat- 
tened, and bulge in upon the lungs. The shoulders, losing 
the support of the wreathed and twisted clavicles, approach 
towards each other in front, drawing with them t[ 
pulic, which stick out laterally, and acid considerably to the 
deformity us seen from behind; the anus, though bent and 
in reality shortened, seem of disproportionate length; the 
lumbar spine is thrust inwards ; the pelvis is small and tlat- 
tencd ; the thighs are bowed forward; the knees, with their 
patellae at the side instead of in front of the joint, touch or 
overlap each other; while the feet me set wide apart, a 
sudden twist above the ankle still permitting the i 
be set lo the ground. Such are some of the varied changes 
which exhibit a melancholy proof of the prevalence of the 
disease in every part of the bony frame, and almost defy 
description. Of course such extreme cases of rickety djfr 
tort ion are comparatively rare ; yet almost daily ine 
are seen by those whose duty calls them into the un 
some courts and alleys of the metropolis, and slighter ex- 
amples of the affection are extremely common. 

Rem very, even from considerable degrees of this alfl 
is more frequent and rapid than might be imagined; but 
the pelvis and lower limbs, which, as above mention 
the most commonly and extensively implicated, seldom 
completely regain their natural proportions. This fact, as 
it regards the female pelvis, is wormy of notice, be. 
cause of by far the must dangerous kind of ditlicult 
i ition. It is in extreme cases of this tort that the Cm 
section has been practised. 

Independently of rickety distortion, there are two other 
kinds of curvature of the spinal column which demand a 
brief notice. 

The first, which has frequently been mistaken for rat 
is usually called lateral c u nature, to distinguish it from the 
inure serious kind of distortion next to be considered, which 
is called angular curvature. 

2. Unlike rickets, which almost always commence in in 
fancy or early childhood, lateral curvature of th< 
seldom appears before the tenth year. The external de- 
formity consists in the prominence of one hip (generally the 
right i, and elevation of the corresponding shoulder, the 
of which sticks out in unsightly protuberance behind. The 
opposite hip and shoulder are respectively flattened and de- 
pressed; and the symmetry of the chest is destroyed, oue 
side being larger than the oilier, and both twisted and mis- 
shapen. On examination the spine is found to have a 
double curvature sideways so as lo resemble the letter S, 
but generally turned the other way, the concavity of the 
lower curve being on the right, and the upper on the left 
side. It arises from weakness in the spinal muscles and 
local elongations of the ligaments of the vertebrae, from the 
habit of resting the weight in sitting or standing more on 
one side than the other ; and that side is usually the right. 
The position is more easy than the upright one, and when 
not corrected by fitting exercise and change in the nature 
of the employment, it becomes habitual, and the twist of 
the person permanent and increasing. The subjects of tins 
kind of distortion are chiefly slender and delicate twirls in 
the middle and upper classes, the poor heing eotnpar 
exempt. It conies on insidiously, the attention not being 
awakened by any particular derangement el" the health 
beyond a certain degree of languor and susceptibili 
fatigue, and perhaps a sluggish state of the digestion. The 
first symptom that betrays its presence is usually a ten- 
dency of the dress to slip off the left shoulder. It is much 
promoted hj moani often used to prevent it, such a 
linemeui and restraint of the person and posture by 
trda, high-backed chairs, reclining on a board 
other contrivances to improve the figure, and ri 
development of the natural form; as well as bv 
tary habits and inappropriate exercises of the n< 
Of school-room. Nature i? not to be coerced with impu- 
hataetk caprices und contrivances: a good 
dih must be found, if anywhere, 
open air of the fields, in loose and easy clothing, n 
nneonstreine ., a* chi&rci 

aiwaja adopt, ji lei ose far themselves, in wnya much 

.1 strength than an 
Kited for thorn* 

mtnre of the 

D I S 


D I S 

dinVrent in i and appearance from the lost 

ifecnbttd* Ii arises for the must pari from ulceration 

uf i scrofulous kind in the bodies of the vertebra. The 

<t)^ ilius lust, the spine is sharply bent 

of the spinous processes pro- 

I -it ion of i\ d vertebrw, 

ittended with incomplete paralysis of the 

[infrequently fatal. In cm 

recovery the bodies of the contiguous vertebra are approx- 

J wnli what remains of those which 

ion of bony matter. It is in 

ssof eotnal complaint only that rest and the recum- 

are expedient, The observance of these essen- 

ons t tvwith other means frequently 

in distortion however is permanent. 

Lmilar kind frequently occur m the bones 

and other parts of the oody ; they require similar 

ad are followed by analogous consolidnti dqi 

nn, and other disorders, and even common 
curring in a high degree within the joints 
•nrhood, occasionally produce like effects, 
is are sometimes occasioned by the eontiac- 
Uon of other parts than those which are concerned in motion. 
'• those of the lingers which arise from chronic 
mflawtiati ui and permanent contraction of the palmar 
asoneoiu&is, or fascia, a strong inelastic und fibrous mem- 
brane attached to the projecting points of hone, and 
irfced beneath the skin of the palm for I he protection 
of the nerve* and other soft parts during the act of forcible 
flapping. There is a similar aponeurosis in the sole of the 
which is subject, but not so frequently, to the same 
Under this division may I lasted those 

is which arise from burns and other extensive de- 
wru< I ulcerations of the skin, in consequence of 

ir in the process of healing. When 
take place in the front of the neck and face, 
thi* resulting is sometimes frightful. The space 

:un and the breast is filled up by a tense dis- 
tehwred and corrugate 1 cicatrix, which bows the head fcr> 
«ac4 and draws down the features so as to expose the inner 
»ar£tre of the lower eyelid and keep the mouth constantly 
spen. When they occur iti the flexures of the joints as in 
taut of the t cicatrix extends in the loriu of a 

fcardend rigid web between the humerus and fore arm, the 
rmanently bent. Such deformities may some- 
tune* W partly removed by an operation; but it b 
tiensely painful, and often unsuccess 

i jury of the race below the eye, or the simple 

iii- oilier cause of the skin of that part 

oay |*ro»l itty called eclropium, or eversion of 

the tower lid ; and the opposite state of inversion [entropium, 

r* suit from a similar contraction of the 

I itself. Severe mltammation, and even 

buodnes*. may be the consequence of the latter affection 

from the friction of the lashes against the globe. H»lh of 

tfcewdcfjrv be remedied by a slight operation 

J\ ma) arise from external 

pasture; as of the bones and cartilages <>t ;: from 

UgfctsfaT- the phalange* of the toes from ill-made 

id of distortion must be familiar 

>r no particular explanation or remark. 

3 ' dbtnetio,' in the jurisprudence of the 

egal compulsion generally, whether 

aode of compulsion extensively 

sttons of Teutonic origin was the 

ting possession of the whole or a part of the property of 

CsW own . md withholding it from him 

law bad been complied with, 
railed * naani/ from nyinan, 
aehr: o the An?: 

Gtruiui, and The modern dis- 

ihe to the taking of pej 

; and in it* most simple form it maybe stated to 
sonai chattels out of the possession of 
doer fur the purpose of 
. >ugh the inconvenience resulting from the 
trsonal chattels, to perform the 

liiulter, or to make compensa* 

be luis committed. 

&xne rights lo ■ the remedy bj 

.in'rw^ », i as too important to be left 

I by the mere detention of the rffr- 

*kU'h term the thing taken is also designated), 

and more efficacious means of dtaling uith it have been 
introduced; and in certain cases a sale of the property 
taken by way of distress ■> allowed, i£ after a certain interrai, 
the party distrained upon continues to be unwilling or 
unable to do the act required. 

Distresses Me either tor some duty omitted, some default 
or nonfeasance, — or they are in respectof some wrongful act 
done by the distrain 

I. At to distresses for omissions, dfifauU^^ or nonfeasance. 
— These may be grounded upon noncompliance with some 
judicial requirements, or they may be made by private indi- 
viduals m vindication of certain lights, for the withholding 
of which the law has entrusted them with this remedy. 

The process out of courts of record ordering 8UCU dis- 
tresses to be made is called a writ of distringas, which, when 
legal proceedings were in Latin, was the word used to direct 
the sheriff or other officer to make the diet) 

Another class of judicial distresses is where, upon refusal 
or omission to pay a sum in which a parly is convicted upon 
a summary proceeding before justices of the peace, such 
justices are empowered to grant a warrant authorising and 
directing the levying of the amount by distress and sale of 
the goods of the offender. 

Another species of judicial distress is that awarded and 
issued upon a judgment recovered in an inferior Court, QOl 
of record. In these caves the execution or remedy for 
obtaining payment of the sum recovered is by distress. A 
precept issues to the officer of the court, commanding him 
to take the goods of the party, and lo impound tbein until 
he satisfies the debt. Such process issues at the command 
of the sheriff or of the lord of the manor, &.e„ in whoso 
name and by whose authority the courts are holdcrt, 

So a distress lies, subject to certain restrictions, for fines 
and amercements imposed in the sheriff's tourn and in a 
oourt-leet, [Leet; Tourn.] 

A penally inflicted for the breach of a bye-law [Bye Law] 
may be levied by distress, in cases where that remedy ia ap- 
pointed at the time of the making of the particular lye law. 
But a bye law establishing a distress cannot authorize 
sale of the distress. 

Another species of judicial distress is a distress taken 
for poor-rates. [Poor.] 

In the foregoing cases the right or duty withheld has 
been ascertained by some judicial determination 

ii be resorted to. But many payments and 
duties having their origin iu feudal rights, maybe enforced 
by distresses token by the sole authority of the parlies clutni* 
ingsuch payments or duties. The rights, of which the vnv 
tlicaliun is thus in the first instance entrusted to the parties 
themselves, are connected immediately or mediately with 
feudal superiority ; and it is observable that to feudal supe- 
riority, jurisdiction and magisterial authority were alw 

Among the feudal duties which may be enforced by dis* 
tress, at the more will of the party claiming to be entitled to 
such duties, one which though seldom exacted, is still of lhe 
mosl extensive obligation, is fealty. Fealty is a pronu-e 
confirmed bj an oath, to be faithful in the performance of 
thus,- into which the parly doing the i 

(as i lie net of taking the oath is termed) has expressly or 
impliedly entered upon becoming tenant to the part/ re- 
ceil ing the fealty. 

A distress also lies for suit of court, secta ad curiam, 
01 lhe attendance which freehold tenants owe tu their 
lord 1 ! comi -baron, or fieeholders'-court, and which tenants 
in viUenage or copyholders owe to the lonl^ 
ternary court ; and it is not unusual for lessees for 
tant to attend the lord*s courts, though 
Unless the] also till the situation of freeholders of the 
manor, they are not qualified I suitors and jud 

in the court baron ; and unless they are copyholders 
they cannot be sworn upon the homage or jury in the 
Customary court This suit is sometimes called suit- 
service, to distinguish it from suit real, which is that sun ui' 
court which the resiants, or those who dwell within a hun- 
dred or a foot, owe to the sheriff's toura or to the court- 
bssrt [Leet; Suit.] 

A distress lies for suit of mill (secta ad molendinum), an 
obligation, still existing in some manors, to grind at the 
lord's mill. 

So for frankfoldage, or a right in the lord to require his 

Hi to fold their sheep upon bis lands. 
So, if land be holden by the tenure ot repairing a bridge* 
or a highway, or of doing suit to bl \ae\, ox xv&\xy^ wa&wL 

D I S 

ni s 

within the leet, a distress will lie for nonperformance of the 
service, aHhough no fine or amercement may have been im- 
poted in tlie court leet. 

The most important feudal duty fur which a distress may 
he taken is rent. Rent, in its original and still most usual 
form, is a payment rendered b Hint to his landlord 

as an equivalent or a compensation f< «r the occupation of 
land,&c Such rent is denominated rent- service* It comes 
in heu of, and represents the profits of the land granted or 
demised, and is therefore said to issue out of the land. To 
rent-service the law annexes the power of distress, although 
there be no agreement between the parties creating that 
remedy. But a rent reserved upon a grant or demise < I 
to be a rent-service if it he disatuiexed from the ultimate 
property in the land, called in some cases the reversion, in 
oi hen, the right of reverter. Thus, if the owner of land in 
fee demises it far l term of years, reserving rent, and after- 
wards assign b the rent toastranger, retaining the reversion, 
or grants the reversion, retaining the rent, the rent being 
disconnected from the reversion is considered as a branch 

red from the trunk, and is called a dry rent or rem- 
it, to whirli the common law annexed no power of dis- 
tress. So, if the owner of the land, without parting with the 
laud, grants to another a rent out of the land, the grantee 
having no reversion had only a rent-seek, unless the grant 
expressly created a power of distress, in which ease the rent 

id be a rent-i'harge. But now, by statute 4 Geo. II. 
18, s. 5, the like remedy by distress is given in cases of 
rem of rent reserved upon lease. 

And us all rents, though distinguished by a variety of 
names derived from some particular circumstance attached 
to them, are resohable into rent-service, rent-seek, or rent- 
charge, a d ist r es s lies sit tins day for every species of rent, 
though a practical difference, still subsists as to the mode of 
dealing with distresses taken for the one or for i he other. As 
to the several species of rent. Slid as to the creation, transfer, 
apportionment, suspension, ami extinction of rents, and 
the estate or interest of the pert} J to support a 

distress for rent, and as to Ihe cases in which this remedy 
maybe exercised by the personal representatives of such 
parties see Rent. 

A heriot appears to have been originally a voluntary gift 
hy the dying vassal to his chieftain or lord (hprr, herus) of 
his best horse or armour. It has now become a legal lia- 
bility to deliver the best animal of the deceased tenant to 
be selected by the lord, or sometimes a dead chattel or a 
commutation in money. Where heriot is due by 111 
within a particular district, in respect of all tenants 
Elg within that district, without reference 1o the pro- 

v held, it is heriot-CUStom ; and as there is no par- 
ticular Innd charged with the heriot, the lot dis- 
train, but may seize Ihe heriot as his own property, his 
election being determined by the hare act of seizure. But 
heriot dtt( el of the estate of the tenant in the land 
is heriot service; and for this the lord may eil her distrain 

i the land to compel the tenant to deliverer procure the 
delivery of the heriot due upon the death of his predecessor, 
or he may choose for himself, and seize the heriot as his own 
property (toe right of property vesting here also upon the 
eleel ion exercised and sign i tit »d hy Lie). 

As heriot is something rendered upon the death of a 
tenant, so relief is a payment made by the heir Q] on the 
taking up (relevatio) hy him of the inheritance. Strictly 
speaking, relief was payable in those cases only where (he 
tmure was by knight's, service. But the name was after- 
wards extended to a payment in the nature of a relief made 
bj the heir m socage, by doubling the rent for the Jlrsr 
after the descent of the land,- in other words hy paying one 

d rent Fur this payment a di- 
Toll is a charge or impost upon goods in respect of 
benefit conferred or right fori li relation to tl 

goods, by the party claiming such toll. 

Tolls of fairs or markets are a duty payable to the owners 
of the fair or market as a compensation for the mischief 
done to the soil hy the holding of such lair or market. 

Toll- traverse is a compensation paid in s* to the 

owner of the soil in respect of the transit ax pusaf 
Toll-thorough is a toll for the transit of px 

iired hy the party claiming the 
Port-toils, mure commonly called port-dul 
abb i >min" to or sailing from a port or a 

what f of which the part, \g the tolls, or tho*e from 

8 their title to such tolls, arc the owners, 
the toll be withheld, anr part of the 

property chargeable therewith, may be seized and detained 
as a pledge for the payment of such toll. 

II. Distress Jar damage feasant. — Besides distresses fot 
omissions, defaults, or nonfeasance, this remedy is given in 
certain cases as a mode of obtaining reparation for some 
wrong done by the distrainee. Cattle or dead chattels may 
be token and detained to compel the payment of a reason- 
able sum of money by way uf satisfaction for the injurf 
sustained from such cattle or dead chattels being wrong- 
fully upon properly in the occupation uf the party taking 
ihenu and doing damage there, either by acts of spoliation 
or merely by incumbering such property. This is called a 

tltngl taken damage-feaiant (doing dam. 

The oecupier of land, &c, is allowed not only to < 
himself from injur? by driving out or removing the cattle* 
&e., but also to detain the thing which did the injury till 
compensation be made tor the trespass; for otherwise he 
mignf never find the person who had occasioned the tres* 
pass. Upan referring to Spelman and Ducange, it will 
be seen that a limilsr practice obtained on the continent 
amongst the Angli, Werini. Ripuarii, and Bur^undians. 

The right tD ifistrain darnage-feasant is given to all per- 
sons having an immediate possessory interest in 1 1 
or in its produce, and whose rights are therefore invaded 
by such wrongful intrusion. Thus, not only the occupier 
of the land trespassed upon, hut other persons en titled to 
share in the present use of ihe land or of the produce, as 
commoners, &c, may distrain. But though a commoner 
may always distrain the cattle, &c. f of a stranger found 
upon the common, it would seem that he cannot, unless 
authorized by a special custom, distrain the cattle, &c«, 
of the person having the actual possession of the soil MM 
can he distrain the cattle of another commoner who has 
stocked beyond bis proportion, unless the common be stinled, 
j less the proportion be limited to a certain number* 
In the more ordinary case of rights of common in respect 
of all the cattle which the commoner's enclosed land can 
support during Ihe winter, cattle exceeding the proportion 
cannot he dish-nined. 

Callle found trespassing may he distrained dai 
feas ant, although they have come upon the land without 
the knowledge of their owner and even through the wrong* 
ftil art of a stranger. But it I hey are there by the default 
of the occupier of the land, a* by his neglecting to repair 
ices, or lo shut his gates against a road or a close m 
which the cattle lawfully were, such negligent occupier 
cannot distrain unless the owner of the cattle sutTei 
to remain on the land after notice and time given to hue 
to remove them ; and if cattle trespass on one day and ge 
off before they are distrained, and are taken trespassing 
on the same iand on an oi her day, they can he detained 
only for the damage done upon the second day. 

Cattle, if onee off the land upon which they have tres- 
though driven off for the purpose of eluding a die- 
• nnnt be taken even upon immediate pursuit. The 
occupier is left to his remedy by action. 

III. What mat/ bt> <■' —Not only cattle and dead 
chattels, but wild animals in which no person has any pro- 
perty mty be distrained damage-feasant. In il 

rent and other duties, that which is taken must he some- 
thing in which a valuable property mav exist. But ani- 
P I u iM nature, if reclaimed and become vs 
i kept in a private park), may he distrained. AY 
animals reclaimed for the purpose of pleasure o 
di- trained appears to admit of doubt. Lord Coke mi 

tuong the animals upon which no distress can be 
taken; but in the old work railed the Mirror, to wh 
refers, the restriction would appear to be confined Id 
where other distress could be taken. 

Fixtures and growing crops not being personal chattels 

were not at common law subject to distress. But it would 

that those fixtures which are removable, as be- 

mdiord and tenant, would he also liable to be taken 

as a distress; and hy 11 Geo. IL c\ 19, L 8, distri 

rent-service may be made of all sorts gf com and grass, 

its, fruit, pulse, nr Other product whfttsoi 

inc in an) pari of the land demised. 
By the common law nothing could he distrained upon 
or other duty thai could not he restored in ns good 
plight as at the time of (he d ing taken 

and other matters of a 
nature eouM not he distrained, nor money unl 
because the Identical pieces could not bt» known so i 
restored to the distrainee • nor could grain or flour be isken 

4 ««il of the sjsjifc hi a burn, or curn in 

lilt? aticaC because the quantity could nut be i 
taaed. and i Ley night bo scattered or injured by the 
jteaurtl. Nune of these could be taken as a distress except 
fir damage- feasant, though the jamo articles when 
IOO0I in htfugs, boxes, carts, or buildings might be (list ruined 

But now by 2 W. St M. seas, 1, c, 
JefnsM may be made of sheaves or cocks of corn, or corn 
k*e*ot r hay lying or being in any barn or 

penary, ur upon anv hovel, stack or rick, or otherwises upon 
•y part of the hind. 

WW« a stranger > cattle are found upon the tenant's 

bad they may be J upon for rent si \ ice, pi 

ifces aic there by the act or default of the owner of such 

If they come upon the land with the knowledge of 

then" ©w ing fences which are in repair, 

...■:!. r the landlord nor the tenant is bound to 

nrpair, they are immediately distrainable; but if they come 

io through defect of :.ieb the lord or tenant is 

bcund to repair, the lord cannot take them (or rent 1 < 

spun* lease 1 for a night upon the land, 

i#if until a*.' 1 to the owner, if he can be dis- 

lu 1 belli. But in the case of a lord not 

repair the femes distraining for an antient rent 

and also in the aaaa of a rent-chargej the cattle 

a taken, after they have lain a night upon the Land, 

. ir owner. 

oeaaary for the carrying on of trade, as tools 

for the maintenance of tillage, as imple- 

uf husbandry, beasts of the plough, and sheep as 

to manure the land, arc privileged from di 

,1 other sufficient distress can be found. But this rule 

vt extend to a distress tor a toll or duty arising in 

iff the thing taken as a distress, or of things con- 

with it ; as a distress of two sheep for uiurket-ndl 

J in respect of the whole flock* or of the anchor of a 

iCJp §or fort-duty due in respect of such ship. 

far the protection of tradesmen and their employers in 

transactions of society, properly of which the 

obtained the possession with a \iuw to some 

to he performed upon it by him in the way of Ins 

itcly privileged from distress; as a horse 

landing in asm to be shod, or put up at an inn, 

ardath tent fir a tailor*! hop to be nude into clothes, or 

am sent to a mill or market to be ground or sold, The 

nd* of a srueet at an inn are privileged from distress ; 

m does not extend to the case of a 1 
ciading in the coach-house of a live keeper; nox 

ect goods on other promises belonging to the 
as hut at a distance from it ; anil even within the inn 
osrff the exemption does not extend to the goods of a 
srnca dwe * as a tenant rather than a guest. 

is in the bands of n factor for sale are privileged from 
1 goods consigned for sale, landed at a wharf, 
• house. 
of the pi ined where no other 

in he found. Am) 11 1- raiaur 

to ftnd some other distiess. A disl 
unless it be accessible to the party en 
St dtftmin, the doors of the house being open, or thi 
tha field* unlocked. Beasts of the plough may be dis- 
upun ehere the only other sutricicnt distiv 
of growin 1 though now subjected to 

not, as they cannot be sold until ripe, uni 
to the landlord, 
temporary privdege from distress arises when the 
use, as an axe with which a man is 
wuori ■ on which a man is riding. Iinple- 

tn trade, as frames for knitting, weaving. &i 

l>t they are in actual 
osl otherwise they may be distrained upon if no other 

whereby the goods of any 
isjhiassalia «r cii of any foreign prince 

traoalr tic servants, maybe distrained, 

«S**i, t to be null and void. But 

Uttritilege of a tenant of an ambassador does 

rent, rate, or taxes of a 
uner ted with I lie tea 
c. Jii, a. 74, no distress for rent made and 
afief an a kniptcy upon the goada of any 

Icakmpt abail be u\ ail»ble for more than one 

tbe date of the Hut , but the party to 

1 the rent is due shall be allowed to come in as a 
creditor lor the overplus of the rent due, and for v 
s shall not be available* 
Where a tenancy fur life or at will is determined by death 
or by the act of the landlord, iho tenant, or his p« 1 
representatives, may reap the corn sown before such del 

iiiou, and therefore such corn though sold to a thud 
person, cannot he distrained upon for rent duo from a sub- 
sequent tenant. [Emblements,] 

Neither the goods of the tenant nor those of a stranger 
can be distrained upon fur rent if they are already in The 
custody of the law, as if they have been taken dams 

nU Of under process of execution. But although ihe 
landlord Cannot distrain, yet Ly 8 Ann. c. 14, he has a lieu 
or privilege upon the goods of his lenant taken in execu- 
tion for one year's rent- [Execvtio.v.] 

IV. Time * / making a ekttren* Kent is not due n 
the last moment of the day on whieh it is made payable. 
No di 1 be taken for it until the follu 

day. And as a continuing relation of landlord and tenant 
is necessary to support a distress for rent-service, 1: 

d at common law be no distress for rent becoming due 
on the last day of the term. But now, by b Ann. o. l-J, s. 6 
and 7, any persons having rent in ai rear upon leases for lives, 
for yean, or at will, may, alter the determination 
lease, distrain for the arrears, provided that such di 
made within six calendar mouths after the determine, 
of the lease and during the continuance of the land! 
title or interest, and the possession of the tenant from 
whom such arrears are due. If the possession of the ten 
continue in fact, it is immaterial whether l] jion 

be wrontrful and adverse, or whether it continues by the 
permission of the landlord; and if a part only of the "land 
remain in the possess ion of the tenant, or of any person 
deriving his possession from the tenant, a distress for the 
whole of the arrears may be taken in such part during the 
sil months. Where a tenant is entitled by the terms of 
his leas* 1 , or by the custom of the country, to hold over 1 
of the laud or buildings for a 1 pond the 

nominal term, the original tenancy will be considered as 
continuing with reference to the land, &,e. so retained, and 
the landlord may distrain at common law for the arrears 
during such extended period in the landl id over, 

and he m under the statute during six months 

martial right of possession lias entirely ceased. 
When different portions of rent are in arroar the landlord 
may detrain for one or more of those portions, without 
being his right to take a subsequent distress for the 
sidue; so, although the first distress be for the rent last 
due. But inhere be a sufneie a to be found upon 

the premises, the landlord cannot a rent accruing at 
one tune iufo parts, and distrain first for a part and after- 
wards for the residue. If however he distrain for the entire 
rent, hill from mistaking the value of the goods 1 

ticient distress, it seems thai a second distress for the 
will bu lawful although there were sufficient 
good> on the premises to haw the whole demand 

at the time of LAO first taking; and it is clear that he may 
take such second distress upon t me 

upon the premises subsequent!) to the first taking, if m 
the first instance he distrain all the goods then found 
thereon uud for Ihe entire rent, the amount of which 1 
Of the good* first taL 
A distress for real or other duties or se. be 

taken only between sunrise and but cattle or 

- found, dai Jit may bo distrained at any time 

of the day or night 

By the common law the remedy by dist . n general 

lost upon the death of the pait\ i<- wh m it accrued! Uut 
the king and corporations aggregate never die; and as the 
law authorizes a surviving joint tenanj to act as if be had 
been' originally the sole owner, lie may distrain fur rent or 
other services accruing in the lifetime of his companion. 

The statutes of 32 JL VI11 a 37. :md 3 and 4 \V. IV. 
c, 42, have extended the remedy by distress to husbaj 
and executors m respect of rent accruing due to their 
deceased wives or testators. [H 1 

Nit distress can be taken Ibr more than six \cars* arrears 
of rent ; nor can any rent be claimed where eat 

lias been acquiesced in for twent) years, 3 and 4 \V. IV. c 2?. 

V. In what place a sftflraaf am be made. — The 
being given in respect of property, not of the person, a dis- 
ires* for rent or other aomoti could al ojuwu^ W \^ 

D I S 


D I S 

taken only upon the laud charged therewith, mid out of 
wind i such real or services were said to issue 

But this restriction did nut apply to ihe king, who might 
distrait] Upon any lands Which wens in the actual occupation 
of his tenant, either at the tune of the di ben the 

rent became due. 

The assumption of a similar power by other lords was 
considered oppressive, and it was ordained hy the statute of 
Bfarlbridge, Lbal no one should make distress for any cause 
out of his fee, except the kini; and h;s ministers thereunto 
specially authorised. The privilege uf distraining in all 
land- occupied h\ the party chargeable, is communicated 
hy 21 Car. II, c 6; 2fi Geo. HI. c§7; 30 Geo, III. > Mj and 
34 Go i I II. o ' ■'«. Co the purchasers of certain crown rents. 

At Common law if the tenant or any other person seeing 
the lord or his bailiff oome to distrain tor rent or other 
service* drove the Cattle away from the land holden, tbei 
might be distrained off the land. Not so when the cattle w ab- 
out being driven went off before lluy were actually taken, 
though the lord or hadiif saw the cattle upon the land 
(which for some purposes is a constructive possession). 
Nor if after the view the cattle were removed for any other 
purpose than that of preventing a distress. On the other 
band, cattle of which trie lord or bailiff has no view whilst 
they are on the land, although the ten nit drove them off 
purposely to avoid a distress, could not he distrained. 

Under 8 Ann. c. 14, and 11 Geo. II. c. 19, wli 
fraudulent!} or clandestinely carries off his goods in order 
to prevent a distress, the landlord may within five days 
afterwards distrain diem as if they hud still continued on 
the demised premises; provided they have not been (&ottd 
fide) sold for a valuable consideration. 

And hy the 7th section of the latter statute, where any 
goods fraudulently and clandestinely carried away by any 
tenant or lessee, of any person aiding therein, shall he put 
in any house or other place, looked up or otherwise secured, 
so as to prevent such goods from being distrained for rent, 
the landlord or his bailiff may, in the day time, with the 
assistance of the constable or peace officer (and in case of a 
dwelling-house, oath being also first made of a reasonable 
ground to suspect that such goods are therein)* break open 
and enter into such house or place, and take such goods 
for the arrears of rent, as he or they might have done if 
such goods had been put in an open Held or place. 

To entitle Ihe landlord to follow the goods, the removal 
must have taken place after the rent became due, and for 
the purpose of eluding a distress. It is not however neces- 
sary that a distress should he in progress, or even contem- 
plated. Nor need the removal be clandestine. Although 
the good-i be removed openly, yet if goods sufficient to 
satisfy the arrears are not left upon the premises, and the 
landlord is turned over to the bun en reined) by net ion, 
the is fraudulent and the provisions of these sta- 

resorted to. These previsions apply to the 
goods of the tenant only. The goods of a stranger or of 
an under-tenant may be removed at any tint they 

are actually distrained upon, and cannot be followed* 

Where iw> let by separate demises and separate 

, though such demises be made at the same time and 
wen contained in Ihe same deed, a distress cannot be 
taken in one * lose fur both id 

If a rent-charge or rent-service also issue out of land 
which is in the hands or separate possession of two or more 
persons, a distress may be taken for the whole rent upon 
the possession of any one of them. 

The lord may enter a house to distrain if the outer door 
be open, although there be other sufficient goods out of the 
bouse. It is not lawful to break open outer doors or gates; 
hut if ihe outer door be open, an inner door may be forced, 
And where the lord having distrained is forcibly expelled, 
he may break open outei in order to i> 

the distress. If a window be open, a distress Within reach 
may be taken out at n. 

At common law a distress might be taken for rent in a 
street or other highway being within the land demised. 
But now, by the statute of Marlbridge, private persons are 
forbidden to lake distresses in the highway. This statute 
applies only to distresses for rent or for services and not to 
Nor does the statute make the distress absolutely 
void ; for though the tenant may lawfully rescue cattle dis- 
trained in the highway, or may bring his action on the case 
upon the statute, yet if he brings trespass or replevin, it 
.s to be no answer to a justification or an avowry made 
in respect of the rent. 



No rent can be reserved out of an incorporeal heredita 
ment; and therefore at common law the lord could not 
distrain for rent in a place in which the tenant had i 
an incorporeal right— as a right of common. Hy 11 ( 
II. C. 19, s. 8, landlords are enabled to lake a distress for 
rent upon cattle belonging to their tenants feeding upon 
any common appendant or appurtenant to the land demised 
But in cases not within this enactment* the rule of the 
mon law applies ; and therefore upon a demise of a 
and the appurtenances, With liberty to land and loud _ 
the landlord cannot detrain the tenant's barges lying oppo- 
site and attached to the wharf. 

VI. Mod* qf making" a dittreti. — A distress maybe made 
either by the party himself or his ageni,aud us distresses in 
manors were commonly made by the bailiff of the man 
any agent authorised to distrain is called a bailiff. The 
authority given to ihe bailiff is usuall) in writing, and 
then railed S warrant or distress; but a verbal autln 
and even the subsequent adoption of the act by the party OH 
whose behalf tiic distress is made, is sufficient. In order 
that the d nay know what is included in the 

, an inventory of the goods should be delivered, aoc 
pauied, in the case of a distress for rent, by u 
the object of the distress, and informing the tenant that 
Unless the rent and charges he paid within five days, tbe 
goods and chattels will be sold according to law. This no- 
tice is ret j iiired by 2 W. & M«, sess. i. c. 5, s. 3, which 
'that where any goods shall be distrained tor rent due 
any demise, lease, or contract, and the tenant 

Muds shall not, within five days next after such di 
taken, and notice thereof with the cause of such takinj 
left at the chief mansion house, or other most notorial 
pl.i. l- on the premises, replevy the same, with suthcie 
security to be given to the sheriff,— that after such 
and notice and expiration of the five days, the person dis- 
tiainmg shall a with the sheriff or under-s 

with the constable of the place, cause the goods to be ap- 
praised by two sworn appraisers, and after such appi 
meat may sell the goods distrained towards satisfaction o 
the rent, and of the charges of distress, appraisement, aw 
sale, leaving any surplus in the hands of the sheriff, under- 
sheriff, or constable, for the owner's use.* 

At common law, goods distrained were, within a reason- 
able lime, to be removed to and confined in an enclosure 
called a pound, which is either a pound covert, I. e, a com- 
plete enclosure, or a pound overt, an enclosure sufficient! 
open to enable the owner to see, and, if neci 
Ihe distress, the former being proper for goods eaath 
moved or injured, the latter for cattle; and b) 
Will IV. e. 69, s. 4, persons impounding cattle or animals 
in li common open or close pound, or in enclosed ground 
ore to supply them with food, &c, the value of which the 
may recover from the owner. By II Geo. II. e. IS 
■*. in, goods distrained tor any kind of rent may be iui 
pounded on any part of the tenant's ground, to re: 
there five days, at the expiration of which tune they ai 
be sold, unless sooner replevied. Tbe laudlot how 

evet bound to remove the goods immediate!) alter the e 
ration of the five days; he is allowed a reasonable tune lor 
selling. After the lapse of a reasonable time he is a 

r if he retain the goods on the pre 
express assent of the tenant, which assent is gene rail 
given in writ!) 

The I and *2 Ph. & M., c. 12, requires that no distress 
<d" cattle be removed out of the hundred, except to a pouill 
overt in the same i A above three miles from 

place where inch distress is taken, and lhat no can. 
other goods distrained si one time be impounded in severe 
places, whereby ihe owner would be obliged to sue uut a 
ral replevins. 

The 2 Will & Mary, sess. 1, - directs that com 

i. or buy distrained be not removed, to the d 
the owner, out of the plate where the saint 
or seized, but be kept ihe re until re] I 
11 Geo. II. e. 19, which gives a distress for 
open growing orotic, directs, »< \ shall be 

cut, gathered, and laid up, when ripe, in the barn 
proper place on such premises, or if none, then in some 
other barn, &.c, to be procured for that purpose, and as 
near* as may be to the premises, giving notice within one 
week of the place where such crops are deposited; and if 
tenant, his executors, &c, at any time before the eropa 
distrained are ripe and cut, pay or tender the rent, costs, 

D I S 


D I T 

sad charges, the goods distrained arc to be restored. In 
all other r oi her duty be paid, or per> 

frrmed, or t* . be paid or performed 1>eforc t lie 

aWre** is impounded, a subsequent detainer is unlawful 
ind a subsequent impouiidiiig or driving to the pound is a 

>t«tutes authorising (lie sale of distresses extend 
only to I hose made for rent. At common law distresses 
cannot in general be either sold or used for tbe benefit of 
the i raining. But a distress fur fines and amercia- 

ments in a court loot, or for other purposes of public bene- 
lit, mat be sold ; and a OS tom or prescription will 

war talc of a distress in cases where the public has 

Bairn interest. 

TtL Ittz'r *$medm of the Distrainee.— A dtettom 

nude by a patty who has no right to distrain, or made for 
leniorothir service which the party offers to pay or per> 
tjna* or made in the public highway, or upon goods privi- 
leged from distress either absolutely or temporarily, is called 
a wrongful distress* Where to dutrain exist 

■ here the rent or duty is tendered at the time of the dis- 
tress, the owner of the goods may rescue ihem or take them 
*ut of the possession of the distrainer, or bring 
TJ of replevin, or of trespass, at his election, 
the cattle or goods taken are to bo rede- 
livered to the owner upon his giving security by a 
bond, for returning them to the distrainer, 
in ease s return shall be awarded by the court ; and 
therefore in this action damages are recovered only for the 
lattrmediate detention costs of the replevin bond, 

fRtrLSTtN.] In the action of trespass the plaintiff recovers 
damages to the full value of the goods ; because upon such 
feeov property in the goods is transferred to the 


The 2 W. £c M .. was. i. c. 5, s. 5, provides 'That in case 

of inv distress and sale fbr rent pretended to be due, where 

in truth do rent is due, tbe owner of the goods so distrained 

by action of trespass or upon the case, reco- 

value of such goods, with full costs of suit. 1 

I a wrongful distress in taking goods protected by be- 

n* t rt a street or highway, or goods privileged from distress, 

tie remedy is by an action on the statute, in which the 

abr tiled to an immediate return as in replevin. 

cattle or goods distrained cannot be found, tho 

tariff may take other cattle or goods in withernam (by 

of the same or of a different kind, 

to the distrainor, and deliver them to the dis- 

trasne*. f his own. 

f wrongful distress is recaption, or the 

g of the same or other zoods of the distrainee for the 

uae causes pending an action of replevin, in which the 

% of the fii is la questioned. 

afberrver a distress is wrongful, the owner of the goods 

air re h ue them from the distrainer; but after they are 

scfnaJly impounded, they are said to be in the custody of 

uW law, a >hide the determination of the law. 

Whether goods are rightfully or wrongfully distrained, 

Id take them out of the pound is a trespass and a public 

The proceeding by action is a more prudent 

than making a rescue, even before an impounding, 

there anv doubt exists as to the lawfulness of the distress* 

Independently of the danger of provoking a breach of tbe 

r's thus taking the law into his own 

aands, he will be liable to an action for the injury sustained 

1st) of tbe security of the distress, 
-ul'l the distress ultimatelv turn out to be lawful; and 
ta such action, as well as in trie action for poundbreach, the 
rttctoer will be liable, under 2 W. & M. scss. i. c. 5, a, 4, 
to tbe payment of tieble damages and treble c 

A distress for more rent, or greater services than are 

doe, or where the value of the property taken is visibly 

lie to the rent or other appreciable service, is 

i-rire distress* for which the party aggrieved 

t compensation in an action on the case ; 

bet be cannot rescue, nor can he replevy or bring trespass, 

■ ; , _ Iitfully taken being afterwards irregu- 
larif conducted, the subsequent irregularity at common law 
mad* the whole proceeding wrongful, and the party was 
end to be a trespasser * ah initio.' But now, by 1 1 Geo, 11., 
c *% where distress is made for rent justly due, and any 
Parity or unlawful act is afterwards done by the party 
>g or his agent, the distress itself is not to be 
unlawful nor the party making it a trespasser ; but 
. No. $35. 

the \ i leved by such irregularity, &c, may recover 

satisfaction for the special damage sustained. And see 
Brad by on Distresses; Gilbert, Distr. ; Bracion ; Vu 
Cuke upon Littleton; Bacon, Coinyns, and Yiner's /16r; 
menii ; YVillcs's Rejmrts ; 6 Neviie and Mann G06. 

DITCH. [Bastiox.] 

DiTH MARSH (D1TMARSKEN, Dan,), the most 
westerly of the four districts of tbe Danish duchy of IIol- 
stein, has the German ocean for its western boundary, and 
Holstein Proper for its eastern, to which last it was united 
in 1459. On the north the Eider separates it from the 
duchy of Sehleswig, and on the south the Elbe divide 
from the Hanoverian duchy of Bremen. Its area is about 
500 square miles, and its population about 47,000. It is 
protected against the inroads of the sea by strong dykes, is 
¥«rj productive in corn, pulse, LmseeuV &C., and rears a 
considerable number of cattle. Its subdivisions are the 
bailiwicks of North and South Dilhmarsh. North Dith- 
marsh has thirteen perishes and four market-towns, with a 
population of about 22,500. The principal town is ileydo, 
in the heart of the bailiwick, which has a spacious market- 
place, a church, and public school, with about 2900 inha- 
bitants, and is the seat of administration : the three other 
towns arc Lunden, near the Eider, with a church and 
school, and about 430 inhabitants; BQsum, OH tbe sea, with 
a church and harbour, and about 320 inh. ; and Weslu 
bursa, not far from iha sea, wiih a church and public 
school, ami about G-UI Lnh. Close to the latter is Schulpe, a 
well known to navigators, at the mouth of the Eider. 
South Di ill marsh is divided into thirteen parishes, and 
contains four market-towns, with a population of about 
24,909, Tbe chief town is Meldorf, at the mouth ef the 
Mielo; it is well built, and was formerly fortified, baa ■ 
handsome church, a grammar-school, three other schools, 
public gardens, and about 2020 inhabitants. The other 
towns are Wordcn, on an arm of tbe sea, with a small har- 
bour, a church, public school, and about 850 inhabitants ; 
Brun&biittel, on the Elbe, across which there is a royal 
with a church, custom-house, a public school, and 
about 1500 inhabitants; and Manic, with a church and 

public school, and about 7 jo inhabitants, 

DITHY RAMBUS, the name of a hymn in honour of 
Bacchus, sung by a chorus of fifty men or boys as they 
danced round the blazing altar of the god : from this pecu- 
liarity it was also called the cyclic or circling chorus. Tho 
original subject of the song 9a* the birth of Bacchus, as 
the name seems to have implied. (Plato, L$gg, iii.) 
Tbe music was Phrygian, and the accompaniment origi- 
nally the flute. (Aratot. Mtt, viii, 7, 'J. I The Dithy- 
rambus is particularly interesting from the circumstance 
that Aristotle attributes to it the origin of the Greek tra- 
gedy. 'Tragedy and comedy,* says he {Pftet* iv. I4) p 'having 
originated in a rude and unpremeditated manner, the first 
from the leaders in the Dithyrambie hymns, the other from 
the Phallic songs, advanced gradually to perfection. 1 These 
leaders (IZapxovrtQ), and not as has been wrongly inferred 
from the words of Aristotle, the whole chorus, recited tro- 
chaic tetrameters, and are to be considered as the immediate 
predecessors of the actors. [Drama.] In the Appendix to 
Welker's Treatise on the Trilogy (Nachtrag zur Schrr/t 
iifter die .Esthylisrhe TritogUh p. i2S, and following i, the 
reader will find a learned disquisition on tbe Dairy rambus, 
deformed however by some serious errors. After the lead- 
properties of the Ditbyrambua had merged in the Greek 
iv, it became vary bombastic, and in the Greek and 
even in modern languages the epithet Dithyrambie is a sy- 
nonym for turgid ami hyperbolical expressions. The ety- 
mology of the word is unknown. 

DiTRU'PA, a genus of Annelids, founded by tbe Rev. 
M. J. Berkeley, and which, from its having been previously 
eon founded with the species of an entirely distinct genus 
{Denttiliitm\ and some circumstances respecting its capture 
in a living state, requires particular notice. 

Qeneric < haracter* — Shell, free, tubular, open at both ends. 

Operculum fixed to a conical pcdicell a ted cartilaginous 
body, thin, testaceous, concentrically striate. 

Branchice 3 twenty two in two sets, not rolled up spirally, 
Hat, broadest at the base, feathered with a single row of cilia, 

MemtU rounded behind, slightly crisped, denticulated in 
front, strongtv i in either side. 

(bristles, six on each side, (Berkeley.) 

Mr. Berkeley states that a few of the specimens of sand, 
gravel, &c. from different parts of the great bank running 

D I T 


D I T 

parallel with the noi th-wcst coast of Ireland, obtained by 
Captain A, VhUvI, R N„ daring the extensive soundings 

de by thai officer in the summer of (£30, whilst ins, 
ol A it km 1 * Rock, pete placed in his bands when he found 
among them several specimens of the shell of a testa 
animal, which proved to be the Denfalium sulmhtum^ Des- 
hayes, and identical with the Madeira specimen*, the only 
points of difference being a paler hue, and an almost total 
pjbti of i he constriction near the orifice, the former being; 
as Mr Berkeley observes, exactly such as might be ex- 
pected from the occurrence of the species hi a higher lati- 
tude, and the latter so variable as m>t to throw any doubt 
on its specific identity. Having prevkraal] been convinced, 
f oni Mr. Lowe's specimen, thai ibe animal was not a Den- 
talium t but >', Mi. Berkeley requested Captain 

Yidal to preserve in spiffl during the following summer, when 
operations on the bank were to be resumed, whatever ani- 
mals lie should procure alive in sounding, and, if possible, 
specimens of the so-called Denta/tum, at the same time 
noting the depth at which they were taken. The result 
was the capture of theshell with the included animal, which 
enabled Mr. Berkeley to establish I be genus named at the 
bead of ibis article, The animals of the Madeira and Bri- 
h b I : aniens proved to be perfectly identical. 

Habits, depth, *fr, — It appears from Mr, Berkeley's paper* 
thai the shells first handed to him by Captain Vidal oe- 
eiUTsd in line sand, at various distances from the coast, in 
i||. 99*| at mat depths from 60 to ISO fathoms. After 
speaking of the animals preserved in spirit, and staling 
that Captain Vidal noted the depth at which each specimen 
was taken, Mr, Berkeley remarks that the so-called Detita- 
liu/n did not OOSUT at any le>^ depth than {,3% fat boms, and 
twice (on one occasion off St, Kdda) it occurred at 171 
fathoms, Nothing could be concluded us to habit, from the 
manner in which the shells were imbedded in tbe tallow 
(with which the lead was armed); but this was of the less 
consequence, says Mr. Berke use it bad appeared, 

from Mr, Lowe's information, that the animals are found in 
great numbers together, in loesses of a conglomerate (if it 

may be so called) of mud and ?arioUS marine subst, 
the broader end only appearing above the surface. Mr. 
Berkeley infers, from the great difference in the diameter, 
that the narrow or posterior end is gradually absorbed in 
the course of growth. 

Geographical Distribution— Madeira, British seas, and 
probably a much more extensive range. 

Place in the Animal Ssrtet. — Mr Berkeley is of opinion 
that, notwithstanding the resemblance of the shell to thai 
of true Dentalia, it is mosl nearly allied to Serpula; but 
evidently distinct, in having an unattached shell (for tl 
is no evidence to bad to g suspicion that it is attached, 1 ven 
in infancy i, as r posterior as wall 

as anterior aperture. Bethinks that other species of so- 
called Detituli a maybe found to belong to tho genus Di- 
intpa, One at least, he observes^ does so belong, viz., 
Dentalittm Qadv$ t Mont (IknL eoarelatum, Lam.), Mr. 
Berkeley thinks it highly probable that tbe other minute' 
British Lhrtf,i/ia will nrove DO possess an animal of like 
structure, though possibly, even in thai ease, it would be 
requisite to place lb em in'a distinct genus. 

BitTupi inboUta, mafnlfod. 

tl. ttie nUrovl t b. one of the bmn^lilar j e, a portion oflbe anterior port of 
llie maoSo; d, opereoJutti, {tool Jvum. Yol, r.) 

Example. Ditrupa subulata, Berkeley ; Denial turn subu- 
httum y Des haves. 

DITTANY OF CRETE, the common name of the 
labiate plant called Origanum Dictamnus or Amarucus Dic- 
tum nus, 

DITTON, HUMPHREY, an eminent divine and 
mathematician, was born at Salisbury , May 29, 1H75, He 
WSJ an only son ; and manifesting good abilities fol 
ing, his father procured for him an excellent private edu 
cation. It does not appear that he was ever at either of 
the universities, a circumstance owintr, probably, to the u«- 
h-ions principles of his parents. Contrary, it is und 
to his own inclination, but in conformity with his faiher* 
I, he chose the profession of theology; and hi 
eating pulpit for several years al Tunbridge with great 
credit and usefulness. 

His constitution being delicate, and the restraints of his 
father's authority moved- he also having married 

at Tunbiidge — be began to think of turning his tolen 
another channel. His mathematical attainments having 
pained for him the friendship of Mr. Whislon an 
Harris, they made him known to Sir Isaac Newton, by 
whom he was greatly esteemed, and by whose recommenda- 
tion and influence ho was elected mathematical mastt 
Christ's Hospital This office he held during th< 
his life, which, however, was hut short, as he died in i 
in the -10th year of his age. 

Ditton was highly esteemed amongst bis friends; and 

expectations were entertained that he wool 

proved one of the most eminent men of bis time. Re. 

er attained a high decree of celebrity, and published 

several works and pin Rsiderahle value, of which 

the following list contains tbe principal. 

1, On the Tangents of Curves &c, * Phil. Trans.,' 

% A Treatise on Spherical Catoptrics, in the 
Trans. 1 for 1705 ; from whence it was copied and re 
in the 4 Art a Eroditorum, 1 1 707. 

3. General Laws of Nature and Motion, Bvo. I To 

fius mentions this work, and says that it illustrates and 
renders easy the writings of Galileo, Huygens, and the 
* Principia 1 of Newton. 

4. An Institution of Fluxions, containing the first Prin- 
ciples, Operations, and Applications of that ad 
Method, as invented by Sir Isaac Newton, 8vo. 17 

5. In i;mj he published the ' Synopsis Algehreica* of 
John Alexander, with many additions and corrections, 

ft. His 'Treatise on Perspective' was published fn iri'2 
In this work he explained the principles of that art 
maticully; and besides teaching the methods then 
rally practised, gave the first hints of the new method after- 
wards enlarged upon and improved by Dr. Brook Taylor, 
and which ires published in ibe year 1715. 

7. In 1714 Mr. Ditton published several pieces, both 
theological and mathematical, particularly his 4 1 
on the Resurrection of Jesus Christ* and the * New Law of 
Hinds, or a Discourse concerning the Ascent ol I 
exact Geometrical Figures, between two nearly contiguous 
Surfaces.' To this was annexed a tract to demonstrate the 
impossibility of thinking or perception being Lt of 

any combination of the parts of matter and motion : a sub- 
jeel winch was much agitated about that tune. To this 
work was also added an advertisement from him and Mr 
OB concerning a method for discovering the longi- 

hicli ft seems they had published about hall 
This attempt probably cost our author his L 
though it was approved and countenanced by S 
a before it was | resented to the Board of L i 
and the method has since been successful! 
m finding the tongitude between Paris ami \ 
that board determined against it. The disappointment 
together with some ridicule (particularly in 
written by Dean Swift), so far affected his health, thai he 
died in the ensuing year, 1715 

In the account of Mr, Ditto; I to the German 

ion of his discourse on the Resurrection, it 
that he had published, in his own name only, 
method for finding the longitude; but ihi> Mr. \\ 
denied. However, Raphael Levi, a learned Jew. wl 
studied under Leibnitz, informed the German edit 

knew that Ditton and Leibnitz hud made a <! 
tiin of a ma* bine which he had invented for that purpose, 
that it was a piece of mechanism constructed with 

like a lock, and that Leibnitz highly ap] 

D I U 


D J V 

J n for laud use, but doubted whether it would answer 
unt of the motion of the ship. 
ire agents which augment the urinary se- 
ine bladder. They 
of substa n ees w 1 1 ic h , ho v, 
in their action, and require to be varied 
v on account of the effects which their lung 
be stomach and digestive func- 
i inty of their operation is owing probably 

less I inherent in them than lo our want of acquaint- 

ing with or attention to the circumstances which inttu- 
cao* their a* r »me writers disavow their belief in 

the i distinct class of substances eutiiled to 

considering Lhcra as mere general sti- 
»uL. le t as many of them, 

he from being stimulants, are decidedly sedative, while 
i which cause diuresis, such as fear or 
Lion of cold, are like \ 
on the sy 
In attempting to ascertain or account for their mode of 
tly War in mind the nature oJ the 
Yi , not only to remove from the 
v of its tii ml contents, but at the 
it number of saline and olber principles, the 
li, for any considerable time, in the 

and in some 
imtuecft sneedy death. Not only therefore must trn 

le proportion, but the quality 
tiution of it must also be of a proper kind. 
Any t.i the interference 

vi medicine it. In endeavouring to accomplish 

it must be borne in mind that, according to the 
lystem, sometimes an acid dial iesi predomi- 
nates, sometinn ^ an alkaline. The means which we employ 
Oj attain our object may be classified according to their pri- 
mary nodes of action on the system. Sumc are stimulant, 
is scopari us, alcohol, spirilus rotheris 
it of juniper, oil of turpentine, &cc. Same, again, 
lactuca viru a, leontodon taraxacum, 
jiU colchicum, &c« : otliers arc refrigerant, of 
vLl-1i surno render the urine acid, such as the dilute mine- 
si acids; some, on the opposite hand, render the urine aika- 
the carbonate of potass, acetate, tartrate and 
tfcjxtraie of potu certain >aline diuretics do not 

icid or alkaline, such as nitrate of potass, 

ua to act upon the lower 

1 the vegetative 

i as tb etlulax ue, the fatty structures, and 

ere ion ot which thev ivu- 

lant, but at the same tune 

b with the a-auuiah as well as 

nail doses ; and 

ibilitv of prolonging their employ- 

ited tune. Whatever lie ihe a 

isary that, to cause a diu- 
composed J but it is 
dial, when saline diuretics ore de- 
he kidneys as the emunc- 
1 from the system, and hi 
►pee<l a the urine alkaline, which, when in 

very hurtful to the system gene- 
and urinary passages in particular. 
U are the agents termed diuretics, none of 
- the patient be under certain 
L If a very inllamiiiat "iry state of the system 
1 act as a diuretic till this be lessened, 
uploying venesection and saline 
I he class of diuri 
lehicum is perhaps the 
with Even such inflammation as exists in 
be removed by antiphlogistic 
ill have a beneficial effect. (Black- 

i i, 

n Bpea 

-.•' _r| 

-i- f 


loot to or a :< 

v of fluid is present in the body, 

I by other means before diuretics 

circumstances do nut 

c kidneys — the activity of absorption 

f the tjuan- 

die. ) If there be great general 


thibition of tonics pie- 

thc diuretic remedies* Lastly, none of 

the saline diuretics, which are susceptible of decomposition, 
will act, if ani considerable c itharsis be going on, and hence 
that action, if arising from other causes, should lie moderate 1 
Of < Leeked ; and care should be taken Dot to exhibit such of 
them as are also purgatives in such doses as to act Upon the 
bowels. This observation is not intended to prohibit the 
exhibition of a single purgative previous lo commencing the 
use of diuretics, as this is often beneficial, or to forbid their 
ionel use when required toobviate particular symptoms. 
It must never be forgotten t lint if the patient be kept very 
warn i j will more probably be directed tu the skin 

than to Uie kidneys ; hence the patient should not, if possible, 
remain in bed ; the medicines should be given during the day, 
anil the air of the apartment should be cool, and the clothing 
li^ht. Indee 1 cold itself is a powerful diuretic, and some- 
times succeeds where every other fails. The drinking of 
diluents likewise promotes the action of the kidneys: it is 
therefore unwise as well as cruel to withhold water from drop- 
I patients. [I>in tjaws.] 
DIVAN. [Diw*x,] 

DIVERS, COLY'MBID.E, a fanrih itmz birds 

(Natatores), having a smooth, straight, compressed, and 
pointed bill. 

Willughby assigned the family a place in his fifth section 
('whole-footed birds .with Bhorter Iegs'^* under i lie name of 
* Douche n or Lwnts, called in Latine Colymbi? and he 
divided them into * cloven tooted Douckers that have no 
tails,' the Grebes, and the 'whole-footed Douckers with 
fails,* the true Divers. The following is Willughby s de* 
lion 'of Douckers in general/ 4 Douckers have narrow, 
straight, sharp-pointed bills, small heads, and ulso small 
Wings ; then ]> Lwards, near the tail, fur quick 

swimming and easier diving ; broad flat legs, by which note 
they are distinguished from all other kinds of birds ; broad 
claws, like human hails, Of these Douckers there are two 
kinds; the first is oj ire cloven -footed, but fin-toed, 

havmg lateral membranes ail alottj the Sides of their toes, 
and that want the tail: the second is of those thai are 
whole-footed and caudate, which do nearly approach to 
those birds we call Trniv!ijla\ that want the hack toe. 
These are not without good reason called Douckere, for that 
they dive much, and continue long under water, as soon as 
they are up dropping down again** 

Ray, in his * Synopsis, 1 arranges the cloven-footed and 

whole-footed Co/^n^t, Oi Dims, under his * Pair 

impedes tetradaetylai rlitfto publico solute, ei pnmo rostro 

recto angasto ueulo, lnai Inpierro et LV ubi 

i in hide* the ^m\- [A in.) 

Ljnnous placed both the I>>r rs t proper I j so-called, and 

the Grebes under his genu* G< lymbu4 x which stands in his 

a under the order .wen the genera 

Phaeton ttropic birds) and Lotus (gulls). 

Pennant foil a separating \hc Grebes from 

the Diver*. The first he placed next to and im* 

mediately I and the Diver* between the 

Guillemot* and tl 

Under the term in ou BrarJuj) tires' Cuvier 

arranges those Palmt which have some 

relation to the Wattt The legs placed mo ic back- 

ward than in any of the other birds, render walking a 
difficult operation, and obliire them, when on land, to I 
themselves in a vertical position, As the greater part of 
them are, besides, bad thers, inasmuch as some of thein 
c innot tly at all on account of the shertnesf of their wings, 
they may be regarded as almosl exclusively attached to the 
surface of the waters. In act ah this destination 

their plumage is more close set, and sometimes it even 
a smooth surface and silvery hue, They swim under 
lb-: water, aiding themselves with their wings, nearly ai 
they were fins. Their gizzard is sufficiently muaeul 
their cteea are moderate, and they have each a pee o liar 
muscle on each side of their lower larynx. 1 The following 
are the genera comprehended Cuvier: 

— the Grebes, Bri j *, Latham ; Colymbwt, Bris- 

sou and niiger). The / properly so- 

called (Mergus, Bn Latham; Eutlytet* 

The GuillemoU The 

gouiruy t AIca of LinnomB, TL. 

* wit: *,• i T »d» 

iijiri*' Mrdi «htch Imy, 
ju rach tide; ►acJi ■■ 
properly be UenumLiiat«Iy<» -te+. 

<• con jiri*» 
loglu tnucQ 

v K 

D I V 


D I V 

fiknit\ Aptenndutes of Forster, consisting of the subgenera 
I nWr// s, Cuvier; Calarrhactes, Brisson \ and Spite- 

Temmmck places the Grebes (Podiceps) next to the 
P'r -iftirnpfWt nt the end of his fourteenth order, tlie Pinna- 
tiped&t or fin -footed birds ; and the Divert \C*dymhu* t 
Latham), he: ween the Pelicans and the Guillemots in his 
It i i h order, the Pa! mi/ 

Mr. Vigors makes his fifth order of birds (Natatores) 
comprise the following families— 

rtulff, Leach, 
Ctrfi/ml>i;f<Fi Leach. 

PeiMamd& t Leach. 
Ldrid(& t Leach, 
Or, with reference to the typical groups— 

With short wings, which are Ipariagljl CtAaMd* 
fathered, and with feel placed behind Se}^2»! 

equipoise of the bud \ . . .J" u " 

Aberrant gruup. 

With longer and well-feathered wings, j Ptteramda. 
and feet especially placed within the equi- \Larida*. 
poise of I he body . . • -J AttathLr. 

He considers the genus Mergus* of Linnu?us» the species 
of which carry the ] rowers of swimming and diving to the 
greatest, extent, making use of their wings also in their 
progress through the water, and, at the same time, ex- 
hibiting a constrained and embarrassed node uf walking, 
in consequence of the backward position of the legs, as 
forming the passage from the Anutidte to the Cohjnuyidce* 
1 The dish naively marked character, 4 writes Mr. Vigors* in 
his paper * on t he natural atfiniiies thai connect the orders 
and families of birds** * of the lobaled hind toe, which prevails 
among the latter groups of the family «c have just quitted, 
conducts US to Podiceps r Latham, that commences the 
family of Colt/wit ida> t where the same character is strongly 
developed. The difference between the bills of the types 
of these two families is softened down by the intervention 
of 1 hat vtHiergUit which is intermediate between the broad 
and depressed hill of Anas and the narrow and sharp- 
pointed bill of Padieeps . This last genua, in conjunction 
With Cofymbu*, Linn., from which it differs chiefly in the 
construction of the foot, composes the family of the Colym- 
bub*. These two well-known groups, differing but little 
among themselves in external characters, form one of those 
normal groups of the order where a deficiency is exhibited 
in the powers of Sight by the shortness of their wings, and 
in the faculty of Walking by the backward position of their 
legs. These deficiencies in the groups before us ure rum- 
Mutated for by their capability of remaining for a length 
of time under water, and by their supen l powers of diving. 
Fur this latter purpose the structure both of their wings 
and legs is admirably adapted \ the former by their strength 
assisting them as oars under water, and by their brevity 
not interfering with their progress; the latter by their 
compressed and sharpened edge offering no resistance to 
the water as they are drawn up to effect the stroke which 
accelerates the movements of the bird. From their Btt] e- 
riority in these characters and powers, the birds themselves 
have obtained par excellence the name of Divers, In these 
particulars we may observe them to be united with the 
Alcada which succeed them, and from which they are 
chiefly separated by the presence of the hind toe, con- 
spicuous here, but deficient in ibe family to which we now 
proceed. 1 Mr. Vigors then goes on to (fie Auks {JLboodcB\ 
which he enters by means of the genus Una [Guillemot], 
originally included in the Colymbus of Linnreus, and from 
which it has been separated chiefly on account of the tri- 
dactyle conformation of its foot. This character dis- 
tinguishes the greater part of the Aleadte, a family which, 
in addition to Vria and Attn, contains, according to Mr. 
Vigors, the genus Aptenodytes of Linnaeus. 

fL Lesson, in his Manual, makes the Cotymbidcr (Plon- 
geursou Brachypterex, Cuv., Uri natures, Vieillot), the first 
order of birds, Lea Pa/mi/ cde\, Naia- 
toresof I lligcr and Vieillot; and the family comprises the 
genera Podiceps, Lath,, Colymbus (part), Linm, and Ce- 
phus, Cuv. 

The Prince of Musignano (Charles Luciau Bonaparte) 
places Podiceps under his order Anseres iti the family Lobi* 

pedes, and Colymbus under the same order in his family 

In ' Fauna Boreali- American a,' Podheps is placed at the 
head of the order Natatores, and is immediately succeeded 
by Sterna (the Terns): the position of Colymbus is be- 
tween Pelceanm and Uria, which last-mentioned genus con 
eludes the order. 


Genera. Podiceps. 
17*7/ longer than the head, robust, slightly compressed, or 
nearly cylindrical, tubulated, straight, entire, pointed ; 

inaudible straight, or hooked at the poin 
oblong, half closed. Wings short, the three li 
equal length and Ion- 1 est. Tail none. Toes bordered wuli 
large limbriahuns ; hallux pinnated, 

HtMil and fool nfUic male Enral Oiebc ; summer {plumage: Ihe hf^it Tom 
Mr. G\m|{|'* Itriiiwh LirUi, Hie fool from * •jicciruru m the Muveum of lL« 

Habits, <?c. The Grebes haunt the sea as well as the 
rivers, are excellent swimmers, and dive frequently, 
who have watched the Dabchick or Little Grebe f P 
minor), and have been amused by its quickly-n 
plungings well know. They feed on small fishes, (toga* 
crustaceans, and injects, and their nets, formed of a large 
quantity of grass, &c, are generally placed among 
and COriceSi Wld rise and fall with the States. 

Geographical distribution. V 017 wide. Five Eu 
species are enumerated, and the foreign speriea are very 
numerous. The form seems capable of adaptation 1 1 
varieties of climate. In the * Tables' published in the In- 
troduction to Fauna Boreali-Aincricana,' we find /-' 
corn ut us ami Podiceps Carolinensis among the birds 

mereli a/Inter In Pennsylvania, and migrate in summer to 
rear their young in the Fur Countries; and Podi 
tus % p. rsaViooSu, and P. corn ut us in the list oi 
common to the Old World and to the Fur Countries 
Sabine rives a description of a mature individual o\ V 
rubricollis killed at Great Slave Lake, and of a 
Podiceits Carolinensis killed at the same place, both 
John Franklin 1 * first expedition, and in May, lb.';!; and 

t> I V 


D I V 

I son notes Podireps cri status as having been 
itchewan, and Podiceps cor nut us at Great 
t Lake C Fauna Boreali- Americana* >. Poena p* Chilen- 
arc natives of the warm parts 
m its name implies, living beesi 
bond in the l- rpcion,and the second on the Brazi- 

lian nut ers (Rio Grande and S. Paolo); and we select, as 
ipi talis of Lesson, from the rivers 
tftbe Malouin Islands (Isles Malouines). 

This Grebe, according to M. Lesson, is re- 
taarkibTe tor the delicate tints of its plumage, which is 

ard,ii.-e i above and of a satiny white Mow. Thi- 
'heeks and forehead are uf a light grey: a bundle of loose 
ics ethlees) springs behind each eye, and is pro* 
li and on the sides of the neck. A calotte 
efo from i he occiput, and is prolonged on part of the neck halfway down it. The 
ri d prey, which becomes lighter, so thai the front 
nerk and the sides are of a pure white, as wall as I be 
er part of the body. The back and wing 
lour, and this tint, mingled however with 
white, prevail* on ihe feathers of the rump, The tarsi, toes, 
sod i lerahly large membranes which fringe them, 

The bill is short and black. The iris is of 
ia^ i brilliant as to call forth from Pare Dom 

Pernetty, whose Petit Plongeon a Lunettes it is, the ex- 
pression thai * diamonds and rubies have nothing to offer 
equal U» the fire of the • peciesof Plongeon which 

found on the edge of the sea/ The total length 
n , - ' even i ichos and two or three lines; from 
to the point of Ihe bill, eight lines; tarsi, 
tenieen lines ; external toe, two inches. 

Tb#> form of the bird is so well known from the common 
Dabthak. that it would have been superfluous to give a 
figure of an entire G i 

ratal (\fergus, Brisaon — Urinator, Lacepctlc — and 
EuJytes, Illiger). 

Bill moderate, strong, straight, ven much pointed, com- 
pared : nottr\ e, half closed. Wing* short; the 
tot quill longest. Tail short, rounded Three fronl 

lirelyj Imated; hind toe bordered with a small 

The Divers bear a close resemblance to the 

which they differ but little, excepting in their 

talmaled feet. On the water they are at their case: on 

and they are awkward and beset 

■ I ties in their locomotion. 

Principally the northern lati- 
tudes, whi-. estle in the wildest and most desert snots. 
la the Ub1 una Boreal i -Am ericana,' we find Cniym- 
teptentrimtaiin in the list of species which 
on, and migrate in summer to 
rear tneii the Fur Countries, and Coly tubus sep- 
t^mtrt'mnitt in the list of birds (migratory) detected on the 
ti Georgian Islands and adjoining seas, bit. 73° to 75° 
Sii Edward Parry's first voyage, Colt/mbus gla- 
ruttu mi . >//<i/i> oeeur in Captain Sahine'* h<U 
af Greenland Birds and Colutnbi glacialis, and 
, in Dr. Richardson's list of species common 
ts the Old World and to the Fur Countries. 
Exam file. Columbus glacialis. 

»en killed on Great Bear Lake. — 
and upper tail-coverts, glossed with 
c*f> purphV' i a black ground. A short Iran 

karoo the throat, a collar on the middle of the neck, m 
rnipt* ad below, and the shoulders while, broadly 

« -d on the li black. Whole upper plumage, 

winsrv sides of the breast, flanks, and under tail-oovi 

; all, except the quills and tail, marked with a pair of 

►pots near the tip of each feather: the spots form 

and are large and quadrangular on the scapulars and 

apulars. round and smaller elsewhere, smallest on 

ie rump. I'nder plumage and inner wing-coverts white, 

the axillaris striped do\ aid dies with black. Irtdcs 


strong, tapering; its rid us quite 

-Ughily arched above; lower 

navftdftiie ippearing deepest in the 

rds to the point ; margins 
<4h mand ticularly of the lower one, in- 

ftw \ very long. 7bi7, of twenty 

much rounded. Total length thirty -six inches ; 

extent of wing forty-eight inches. Dr. Richardson, whose 
description this is, observes, that specimens in mature 
plumage vary considerably in total length, upwards of an 
inch in length of wing, and more than half an inch in the 
length of the tarsus. 

g of the year. Temminck remarks, that these differ 
considerably from the old birds. The head of the younir, 
the occiput, and the whole posterior part of the neck an 
an ashy-brown; on the cheeks are small ashy and white 
points ; throat, front of the neck, and other lower parts pure 
white ; It -at hers of the back, of the wings, of the rump and 
Honks, of a very deep brown in the middle, border ed and 
terminated by bluish ash ; upper mandible ashy grey, lower 
mandible whitish; iris brown; feet externally deep brown, 
internally, as well as the membranes, whitish. In this stale 
Temminck says that the bird is the Golymhus Inr 
(Cruel Syst. Lath. I ml); Z* Grand Plongem of Button, 
(but the plate enl. 914 represents a young individual of 
Cotymbus Arrtiru*) ; Merge Maggiart o SmergOg (Stor. 
deg. uoc M ) with a good figure. He thinks thai the / 
Taueher of Beehstein (Nat org. DeuD is probably a young 
°f thi un account of its large dimensions, aiid re- 

marks that, under the name of Columbus Immer the voting 
of this species are often confounded with those of Cofymbus 
Are tie us. 

At the Ogt of a yecu\ according to the same author, the 
individuals of both sexes show a transverse blackish brown 
band towards the middle of the neck, about an Inch in 
length, finning a kind of collar; the feathers of the 1 

me of a blackish tint, and the small white blotcl 
begin to appear. In this state it is the Grand Phngeon of 
on, (vul vi., p. 105, pi. Id, f. I,) a very ex an |]_ 
Ai ths age of two years the collar is more defined ; this 
part, the bead and the neck, are varied with hi own and 
greeniah-blaek feathers; the numerous blotches on the 
back and wings become more prevalent, and the band 
under the throat, and the nuehul collar also, are marked 
with longitudinal brown and white tinea, 

At the ag$ p/ three years the plumage is perfect. 
According to Montagu, Cnlymlms glacialis is the Colum- 
bus maxima* cawiatus of Ray ; M*TgU* major nceviu* and 
Mergm nrrvius of Brissoti ; L' Imbrim of Button ; GtM 
led Divtr or Loon of WHlugnbj j and Northern Lh 
of Pennant, (Br. ZooU): and the Female* is Columbus Im- 
mer of Linoasua: Colymbus mittimus Gesnert of Ray; 
Mtrgut omjor of Brisson; Le Grand Plangmm of HurToii ; 
Ember Goose of Sibbald; and Imber Diver of the British 
Zoology. It is the Columbus torquut us of Brunnieh; and 
not to weary the reader with more scientific names, it is the 
SdttMfishatsiger 8estosuchtr t Bi*~7hucher s Grosse Hoik* 
Jinte f and Meer-Xwittg of the Germans; Brusen of th<' 
Norwegians ; Turh'k of the Greenlauders ; Eiikinnew-Moqm 
of the Gree Indians ; Talhueh of the Qhipewyans ; Kag 
ih -nfthe Ks«putnaux; Inland Loon of the Hudson's Bay 
residents; and Trothydd maicr of the antient British; 
is provineuilly called by the modern British Gunner aud 
Greater Dour her. 

Habits, cV-/\ — Fish is the principal food of this spec! 
and the herring in particular, the fry of fish, oruatace 
and marine vegetables. It nestles in small li I on 

the banks of fresh waters, and the female lays two eirgs of 
U] I abella while, marked with very large and with email 
spots of a purplish Dsh. Dr. Richardson gives the lbllowin^ 
daaeription of its manners:—' Though this handsome bird 
in generally described us an inhabitant of the ooanii, We 
seldom observed it cither in the Arclic Sea or Hudson's 
Bay : but it abounds in nil the interior lakes, where it de- 

- vast quantities of fish. It is rarely seen on land 
limbs being ill fitted for walking, though admuabh adapted 
to its aquatic habits. It can swim wilh great and 

to a very considerable distance under the water; and when 
it comes to the t seldom exposes more than the 

net k. It takes wing with difficulty, flies heavily, though 
swiftly, and frequently iu a circle round those who intrude 
OH itl haunts. Its loud and ven tiwlaneholy cry, like the 
howllBg of the wulf. and at times like the distant scream of 
B in -m in d u t to portend rain. Its ftasb is dark, 

tough, and unpalatable. We caught several of tbese buds 
in the fishing nets, in which they had entangled themselves 
in the pursuit offish. 1 The speiies is sometimes taken even 
in the south of England. Montagu mentions one vim h 

* tin i ice TeramineW'i UfKriplton of the vuyiDff plumage aKW)idVA\ V* *^ 
obovo f if to, Sic, 

D I V 

D I V 

.11 a pniul has Rome months. In a few days itbe- 
trcraely docile, would nunc to the i -all h< 
pond to the other, and would take bod from the 

II, Th« hi id hi I an injury in the head, which 

in l '1. prtved one eye of 'tier was a Little 

:, notwithstanding, it could] hy inrennnflr 
d»\ in:, discover all the B ere thrown into the pond. 

When it could not «ct fish it would cat Hash : and when it 
quitted the water, it shuved its body along upon the ground 
J fee n teal, by jerks, rubbing the I ound ; 

and relumed Ctgflin to t bu water in a similar manner. In 
swimming and diving ihe lege only were u>ed, and uol the 
Wings, and hy their situation so far behind, and their little 
deviation (rum the hue of the body, it is enabled to propel 
l in the water With great velocity in B straight hue, as 
well as turn with astonishing quickness. In the winter of 
ding to Mr. Graves, during the intense frost, 
two fine individuals were taken alive in the Thames below 
Woolwich, and were kept in confinement for some in 01 

The) eagerly devoured most kinds of fan oi otlal. At the 
appi 'ing they began to show great uneasiness in 

; confinement, though they had the range oi" an exten- 

piece «»t' v i whence thej ultimately escaped in 

the month of April. The distance of the river from the 

pond in which tiny were confine vend bun 

Is; hut they made tin ir escape, and two birds resembling 
them in colour were Been on the river in thai hood 

for several days after they ed, and though re- 

dly shot at, they escaped by diving. 
Geographical position, — The arctic seas of the New and 
abundant in the Hebi 
Sweden, and Russia ; accidental visitors along the ee 
of the ocean. The young in winter are very rare on the 
Lakes of the interior, in Germany, France, and Switzerland: 
are never seen there. (Tenim ul.) It is 
a rather nue visitant to these islands, especially to the 

I) in bit* gluclull*.} 

.he genus Cc/Jut* M"ehriie>, Cuvier ! 
neitf, Lai . Temm. ; diet. 

king ihut it tonus the pas 
[Auk, vol. iih, p. loo, su 
nua M 

Dl V IDE N D, . whi h is to be 

by 2.W ,1 is ioo. 

Unci it is 

understood to ro/o, 

of a banki 
ised from his assets, [IKnkkuitv] 
appropriate as that which ha* just been explained* It 

is used to signify the half-yearly payments of the perpetual 
Bad terminable annuities which constitute the public debt 
of the country* and d * DOl ttu m lore strictly express that 
which Ihe wdA it made to imply. The pinmentof lho*e 
so called d is managed on the part of the eorerih 

ment by the bank of England, which re usa- 

lion from the public for the trouble and expense attending 
the employment. The exact number uf indn tduals *ho 

entitled to receive these half-yearly paymenta is not 
known* The following statement exhibits the muni m 
distinct sums paid by different warrants to various ♦ Lasses 
of annuitiints at the last four periodical payments, but ibe 
number of annuitants is not nearly so great as the number 
of distinct warrants, finals are j 

of annuities due at the same periods of the year, winch are 
included under different beads or accounts in the book 
the Bank, wi bearing different rates of int. being 

otherwise under different circumstances; and besides, many 
as hold annuities which are payable at both h 

v periods. It is clear, however, from the following 

figures, I hat the greater part of the public creditors arc 

entitled to annuities for only small sums, more than nine- 

nis being for sums not exceeding loo/., 

and nearly one-half for sums not exceeding 10/. 

Nol fxcet'ilh!. 



. l<n> 


_ _ 


. 1 1 1 . 

S » 

BsruiirtiiiS .,.. 2UO0 







Number vl 
V\ KriUBtt. 

23, m 



3 Jan. 1337. 

Ntiiitlu-r uf 
Wan Ants. 





iv ,405 

Number of 


aa. BUO 


91 JH 

DIVING BELL. [Siumarine Descent] 
DIVINING ROD, a forked broneli, usually, but 
alwaj el, by which it 1ms been pretended that 

minerals and water may be 1 in the earth, ihe 

rod, if slowly carried along in suspension, dip] 
pointing d iliimed, when brou 

concealed mine or spi h 
Other mysterious powers, such as thai of di-covc 
the i lands, and even of dete 

birth-place and pat . fuuudlin* 

attributed to the divinii 

or the Buculus D^ 
or ;1 m, or the Caduceus (after the 

Mercury). But, plthou 

distinguishing ensign of ihe | _tc in ail . 

and countries, and rabdology, or divination by the 
familiar to the antii form, ibe 

the mode of uaing tlie divining rod of ihe modern mi 
and watei-lindeis, seem to be superstitions ol ■ 

iiun. Many persons with some pi 
to science have era ascribed to the 

divining rod* Geoi la, the able and leai 

man metallurgisl of the sixteenth century, and 
John S| m j id Theodi 

buth written DitputatiuncuUt on the rod, all 
is in JL Kicheleh in Ins D 

i what he has Ken he 

tnt; ihe wonderful 

rmaliliea ascribed to it. The learned Murhufi", 

teni for I well as literary k u 

al U Lfl OOl clear to him whether ihe • 

ral or the result of demoniac agency. A. M '1 1 

D the i 

phenomena Divining rod to those of Elect i 

id our countryman Pryce, in Ins 'Mine 
Cornubiensis' tfoL, 1778) i accounts 

formed by the instrument Some remai rod and 

i have been made to explain its 
may be found in the Marquis le Gendre*s 
d</ rOpbion,' liv. iii. chap, ti, and h\ 
ion of the 

in the ii4 
it, (See hL»o Moiln , i 

r> i v 



DIVINITY. [Theology.] 

DIVISIBILITY, DIVISOR. Any number or fraction 
admits of division by any other, in the extended arith- 
metical sense which considers parts of a time as well as 
times. Thus 12 contains 8 a time and half a time, or 12 
divided by 8 gives lj. The adjective divisible is never- 
theless applied, not to any number as compared with any 
oiher, but only as compared with such numbers as are con- 
tained a whole number of times in the first. Thus 12 is 
said to be divisible by 6, and is said to be not divisible by 8. 
Or, both in arithmetic and algebra, divisible means ' divi- 
sible without introducing fractions into the result.' 

The number of divisors which any number admits of is 
found as follows. Ascertain every prime number which 
will divide the given number, and now many successive 
times it will do so. Add one to each of these numbers of 
times, and multiply the results together. Thus, the number 
360 is made by multiplying together 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 5 ; or is 
divisible by 2 three times (3+1=4), by 3 twice (2 + 1=3), 
and by 5 once (1 + 1 = 2). And 4 x 3 X 2 = 24, the num- 
ber of divisors which 3G0 admits of. But among the 24 
divisors are included 1 and 360. 

DIVISION, the process of ascertaining how many times 
and parts of times one number is contained in another. 
The usual arithmetical rule consists in a continual approxi- 
mation to the result required. We write underneath, — 1, 
the common process ; 2, that of which it is an abbreviation ; 
3, a short summary of the rationale. 

8)23475(2934$ 8)23475(2000 

16 1 6000 900 








35 35 

j*2 32 

3 3 

The whole contains a number as often as all its parts put 
together contain that number: and 23 meaning 23,000, and 
16 being the highest multiple of 8 below 23, then the 16,000, 
which is part of 23,000, contains 2000 eights, and it is left 
to be seen how often the remaining 7000, and the 475 
(making 7475) contain 8. The 74 is 7400, and 9 times 8 
being 72, the 7200 which is part of 7400, contains 900 
eights, and it is left to be seen how often the remaining 200 
with the 75 (making 275) contains 8. The 27 is 270, of 
which the part 240 contains 30 eights, and the remaining 
30 together with the 5 (making 35) is left. Of this, 32 
contains 4 eights, and the remaining 3 does not contain 8 
so much as one time, but the eighth part of 3 units is three 
times the eighth part of a unit, or { : whence the answer. 

In finding how many times, or parts of times, one frac- 
tion is contained in another, the following principle is 
applied. If two numbers or fractions be multiplied by any 
! number, the number of times, or parts of times, which the 
first contains the second, is not altered. Thus 7 contains 
2 just as 14 contains 4, or as 21 contains 6, &c. If then 
we take two fractions, such as ? and ft, it follows that ? con- 
tains ft just as 77 times } contains 77 times ft, or as 33 con- 
tains 14 : that is, 2 times and A of a time. This may easily 
be shown to give the common rule. 

The division of one decimal fraction by another presents 
a difficulty, slight indeed, but quite sufficient to prevent 
most persons From becoming expert in the use of tables. 
The rules given are frequently incomplete, and always such 
as would render even a practised computer liable to mistake. 
The question is how to place the decimal point rightly in 
I the result, and this may be best done as follows : — 

1. Alter the dividend or divisor by annexing ciphers, 
! until both have the same number of decimal places. This 

being done — 

2. Annex as many ciphers to the dividend, or take away 
as many from the divisor (or partly one and partly the 
other) as there are to be decimal places in the result : then 
divide as in whole numbers, and mark off the given number 
of decimal places. 

Example I. Find out, to three decimal places, how often 
'076 is contained in 32* 1. 

First step: '076 and 32*100. 
Second step: '076 and 32*100000. 

76)32100000(422368-rem. 32. 
Answer. 422*368. 

Example II. Find out, to 7 decimal places, how often 
(what fraction of a time) 236*5 is contained in 001. 

First step: 236*500 and *001. 

Second step: 236 '5 f and '00100000; namely, two 
ciphers struck off the divisor and Jive annexed to the divi- 
dend (making seven). 

2365)100000(42— rem. 670. 
Answer. '0000042. 

In making complicated divisions, it is much the shortest 

Slan, and very much the safest, to begin by forming- the 
rst nine multiples of the divisor by continued addition 
(forming the tenth for proof). 

DIVORCE (divortium, a divertendo, from diverting or 
separating), the legal separation of husband and wife. Di 
vorce is of two kinds, d mensd et thoro, from bed and board; 
and a vinculo matrimonii, from the bonds of the marriage 
itself. The divorce a mensd et thoro is pronounced by the 
spiritual court for causes arising subsequent to the marriage, 
as for adultery, cruelty, &c. : it does not dissolve the mar- 
riage, and the parties cannot contract another marriage. 
[Bigamy.] In fact it is equivalent only to a separation. 

The divorce d vinculo matrimonii can be obtained in the 
spiritual courts for causes only existing before the marriage, 
as precontract, consanguinity, irapotency, &c. This divorce 
declares the marriage to have been null and void, the issue 
begotten between the parties are bastardized, and the par- 
ties themselves are at liberty to contract marriage with 

From the curious document preserved by Selden (Uxor 
Ebraica,,vol.iii., 845, folio ed. of his works), whereby 
John de Camcys, in the reign of Ed. I., transferred his wife 
and her property to William Paynel ; and also, from the refer- 
ence to the laws of Howel the Good, at the end of this ar- 
ticle, it would seem that in the early periods of English law 
a divorce might be had by mutual consent ; but all trace of 
such a custom is lost. We know however (3 Salk. Rrp. 138) 
that, until the 44th Eliz., a divorce d vinculo matrimonii 
might be had in the ecclesiastical courts for adulter}' ; but 
in Foljambe's case, which occurred in that year in the Star 
Chamber, Archbishop Bancroft, upon the advice of divines, 
held that adultery was only a cause of divorce d mensd et 

The history of the law of divorce in England may perhaps 
be thus satisfactorily explained. Marriage being a contract 
of a civil nature, might originally be dissolved by consent. 
When, in the progress of civilization, various regulations 
were prescribed, the ordinary courts of justice asserted their 
jurisdiction over this as well as every other description of 
contract. At length, the rite of marriage having been 
elevated to the dignity of a sacrament by Pope Innocent 
III., a.d. 1215, the ecclesiastical courts asserted the sole 
jurisdiction over it. In the course of time the power of 
these courts was again controlled, and the 6ole jurisdic- 
tion for granting divorces for matter arising subsequently 
to the marriage, was vested in the superior court of the 
kingdom, the House of Lords, where it was less likely to 
be abused than by the ecclesiastical authorities, who, it 
is notorious, granted these and other dispensations for 

Marriage is now, by the law of England, indissoluble, for 
matter arising subsequently, by the decree of any of the or- 
dinary courts, but divorce d vinculo matrimonii may still for 
adultery, &c, bo obtained by act of parliament. For this 
purpose it is necessary that a civil action should have been 
brought in one of the courts of law against the adulterer 
[Adultery], and damages obtained therein, or some sufli- 
cient reason adduced why such action was not brought, or 
damages obtained, and that a definitive sentence of di- 
vorce d mensd et thoro should have been pronounced be- 
tween the parties in the ecclesiastical court; which sen- 
tence cannot be obtained for the adultery of the wife, if she 
recriminates, and can prove that the husband has been un- 
faithful to the marriage vow ; and further, to prevent any 
collusion between the parties, both houses of parliament 
may, ifnecessary, and generally do require satisfactory evi- 
dence fhat it is proper to allow the bill of divorce to pas3. 

The first proceeding of this nature was in the reign of Ed- 
ward VI., and bills of divorce have since greatly increased; 
above seventy such bills have been passed since the com- 
mencement of the present century. Where the injured 
party can satisfy both houses of Parliament* ^\r\v*x*\vq>\. 
bound in granting ot mt\i\io\*\vn% *0a* \xA>a\*rgswQA\^ wj ol 

D I V 


D I V 

those fixed rules which control the proceedings of ordi- 
nary courts of judicature, a divorce is granted. It is a 
cause of complaint that the 

so considerable as to amount to an absolute denial of the re* 
lief to the mass of society ; indeed from tins eircumsl 
divorce bills have not improperly been called tin' privilege 
of the rich. There is an order of the House of Lords that, 
in every divorce bill on account of adultery, a clause shall 
be inserted prohibiting the marriage of the offending parties 
with each oilier; but this clause is generally omitted: in- 
deed it has been inserted but omv, and that in a very 
rant ruse. But il i* not unusual for parliament to pro 
vide i hat the wile shall not be left entirely destitute, by 
directing a payment of a sum of money, in the nature of 
alimony, by the husband, out of the fortune which he bad 
with the wife. By the divorce d vinculo matrimonii i he tt ife 
for fi*i ts b e r da w er, [ Do w s h ] 

The causes admitted hy various codes of laws as grounds 
for the suspension or dissolution of the contract of marriage, 
as well as the description of the tribunal which had or in 
some degree has Jurisdiction over the proceedings, are va- 
rious, and indicative of the degree of civilization of the na- 
lions among whom they prevailed. 

rcduig to the law of Moses (24 Dent. L) t * When a 
man hath taken a \wio and married her, and il com 
pass that she find no favour in his eyes, because he halh 
bund some undaannass in her, then let him write hi 
bill of divorcement and D her hand, and send her 

out of his house/ After 90 days, the wife might many 
a. But after she had contracted a second marriage, 
igh she should be a^ain divorced, her former husband 
might not take her to be his \sife. About the time of our 
Saviour, there was a great dispute between the schools of 
the great doctors Hallel and Shauunai as to the meaning 
of this law. The former contended that a husband might 
not divorce his wife but for some gross misconduct, or for 
some serious bodily defect which was not known to him 
before marriage; but the latter were of opinion that simple 
dislike, the smallest offence, or merely the husband's will, 
was a sufficient ground for divorce. This i| the > -pinion 
which the Je tally adopted] and particularly the 

Pharisees, which explains their eonduct when they came w 
Jesus * tempting him, and saying unto him. Is it lawful for 
a man to put away his wife for every cause?' (Matth. xix.} 
The answer weSj 'Moses, because of the hardness of your 
hearts, suffered you to put away your wives, but from the 
beginning it was not so/ From tins it is evident that Christ 
considered that the law of Moses allowed too great a lati- 
tude to the husband in his exercise of the power of divorce, 
and that this allowance arose Dram * the hardness of their 
hearts/ bj which of course we are to understand that they 
were so habituated to previous practices, that any law which 
should have abolished such practices would have been in- 
effeetual. AH it could do was to introduce such modifica- 
tions, with the view of diminishing the existing practices, as 
the people would tolerate. The form of a Jewish bill of 
divorcement is men by Selden, Uxor Ebraica, lib, hi, 
eh. 24 ; and see Lev/a Ci 140. 

As the customs of oriental nations do not change, but 
have continued the same from the earliest periods, we mav 
conclude that the mages in toe matter of divorce now 
existing in Arabia are the some, or nearly so, as when 
Mohammed endeavoured to reform them among the tribes 
1 »r which he legislated. An Arab may divorce his wife on 
i In I. hh ! occasion: ho has only to say to her 'Thou art 
div io> So easy and so common is 

tins practice, that Burckhardt assures us that he has seen 
Arabs not more than 45 years of atjc who were known to 
have had 5<> wives, yet the Arabs have ra than 

one wife at a time. 

iohaminedan law a man may divorce his wife 
orally and without any ceremony : when I 
her a portion, generally one-third of her dowry, He may 
divorce her twice, and lake her again without her con 
but it he divorce her a third time, or put her away by a 
te divorce conveyed in the same sentence, In* cannot 
ve her again until she has been married and divorced 
by knot her hii-hand, who must have consummated his mar- 
with her. 

Here then we see that the J., required a 

Written bill of divorcement to insure due consideration; 
and itcfy prohibits the return of the wife after a 

marriage contracted with another man. The Arabian 

legislator required the words ■ Thou art divorced to 
peated three times before the marriage was irrc 

ed by the husband. And again, working on the 
feelings of delicacy inherent in man's nature, 
irrevocable divorce, he required a marriage with ,: 
man, actual consummation, and 
the ftrst husband could take back his wife. M 
somewhat different principle, absolutely prohibited I 
marriage of I he parties to the fiist muniagc after a second 
had been contra 

By the Jewish law it appears that a wife could not divorce 
her husband ; but under the Mohammedan eode, for 
cruelty and gome 0lh j t causi a, she may divoice him : and 
this h. the only instance in which Mohammed appea 
been more considerate towards women than Moses. 

(Sale's Koran; Lane's Modem Egyptians; Hami 
\ and the Miskcat ut-Masa 
a; and se of Lindo v. Belisarin % 1 

iUti. before Lord Stowell.) 

Among the Hindoos, and also among the Chin 
husband may divorce his wife upon the slightest grounds, 
or even without assigning any reason. Some of the Tules 
mentioned by the Abbe Dubois, as laid down in the 
■ Pad ma Purana/ one of the books of highest 
among the Hindoos, show their manner of thinking con- 
cerning the conduct of their wives. ' In every 
life, a woman is created to obey. At first she viel 
die ace to her rather and mother; when married, he sub- 
mits to her husband and her father and mother in 
old ajre, she must be ruled by her children. 1 1 
life she can never be under her own control. If her hus- 
band laugh, she ought to Laugh ; if he weep, she will weep 
also; if he is disposed to speak, she will join in oofJttt- 
salion. When in the presence of her husband, a woman 
must not look on one side and the other : she must keep 
her eyes on her ma iter, to be ready to receive his c 
mands. When he speaks, she must be quiet, and listen to 
nothing besides. When he calls her, she must leave every 
thing else, and attend upon him alone/ And in the 
Hindoo code it is said, * The Creator formed woman for 
this purpose, viz., that children might be born from her/ 
The reasons for which, according to the Brahman ic 

niiy divorce his wife, may be seen in Colobrooke'a 
Digest at Hindoo Law, vol. ii. p, 4H, &c, Bvo. edit. ; and 
KalthofT, Jus Matrimonii vetentm Indorum (Bonn, I 

8)p, ;<;, &c. 

The laws in the several Grecian states regarding divorce 
different, and in some of them men were allowed to put 
i heir wives on slight occasions. The Cretans permitted 
it to any man who was afraid of having too great :: 
of children. The Athenians allowed it upon small 
bul not Without giving a bill containing the reasons for 
divorce, to be approved (if the parly divorced mad 
peal) by the chief a re ho n. The Spartans seldom 
their wives; indeed the ephori fined Lysand( 
dialing his wife. Ariston (Herod, vi 63) pul 

>1 wife, but it seems to have been done rather to hare 
n, for his wife was barren, than according to the CttSl 
of the country. Anaxandrides (Herod, v. 311 
urged by the ephori to divorce his barren wife, and on 
not consenting, the matter was compounded by hts taking 
another wife: thus he had two at once, which H< 
. • es was contrary to S] artan a i 

l)\ the laws qf the early Romans, the husband ;i : 
permitted to dissolve the marriage, but not without 
cause, and a groundless divorce ujis p 
feiture of the husband one-half of which \ 

the wife. Adultery, drunkenness, or count e 
husband's keys, were considered good causes of divorce 
For about SOU (Dion. Hal , ii. 25 ; Gellius, iv. 3 ; Plutarch, 
lit. Bom. et Num.% &c) years after the foundation 
city then/ was no instance of this right being e: 
the husband: but afterwards divorces bceai 
not only for sufficient reasons, but on frivolo 
and the same liberty was enjoyed by the worm 

The maxim of the civil law was, that matrimony ought 
to be free, and either party in ig hi renounce the marriage 
Union at pleasure. It was termed divortiu 
7fl querela* i.e., divorce with 

3o; and the principle, bona 
>i tur, matrimony is dissolved at pleasure, 
laid down in the pandects. The abuse of divorce prevailed 

D I V 


D I W 

ia the moat polished ages of the Raman republic, though, 

* has been said, it was unknown in its earJy history. The 

Emperor Augustus is said to have endeavoured to restrain 

tin* abuse by requiring the observance of certain ceremonies 

Is a valid divorce, according to the manner in which the 

marriage had been celebrated • thus, if there had been a 

marriage contract, it was torn in the presence of seven 

Maes, the keys were taken from the wife, and a certain 

of words was pronounced by the husband or by a freed 

; hut this check was overpowered by the influence 

corruption of manners. Voluntary divorces were 

by one of the novels of Justinian, but they were 

► revived by another novel of the Emperor Justin. 

Ia the novel restoring the unlimited freedom of divorce the 

for it are assigned ; and while it was admitted that 

ought to be held so sacred in civil society as mar* 

it was declared that the hatred, misery, and crimes, 

often flowed from indissoluble connexions, required 

at a necessary remedy the restoration of the old law by 

which marriage was dissolved by mutual will and consent. 

act ice of divorce is understood to have continued 

lathe Byiantine or eastern empire till the ninth or tenth 

century, and until it was finally subdued by the influence 

of Christ uinity. 

On a divorce for infidelity, the wife forfeited her dowry ; 
but if the divorce was not made for any fault of hers, her 
whale dowry was restored, sometimes all at once, but usually 
by three different payments. In some instances, however, 
where there was no infidelilv on the part of the wife, only 
part was restored. On the Roman divorce and dowry, see 
Dig. xxiv. tit. 2. 3. 

Ainoni* the autient Britons, it mar be collected from the 
Uai of Howel the Good that the husband and wife might 
agree to dissolve the marriage at any time ; in which case, 
•i the separation took place during the first seven years of 
the marriage, a certain specified distribution of the property 
was aside, but after that period the division was equal. No 
limit was set to the husband's discretion in divorcing his 
wile, hut the wife could only divorce her husband in case 
be should be leprous, have bad breath, or be impotent, in 
which cases she might leave him and obtain all her property. 
The parties were at liberty to contract a fresh marriage ; 
bat if a man repented of having divorced his wife, although 
she had married another man, yet if he could overtake her 
the consummation of tlie marriage, or, as the law 
it, * with one foot in the bed of her second liu#- 
and the other outside, 1 he might have his wife again. 
Adultery was punishable by fine. 

The laws of Scotland relating to divorce differ widely 
existing in England : there, a divorce d vinculo 
is a civil remedy, and may be obtained for 
.or for wilful desertion by either party, persisted 
tat* lour years, though to this a good ground of separation 
a a defence. But recrimination is no bar to a divorce as it 
a ta England. 

In the Dutch law there are but two causes of divorce d 
rimmlo matrimonii, vii-, adultery and desertion. 

In Spain the same causes affect the validity of a marriage 
as in England, and the contract is indissoluble by the civil 
coarts* matrimonial causes being; exclusively of ecclesiastical 
caeairanre {Jn&ttt. Laws of 'Spain.) 

The law of France, before the Revolution, following the 
judgment of the Catholic Church, held marriage to be in- 
dissoluble; but the legislators of the early revolutionary 
period permitted divorce at the pleasure of the parties, 
where incompatibility of temper was alleged. In the first 
three months of the year 1793, the number of divorces 
in the city of Paris alone amounted to 562, the marriages 
a proportion not much less than one to three ; while 
tbe divorces in England for the previous century did not 
•mount to much more than one-fifth of the number, 
<Burke*s Letters on a Regicide Peace.) Burke further 
thai be followed up the inquiry through several sub- 
months till he was tired, and found the results still 
It must be remembered however that Burke 
in the spirit of an advocate ; that the period he chose 
was that immediately following the promulgation of the 
ttw, when all couples previously discontented with each 
ned divorces; and that if his calculations had 
fall* borne out his statement, he would have given them 
til his pamphlet, which was written for a political purpose, 
and he would not have rested satisfied with indefinite alle- 
-tos generally admitted however that the license 

was too great. The Code Napoleon accordingly restricted 
the liberty, but still allowed either party to demand a divorce 
on the ground of adultery committed by the other; for out- 
rageous conduct, or ill usage ; on account of condemnation 
to an infamous punishment; or to effect it by mutual 
consent, expressed under certain conditions. By the same 
code a woman could not contract a new marriage until the 
expiration of ten months from the dissolution of the pre- 

On the restoration of the Bourbons a law was promul- 
gated (8th May, 1816), declaring divorce lu be abolished; 
lhat all suits then pending for divorce, for definite cause, 
should be for separation only, and that all steps then taken 
for divorce by mutual consent should be void ; and such is 
now the law of F rain- 
It must be borne in mind, however, that the Roman 
Church, for the purpose of increasing its revenue, has at all 
times claimed the right to dissolve marriage by dispensa- 
tion ; and therefore this power of divorce still exists in 
France, and all Roman Catholic countries, independent of 
the law of the land. It has since been decided by the Cour 
de Cassation lhat the conjugal infidelity of the husband is 
a bar to a suit instituted by him for divorce on the ground 
of the wife's adultery, (M'Kcnua's Notes on the Code 

In the United Slates, marriage, though it maybe cele- 
brated before clergymen as well as civil magistrates, is con- 
sidered as • civil contract. The causes of divorce, and the 
facility or difficulty of obtaining it, are by no means the 
same in the several states. The more general causes of a 
divorce d vinculo matrimonit arc, former marriage, phy- 
sical incapacity, or consanguinity ; by the Connecticut law, 
fraudulent contract ; and by the New York code, idtutcy 
and insanity, and either party being under the age of con- 
sent. Adultery is also a cause of divorce d vinnt/o mutrt 
tnwiii ; and the laws of some of the states prohibit the 
guilty party from marrying again. If the husband or wim 
js absent seven years, or, by the laws of some States, three 
years, and not heard from, the other is at liberty to marry 
again; and in some states, if the husband devert the wife, 
and make no provision for her support during three years, 
being able to make such provision, the wife can obtain I 
divorce. Extreme cruelty in either party is also generally a 
cause of divorce d vinculo matrimonii. In many of the 
states applications to the legislature for divorce, m cases 
not provided for by the statutes, are very frequent. In 
New York and New Jersey, divorce is a subject of Chan- 
cery jurisdiction, from which, as in other cases, questions of 
law may be referred to a jury for trial. In New Hampshire, 
joining the religious society of Shakers, who hold cohabita- 
tion unlawful, and continuing in that society for three years, 
is sufficient cause for a divorce. But in most of the States 
the courts of law have cognizance of divorce. The laws 
prescribe the provision to be made for the wife in cms* of 
divorce, confiding to the courts however some degree of dis- 
cretion in fixing the amount of alimony. 

It is very questionable, says Chancellor Kent, whether 
the facility with which divorces can be procured in some of 
the States be not productive of more evil than good: and 
he states that he has had reason to believe, in the exercise 
of a judicial cognisance over numerous cases of divorce, that 
adultery was sometimes committed on the part of the hus- 
band for the very purpose of the divorce. 

(Kent's Comm. ; Ency. Americ. Upon the general ad- 
vantages of indissolubility, as opposed to an unlimited right 
of divorce, see Hume's Essay on Polygamy and Divorce; 
Foley's Moral Philosophy; and the judgment of Lord 
Stowell in Evans i\ Evans, I Hagg. Repts., 48 ; Milton, in 
his famous treatise, advocates the increased facility of ob- 
taining a divorce ; and see Gibbon, Decl. and Fall, c. 44.) 

DI WAN is a Persian word familiar to readers of works 
relating to the East* in the sense of— 1st a senate, or council 
of state ; and, 2nd., a collection of poems by one and the 
same author. The earliest acceptation, however, in which 
we find it employed is that of a muster-roll, or military pay- 
book. The Arabic historian, Fakhreddin Wizi, informs 
us that when, in the caliphat of Omar, the second successor 
of Mohammed, the conquests of the Mussulmans assumed 
an extensive character, the equal distribution of the booty 
became a matter of great difficulty. A Persian marzhfln. 
or •* at rap, who happened to be at the head-quarters of tho 
caliph at Medinah, suggested the adoption of the svstem 

D M I 


D N I 

followed in his own country, of an account-book, in which 
all receipt* ami disbursements were regularly entered* 
along with a list duly arranged, of the names of those 
persons who were cntii led to a share in the booty. With 
the register itself, its Persian appellation (diuan) PN 
adopted by the Arabs. (Frcytag, Locmani Fubula et 
p/ura ioca ex codd. hutorieis selecta, &c, pp. 32, 33 ; 
llcim, Fnigmenta Arabica, St. Petersburg, IMS, p. 86, et 
Stiff.) Whether a council of stale was subsequently called 
diwan, as having originally been a financial board appointed 
to regulate the list (dtwSn) of stipendiaries and pensioners, 
or whether it was so called as being summoned according 
to a li>t (diuiuo rontaining the names of all its members, we 
unable to determine. The opinion that a body of council* 
lors should have received this appellation, as has been as- 
serted bv some, in consequence of the expression of an 
antieut kintj of Persia, hidn diwan end, Mhese (men) are 
U' lever like) devils/ will scarcely be seriously entertained 
by any one. The word * dJwftn * is also used to express the 
saloon or hall where a council is held, and has been applied 
to denote generally a state chamber, or room where company 
is received. Hence probably it has arisen that the word 
'divan,' in several European languages, signifies a sofa. 
Collections of poems in Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Hindus- 
tani, &c, seem to have received the appellation * diwan' 
from their methodical arrangement, in as much as the poems 
succeed one another according to the alphabetic order of 
the concluding letter* of the rhyming syllables, which are 
the same in all the distichs throughout each poem. 
DIXMUIDEN. [Flanders/West.] 
DIZIER, ST., a town in France, in the department of 
Haute Marnc, on the right northbankof the Marne,and on 
the road from Paris by Meaux and Chalons to Bar le Due, 
Nancy, and Slrcisburg. It is 118 miles east by south of 
Paris in a straight line, or \3H miles by the road: in 46 a 
38' N. lat, and 4° 56' E, long. 

In ! 544 St. Dizier made a vigorous resistance against the 
Emperor Charles V., who had invaded France, but was 
obliged to surrender: it was restored at the subsequent 
peace. In tat> fortifications have been negh* 

Two engagements were fought near St. Dizier, in 181-!, 
tween the French and the nlli» M who had invaded 

The town is agreeably situated, and is well built ; it is 
surrounded with public walks : the houses were formerly of 
tfood, but after a great fire which happened about sixty 
/ears ago they were mostly rebuilt The town- 

hall is t handsome huilding of modern erection; in front 
of It it fi d marker. 

The population, in 1832, was 5957 for the town, or 6197 
for the whole commune. The inhabitants carry on a con- 
ider&bl in wood and iron: the forests round the 

town famish excellent timber for ship-building. The navi- 
gation of the Marnc commences here. Oil-cloth and some 
iron goods are manufactured, and formerly (if not at 
present) hosiery, hats, linen and hempen cloths, and casks. 
"Stone is quttTJ " town ; ami there is cool, but we 

101 aware whether it is worked, 
DMITRIEV, IVAN lVANOViTCH,wa*born in 1760, 
in the government of Simbirsk, where hi^ father, who was 
himself a man of superior informal 

After being educated at Kazan until hi* twelfth year, he 
was pursuing his studies at Simbirsk, when that part of 
the empire was thrown into an unsettled state : ' 
chex's rebellion, in consequence of which his family & 

nd he was sent to St. Pole here 

H - as entered in the Semen and 

liin a short time put on active service h he con- 

tained until the reign of the emperor Paul, when an ap- 
pointment En the civil service was bestowed upon him. 
gander he was made succe 
e and pn lor, and finally retired 

public life with a pension and the order of EH 
dimir of the tii Although a life passed j 

occupations was little favourable to literary pursuits*, parti- 

; or part of it, a strong natural at la 
to ihem led him to devote himself to them as sedulously as 

old permit, and with ;->iieh suece- 

after Karamzin, he was, among contemporary write 

one who most contributed to polish the Russian language, 

ting to it ease and gn of style and elegance 

Q. His poems, whuh have passed through many 

ions, and are deservedly popular, consist principally of 

odes, epistles, satires, tales, and fables, in which last-men- 
tioned species of eoni|ioMUoii - a very favourite one with his 
countrymen- he particularly excelled; and if we excepi 
Knlov, he occupies the fisat rank among the Russian fabu- 
lists. By some be has been styled the Lafontaine of Ru- 
as well on account of the refined tone of his subjects as the 
studied simplicity of his language. In bis poetical tales he 
stands almost alone- — eertaiuly unrnillcd — among his 
countrymen, not less for the playfulness and shrew due*-! 
of his satire than for the peculiar happiness and ii 
his style. His odes likewise possess considerable rm 
but as a lyric poet he falls short of Lomonosov, Deraba 
and Pal 

DNIEPER, DNYEPR, or DNEPR, also called the 
Ousi by the Tartars, one of the largest rivers of European 
li'i-Ma, and, uext to the Danube, the most co 
the streams that discharge themselves into the Black Sea- 
It rises in the circle of Viasma, in the northern pa 
government of Smolensk, near the sources of the Dwt&a 
and Voka, and among the swamps of the Alansk or Aluu- 
nian hilLouthe southern deeliviiy of the Vulkonsky forest. 
It Hows generally in a south-south-west direction till it 
approaches the town of Smolensk, where it inclines more 
tii the west, and makes its way to Grsza, whence it has 
a southerly course through the government of Mobiles', 
which it divides in part from that of Minsk. In this part 
of its course it is increased by numerous tributary streams; 
among others the Dructs, Sosja, Berezina, which last 
is united to the Dwina by means of a canal, Merya, and 
Gryaza. After forming the boundary between parts ol 
the governments of Minsk and T&hernigolF, it enters that 
of Kieff, where it immediately receives the Przupioz. which 
the Muchaviec and Orgimki caiikds connect with the 
\ istula and Niemen, and before it reaches Kielf, the Desna 
Usha, Osier, andoiher rivers. Continuing its course south- 
eastwards, the Dnieper, below Kieff, forms tt anc 
south-western hmil of the government of Pultava, and next 
Muaug hot ween the governments of Ekaterinoslaf and 
Chtrson, it bends again to the south-west; Us wa?> 
of KiefT having been increased by the Rope, Baza!' 
Psjol, Vorskia, 0«el, Samara, aud other streams. It then 
flows between the governments of Duchoborzen (the N 
Steppes) and Chcrson, and at length forms, in coi 
with the Bog, a large liman, or swampy lak> 
miles long, and from one to six broad, by which u 
charges itself into the Black Sea. This hman ex leads 
Cherson to OcaakolV. 

The entire length of the Dnieper with iu windings 
about loot) miles: in a straight line it is about 
source to its mouth. Its upper luisiii comprises ueai 
teen degrees of longitude; from 24 u to about 37^ etut. It 
is estimated at ;uu \ ■aces, and the surface 
which this river and it* tributaries dram 

European streams by that of the Danube. The Dnie- 
per Hows for l he most part between high bank^, 
elevation of which is alon# the eastern side. The upper 
part of ils course is through a marshy country, and in the 
middle and lower course it passes over m It is 

broader, deeper, and more rapid than the Don, and 
vigable from Smolensk te Kieff; but below r the latt< n 
near Kidack, the navigation is interrupted for abo 
miles by thirteen cataracts called Poroge, as well as> L. 
nious Works of stone; this space is passable for vessels of 

iit during the spnii 
reason all merchandize intended for Chersou or the Black 
Sea is unladen at Old Samara, win* 
land to Ah'xandrofsk, at the mouth of the Moscofsk 
\ about forty- six miles by land. From this sp* 
mouth of the Dnieper, a distance of about 260 miles, the navi- 
il unimpeded. Below the cataracts, and as far as lbe 
of i his riwer, upwards of seventy islantl 
fact the Dnieper in this interval has no open water for seven 
rndes together. Kaiakaya and Jedosa Ostroma, the largest 
of these islands, became a place of refuge to lbe Zaporogue* 
Cossacks, who established their Setcha. or head cam; 
unon them. The islands produce a grape called Bmous»a, 
which resembles the currants of Corinth. They arc full o 
serpents, and abound in a sort of wild cat, which hunts the 
As the Dnieper flows through more than nine degrees 
of latitude (from near 56° to 464° N. lat.), there is gnea 
:v uf climate in various parts of its basin : at Smo- 
lensk the waters freeae in November, and c 

D N I 



^ hound until April; at Kieff they are frozen from 
/•Hilary hi March only. The river abounds in fish, 
partiH' stursreon, carp* pike, and shad, There 

are bridges aero?* it at Smolensk and Kieff ihe lat- 
itf, which is 1638 paces in length, and constructed 
uitbrafta, is removed about the end of October and re- 
placed in Ihe spring, as it would otherwise be destp 

■•^ up of the ice. Tins river is the Borysihenea 
ks and Danapris of the middle ages. It is first 
ied by Herodotus (iv. J3), who, though professing 
more of its source, haa shown very clearly that he 
M well acquainted with the river. He says that it was 
kaowu for forty days' sail upwards, but no fan her: the 
tarr* ft*h which he mentions as used for salting is probably 
car eturgcon. With the exception of the more southerly 
H hanks have long been inhabited by races of Scla- 
mrman urigin. Towards the mouth, from the Ross on the 
nefct, and the Vorska and Soula on ihe lett bank, the 
was for a long time nothing better than a steppe, 
*har* the nomadic tribes of the Peiehenegea and arter- 
itis fed their numerous IE 

ce witli Turkey and the partition of 
JMiad, both banks of the Dnieper are become the pro- 
srrty of Russia. The principal towns on iis hanks are 
Smolensk M-duleff, KiefT, Ekaterinoslaf, and Cherson. 

DNYSTER, or DNESTR, one of the 
priona] river* of European Russia, has its source in 
i small lake on Ihe Miedoborczek, one of the north-ctjttfn 
fall v tries of the Carpathian mountains lying in the 
of Saiabor, in the Austrian kingdom of (Salicia, and in 
ibndt 45° N. hit. Within this Kingdom the Dniester 
fteemf the Tismenica, Stry, Swica, Lomnica, and Bis- 
n its southern, and the Lipa, Stripa, and 
rthern bank. After passing the town of Sam* 
iir^uea a south-easterly course to Halicz, Ma- 
pot and Zaleszryki. Thence it runs in an ES.E. 
to Chotym, at the north-western extremity of 
where, leaving the Austrian, it euu 
Roman territory. At Chotym it receives the Podhorze, 
r bed separate* Geuieia from the government of Podolia, and 
thence Hjws north-east^ with numerous windings, to Katne- 
zmx, the capital of that government. After passing Kanie- 
baa do tributerv *reat importance j the chief 

Smorifza. Kurtahugun, Rent, and Botna. 

fmm Kame data Ushitaa, and soon after- 

; forming in its descent to 
tie Uh»' >undary line first between Bessarabia 

*odoIia,ontl afterwards between the governments oi 

n. From Ushitia it passes the towns of 

x.l. Dubossari, Kisheuotr, the ones important 

I Tiraspol, which is on the opposite 

the Bli a broad linian, about nine- 

id five in breadth, but not more than 

pth, the mouth of which lies between Aker* 

rhol. In front of the mouth is along neck 

. by forcing a passage at -several 

id exceedingly rapid. The 

at Halicz, but is interrupted at 
iff Yatapot* by two considerable fulla 
ripools; and it does not become free again 
r. As fur as Old Sambor it. Hows 
tkruwgh a which afterwards expands on 

plain; while on its ris*ht 
skirted by offsets from the ' 




stshnti cl 
tita. rV 

rondo 1 
te the course of 

ISO to '2.>o feet in height 

mrse as low down u^ (/ho- 

i an open Hut country. 

i b turbid and of a 

iften broken by masses of rock, are in - 

and fall several times 

The direct distance betwei 

Wta tfcg mouth is estimated at about 

a whole length is 

rago breadth is said to be 

hank was in th m of Russia the 

I .» lieeter was rendered 

■ f the Turks and Tartars, but it is now 
i a aaic means of tranc wood, grain, and mer- 

! from the Russian ] prin- 

I which vessels load and union i and 

• e Austrian, and Xranetz and Dubossari on the 

81 c*i 

Russian side. The Dniester abounds in fish, particularly 
the stwae 

The Dniester was known to Herodotus (iv. 51), Ovid 
(Pont. iv. 10, verse 50), and the later Greeks bjf the name 
of the Tyras ; and it was subsequently called Dana>i 

DO, in musie, the name given bj the Italians and the 
English to the lirst of the syllables used in suluiization, 
and an a wr ing to the ut of the French. 

DOAB. A word signifying too water*, which is used in 
Hindustan to denote any tract of land included between two 
river*. There are several Doabs in Hindustan, but the dis- 
trict to which the name is most generally applied is situated 
between the Ganges and the Jumna. This district has its 
eastern extremity at Allahabad, win rice it proceeds in a nort b- 
direction to the hilly country in northern Hindustan, the 
northern frontier of the district of Saharunpore in the 
vince of Delhi forming its north- western boundary. The length 
of this tract is more than 500 miles, and its mean breadth 
about 55 miles ; it comprehends the districts of Saharun- 
pore, Merut, Alighur, Furruckabad, Kanoje, Etaweh, Korna, 
Lunah, and Allahabad. The prevailing charach 
Doab is tlatness and nakedness. A few clusters of tree- 
occasion ally seen near the more considerable villages, hut 
in other places many miles may be passed over without 
meeting with a tree. The only fuel consists of a low shrubby 
plant called palass, which is very inferior in quality. The 
principal productions are millet and barley, sugar, cotton, 
tobacco, and indigo* The straw of the millet is \cr\ ur- 
viceablu as provender for cattle, One of the chief branches 
of industry, especially in the northern parts of the Doab, is 
the manufacture of coarse cotton cloths; the indigo pro- 
duced is inferior in quality to that of Bengal. The tem- 
perature of the air in this part of India Ls liable to sudden 
and violent alternations , the range of the thermometer 
tween the morning and afternoon is frequently 30, and 
sometimes as much as 40 degrees. In April and May, when 
the hot winds prevail, the thermometer often rises hi. 
than 12u degrees in the shade, and at Other seasons (he 
temperature at daybreak is sometimes below the freezing 

The southern part of the Doab came into tho possession 
of the English in 1801, when it was acquired from the king 
of Oude. In l&u.l the more northern part was ceded to the 
English by Dowlut Rao Scmdia. The population is of a \ 
mixed character, and consists of J hats, Rajpoots, Patans, 
Thugs, and various other tribes, who, previous to the acqui- 
sition of the country by the English, had been much addicted 
to plunder, and daeoiiy or gang robbery was of frequent oeeur- 
rence: this haa since been greatly remedied. Three other 
districts to which the name of Doab is applied are situated 
in the province of Lahore. One of these, tho Doab or Doabeh 
Barry, is included between the Ravey and Bey ah rivers, and 
contains the cities of Lahore and Anirit*. ond. the 

Doabeh Jallinder, is included between the Beyah and tho 
SuCleje, and forms the most fertile portion of the Scik lerri 
tory ; the third, the Doabeh Recutita, comprehends the 
between the Ravey and the Chinaub ; the principal 
Contained in it areBissolee,Emenubud,and Vizierabud. 
IX) BO K A (or Doboka-Varniegye), a large count v 
Transylvania, situated in the north-we,ieni part of that 
principality, and containing an area of about 1138 square 
miles, The eastern as well as the western parts are my 
mountainous, and the highest elevations are from 1800 lo 
201M feet : the central districts are level, and form a con- 
tinuation of the great Clausenburg Heide or heath, called 
by the natives the Mezoeseg. Doboka is traversed by the 
Little S/amos or Samoseh, the Bisxtritz, and Schayo. J 
climate in the high id salubrious, hut 

heavy and less healthy in the lower. The soil, though earn 
and stony, is not unproductive: agriculture is con fined 
chiefly to the midland districts. In ihe uplands there are 

lent pastures, and the mountains are covered v 
forests, from which much timber is obtained. Some wine is 
produced, and the stock of horses, horned cattle, sheep, 
, and swine, is considerable. Honey and wax are made 
in large quantities. In 1778 thiscounly coutaiik toi- 

ls ; the present population is esti- 
t at about &7,UG«\ There are gold and silver mines, 
but i! kao\ 001 is any advantage taken of the 

t'csourecs bobuka possesses in salt. There are 163 villages 
and 1 town m the county; the latter is called Szeck, ot 
Soeken, a privileged town with a municipality, and the seat 
of the Tabula Continuo. or administrative board of DoA*&a» 





It lies about twelve miles to the north-east of Clauscnburg. 
The inhabitants derive their subsistence from their corn-lands 
and vineyards, but the extensive salt mines in its vicinity are 
no longer turned to account. Doboka, a Wallachiau vil- 
lage to the West of SzeeX which gives its name to the whole 
county, is encircled by mountains. Another spot of much 
note among the Traosylvanians is Apafaha, the original 
seat of the Apasian princes, who governed ail Transylvania 
from Ififil to 171 .3, 

DGBREK, PETER PAUL, was born in the island of 
Guernsey io the year 1782- At an early age he was sent 
to Dr. Val]\ - school at Reading, and stayed there till he 
itno an 'undergraduate of Trinity College in the year 
1800. He took his B. A. degree in 1804 He was a can- 
didate for the chancellor's medals, but did not obtain either, 
having been, it is said, prevented by ill health from doing 
himself justice in the examination. Afier being elected a fel- 
low of his college, he continued to reside at Cambridge, dc- 
voling himself to classical studies, and enjoying the inti- 
macy of Porson, to whom he was devotedly attached, and 
from whom he derived all the spirit of his scholarship. 
Aficr Person's death, the hooks and MSS. of that great 
critic were purchased by Trinity College, and the task of 
editing part of Person's notes was intrusted to Dobree: he 
was prevented, however, by illness, a subsequent journey 
to Spain, and other causes, from publishing the portion of 
these remains assigned to him till 1820, when he brought 
out an edition of the Plutus and of all that Porson had left 
upon Aristophanes, along with some learned notes of his 
own. In IBffl he published Porson f s transcript of the 
lexicon of Pholius. In the following year he was elected 
Regius professor of Greek. He died on the 24lh Sep- 
tember, 1 SJ5, He was engaged on an edition of Demo- 
tes at the time of his death : his notes mi this and other 
Greek and Latin authors were collected and published by 
his successor in 1831. Some of his remarks are very acute, 
and some of his conjectures most ingenious, but it may be 
doubted If his friends have consulted his reputation in pub- 
lishing a number of crude observations, the ^realer part of 
which were certainly never intended for the press. A* a 
scholar* Dobree was accurate and fastidious he had some 
taste, and much common sense, which preserved him from 
committing blunders. His unwearying industry supplied 
him with a vast induction of particular observations; but 
he was unwilling, perhaps unable, to generalise ; and on 
the whole, it must be allowed that he has neither done nor 
vn a power of doing any thing to justify the extravagant 
encomiums of some of his friends, 

DOCK, the common name of many perennial tap-rooted 
iesof the genus Rumex. They do not multiply by division 
be root, but their seeds are dispersed in such abundance 
that they become a serious nuisance in cultivated land if 
they are not extirpated. The only two methods of doing 
this, arc either by tearing or digging them up, which is 
so slow as scarcely to be adopted in practical husbandry, 
or by constantly hoeing up their young shoots ; by the latter 
means they usually may be destroyed in a single summer. 

DOCK, a place artificially formed for the reception of 
ships, the entrance of which is generally closed by gates. 
Then are two kinds of docks, dry-docks and wet- docks. 
The former are used for receiving ships in order to their 
being inspected and repaired. For this purpose the dock 
must be so contrived tnat the water may be admitted or 
excluded at pleasure, so that a vessel can be floated in when 
tide is high, and that the water may run out with the 
fall of the tide, or be pumped out, the closing of the gates 
preventing its return. Wet-docks are formed for the pur- 
pose of keeping vessel* always afloat. The name of dock 
has sometimes been applied to an excavation from which 
the water, or a considerable part of it, runs in and out with 
the tide ; but such an excavation is more properly an arti- 
ficial basin or harbour than a dock. One of the chief uses 
of a dock is to keep a uniform level of water, so that the 
business of loading and unloading ships can be carried 
on without any interruption. Dock-yards belonging to the 
government usually consist of dry-docks for repairing ships, 
and of slips on which new vessels are built; besides which 
they comprize storehouses, in which various kinds of naval 
Bt are kept, and workshops in which different processes 
subsidiary to ship-building are carried on. For some ac- 
itof the great Dock-yards of this kingdom the articles 
Chatham, Devonport, Portsmouth, and Plymouth may 
be referred to. 

The first wet-dock for commercial purposes made in i 
kingdom was formed in the year 1 7 US at Liverpool, the 
place of no importance. It has been usual to ascribe to 
amount of accommodation for shipping which has si 
been provided at t his port a great part of the prosperity wfc 
it exhibits at the present day. That the docks at Liv«rr 
have been and are of immense importance to the trad* 
the town, and extremely profitable to the corporator 
which they belong, cannot he disputed, and that the | 
gress of the trade of Liverpool has been accelerated by tl 
means is highly probable ; but that progress seems nei 
sarily to have followed from the extraordinary growth of 
manufactures in Lancashire ; and as Liverpool is the natt 
outlet for the export trade of that part of the kingdom, 
may suppose that the improvements in question have an 
out of the demands and necessities of commerce rather i 
that they have been the cause in any considerable deg 
of the trade itself. The Liverpool docks have been ex« 
ingly profitable in proportion to the money expended 
their construction. This expense has been much less t] 
such works in general require, the labour of excavaf 
having been in a great measure saved in consequence 
their area having been inclosed from the river. For 
same reason, the corporation of the town, to whom thedc 
belong, never had to make any outlay for the pure has 
the land ; and another great cause of expenditure which 
occurred at other places has been avoided at Liverp 
where the docks are simply such, and are not provided v 
warehouses for storing goods. The dock first construe 
and which went by the name of " The Old Dock," was u 
up a few years ago, and the site is now occupied by a i 
handsome custom-house, which is on the point of be 
completed (May 1837). Since the Old Dock was first m 
others have been added at different periods, and at pre* 
the margin of the Mersey along the whole extent of 
town is occupied by a series of eleven docks, without reck 
ing one constructed by the late Duke of Bridgewater as 
auxiliary to his operations in internal navigation: I 
work, which is called M The Duke's Dock" is now in | 
session of the Duke of Bridge water's executors. The agg 
gate area of those docks which are the property of the < 
pu ration exceeds 10U acres. 

The great advantage which the trade of Liverpool 
progressively gained from the existence of these docks i 
be gathered from the following statement of the uum 
of vessels by which they have been frequented in diffei 
years, taken at intervals, and by the amount of dues • 
lee ted upon these vessels and the goods loaded and 
loaded in and from the same, 

A mon ill of 

A moii 


Vessel a. 

Dock Due*. 


Veueli. Dock D 








, . . 2,330 


..4,618.... 33, 



. . J,4jj 


..6,729 65, 



,. 1,142 


..6,44U 76, 


...2, '291. 

. . * 5,384 


..7,276.,.. 94* 


. . .ft,2*i< 

... 3,528 


.10,837 128, 



... Mil 


.11,214 151. 



,. 10,037 


.14,959.... 244, 



. . 9,368 

An act of Parliament was passed in 1825 vesting 
management of the Docks in a committee of 21 memb 
of whom 13 are nominated by the corporation of Liveip 
and 8 are elected out of their own body by the mercha 
who pay each at least 1 B& a year in rates. 

The first commercial wet-dock constructed in the por 
London was for the accommodation of vessels cm p 
the Greenland whale-fishery, and was provided with the 
cessary apparatus for boiling the blubber. Tin* branch 
trade having almost entirely left the port of London, 
dock was, about 30 years ago, opened for the reception 
vessels employed in the European limber and corn trad 
and with a view to the latter, a range of granaries was hi 
This dock, which is now known as the * Commercial Dot 
is situated at Rotherhithe ; it occupies altogether 49 aci 
about four-fifths of which are water, The warehouses 
not built so as to entitle them to be considered * placet 
special security, 1 as described in the warehousing act, I 
many descriptions of goods are consequently not permit 
to be deposited in them under bond. 

Up to the end of the last century all ships arriving 
London, with the exception already mentioned of the Grei 
land whale-ships, discharged then: cargoes into lighters 




The continually increasing inconvenience thus 
the growing trade of the port was much aggra- 
uted during a time of war, by the circumstance of the West 
India ships arriving together in great numbers under con - 
Ho remedy this inconvenienco, a plan was projected 
ffl 1*9". uctinc wet-docks for the reception or ships 

employed in the West India trade; but it was not until 1 799 
tlwt the scheme was sanctioned by Parliament, and that 
in act was passed incorporating ■ company for the purpose, 
with ■capital or joint-stock of 1,390,000/. The docks con- 
his act of incorporation are known as the 
!>ocks, and extend across the piece of land called 
of Dogs, which lies in a bend of the Thames between 
Blirkwall and Limehouse, at both of which places there are 
menaces to the docks. Their construction was begun in 
February 1800, and was prosecuted so vigorously that in two 
years and a half from that time the works were sufficiently 
advanced to admit vessels for unloading. These docks con- 
satcdat first of two separate basins, one of which was used 
i urging, and the other for loading ships. The im- 
port dock, which is situated to I lie north, is 870 yards long 
lad 166 yards wide ; the export dock is of the same length 
tad 135 yards wide, so that the area of the two is equal to 
54 acres ; there are besides two basins, one at each entrance, 
lhat at Blackwall being 5 acres, and that at Limehouse 
t acres in extent. These two docks are together capable of 
ecommodating more than 501* sail of merchant vessels of 

& me, and during the war, when ships arrived from the 
in largo fleets, the accommodation was at times 
found to be not greater than was required. The import 
ff'X'k is surrounded by ranges of commodious warehouses* 
canal, which was cut parallel with the West India 
the south, was intended to form a short cut for 
to enable them to avoid the circuit of the Islo of 
fogs* but being very little used, was purchased about 
to years ago by the West India Dock Company, and a 
TOmniumration was made between it and the other basins 

The London Docks, which are situated at Wapping, were 
begun in the year 1801, and opened for business in 1805; 

S* isl of the western dock of 20 acres, the eastern 
of 7 acres, and the tobacco dock, between the other 
t»a* of more than one acre. The space included within the 
fctk walls exceeds 71 acres. The warehouses are spacious, 
tod Tery substantially built. The tobacco warehouse, which 
a on the south side of the tobacco-dock, covers nearly five 
irrea The vaults beneath the warehouses contain space 
raoqgb for stowing 66,000 pipes and puncheons of wtno and 
a^riav One of the vaults has an area of 7 acres. A great 
pert of the expense attending upon the construction of 
test docks was owing to the value of the houses and other 
peperty by which the site was previously occupied, an* 1 by 
As compensation which the Dock Company was bound by 
as ad of incorporation to pay to lightermen, owners of 
avtboufres in the City of London, and others whose busi- 
nan would probably suffer from the establishing of the 
The joint-stock of the company is 3,238,000?-, in ad- 
dition to which 700,000/. have been borrowed and expended. 
To* amount of business carried on has been very great from 
tfw flrst opening of these docks, but the proprietors do nut 
rrceiTtmore than 2|per cent, per annum on their stock* 

Tee Ernst India Docks, intended for the reception of ships 
hived by the East India Company, are situated at Black* 
L below 'the entrance to the West India Docks. There 
two dorks, one for unloading, the other for loading 
of the area of 18 and 9 acres respectively; the entrance 
ich is common to both docks, is about 3 acres in ex- 
cost of this undertaking was about 500,000/.: it 
ban i *o proved profitable to the undertakers. 

The Bast Country Dock adjoins the Commercial Dock 
t> tie tooth- It is frequented by vessels employed in the 
ffitoyaaii Umber trade. This dock, which was eon- 
Urmcted in ISO", has an area of about r>4 acres. The basin 
•t the entrance of the Surrey canal at Rot herb it he is also 
a»d as a dock. 

Tbe projecting of the St. Katherine'3 Docks arose out of 
•s alleged want of sufficient accommodation in the London 
Dock*. The act incorporating the St. Kalherinc's Dock 
Coapsny was passed in 1821, and the Docks, which are 
tinatfed between the London Docks and the Tower, were 
vsrttally opened for business in October 1828. The joint 
■oak of the company amounts to 1,352,000/., besides which 
£90,900/. of borrowed money have been spent. The outer 
w«lt incloses ao area of 24 acres, of which 11 acres arc 

water, the remainder being occupied by quays and ware- 
houses. There are two docks, each capable of receiving 
vessels of 80 (J tons burthen, and which are frequented by 
ships in the East India, the North American and South 
American trades. The warehouses are very commodious, 
and so contrived that goods arc taken into them at once from 
the ship. 

The wet-dock at Bristol, which is of a character different 
from those of Liverpool and London, has already been de- 
scribed. [Bristol.] 

At Hull there are three docks, occupying together an 
area of 26 acres, and capable of affording accommodation to 
more than 300 ships; but this amount is found to be insum- 
cient for the increasing trade of the port, and a public meet- 
ing was lately held in tbe town to consider of the it 
cessary to bo taken for providing more dock room. The 
new port of Guole, situated near the junction of the Ouse 
with the Humber has two wet-docks, one of which is cal- 
culated for the reception of sea-going vessels of considerable 
burthen, and the other is used for the accommodation of 
small craft which navigate the rivers and canals. 

Leith has two wet-docks, extending together over 10 acres, 
and capable of accommodating 150 vessels of the size 
which at the time of the works being performed usually fre- 
L|ucn tod the port. Since then, the introduction of steam 
navigation has made an entire change in Ihe wants and 
uses of Lcilh as a harbour. The entrance to the i 
not sufficiently wide to admit the larsre steam vessels trading 
between London and Edinburgh* which must consequently 
discharge and load in the harbour, where they take the ground 
every tide, which is very objectionable, or they must lie at 
anchor in tbe Frith of Forth, and load and unload by mentis 
of boats, which is expensive and sometimes difficult, and 
even dangerous. The deficient state of aecoram" 
here described Wis investigated by a committee of the 1 1 ouse 
of Commons in 1815, but the insolvent condition of the 
corporation of Edinburgh, in which body is vested the 
property of tbe harbour and shore of Leith and its neigh- 
bourhood, has hitherto prevented the commencement of 
anv improvement. 

bOC'LEA. [Mai ad.*.] 

DOCTOR, one that has taken the highest degree in tbe 
faculties of Divinity, Law, Physic, or Music. In its original 
import it means a person so skilled in his particular art or 
science as to be qualified to teach it. 

There is much difference of opinion as to the time when 
the title of Doctor was first created. It seems to ha\ i 
established for the professors of the Roman law in the Uni- 
versity of Bologna, about the middle of the twelfth century. 
Antony i Wood says, that the title of Doctor in Divinity 
began at Paris, after Peter Lombard bad compiled In 

DOS, about the year 1131. {IhslamiArttiq. Uttiv.aJ (tr 
Jbrd, 4 to. Oxf. L782. vol.i. p. 62.) Previously, those who had 
proceeded in the faculties Dad been termed Musters only. 
The title of Doctor was not adopted in the English Universi- 
ties earlier than the time of John or Henry the Third. 

Wood cites several instances of the expense and magnifi- 
cence which attended the early granting of the higher degrees 
in England in the reigns ofHcnry III. and Edward L About 
the yearl26ii, ho says, when AJphonsoi de Sen is, or Siena, 
an Italian, studied at Oxford, one Bonifaeius de Saluciis pro- 
ceeded in the civil law, at whose inception there were such 
ren monies and feasting, that the like for that faculty was 
scarce before known hero. The abbot and convent of Osc- 
ncy gave him the free use of their monastery on that occa- 
sion. He adds, lhat a still greater solemnity was performed 
some years after, at Gloucester College, by the Benedictines, 
for one William de Brooke, a monk or St. Peter's Monastery 
at Gloucester, who took tbe degree of D.D. in 1298, being 
the first of hi* Order who had attained that dignity, He 
was accompanied by the abbot and whole convent of his 
own monastery, the abbots of Westminster, Reading, A bing- 
dun, Evesham, and Mahncsbury, numerous other priors and 
monks, and by a hundred noblemen and esquires on horses 
richly caparisoned. (Wood, ut supr. pp. 65, 66.) 

In Oxford tbe lime requisite for the Doctor of Divinity's 
degree, subsequent to that of M.A., is eleven years: for a 
Doctor's of Civil Law, five years from the time at which the 
Bachelor of Laws 1 degree was conferred. Those who ' 
this degree professionally, in order to practise in Dot 
Commons, are indulged wit ha shorter period, and permitted 
lo obtain it at four instead of five years, upon making oath 
in convocation of their intentions so to practise. For the de- 

D O D 


D O D 

gree of M.D., three years must intervene from 1 Lie time of the 
candidate's having taken fail Bachelor ofMedicins's decree. 
For a Doctor's degree in Divinity or Law three distinct lec- 
tures are to be read in the schools, upon three different da 
bui bv a dispensation, first ubtaiiu-il i m-on vt nation or congre- 
gation, all three are permitted to be read upon the Mima day j 
hu ihat by dispensation a single day is sutlicient in point of 
time far these exercises. For a Doctor's decree in Me U- 
citte, a dissertation upon so nit* subject, to be approved by 
the Professor of Medicine, must be publicly recited in the 
ols, and a copy of it afterwards delivered to the Pro- 

In Cambridge a Doctor of Divinity must bo a Bachelor of 
Divinity of five, or a M.A< of twelve years* standi ng. The 
requisite exercises are one act, two aas, a Latin 

mon, and an English sermon. A Doctor of Laws must be 
a Bachelor of Laws of five years' standing. His exercises are 
one act and one opponency. Doctors of Physic proceed in 
the same manner as Doctors of Laws, For a Doctor's de- 
gree in music, in both Universities, the exercise required 
U the composition and performance Of B *.-deinn Piece of 
music, to be approved by the Professor of the Faculty, i See 
the Oaf and Comb. Calendars for 1837.) 

Coloured engravings of the dresses worn by the doctors of 
the several faculties of Oxford and Cambridge will -be 
lid in Aekermann's History of the Univ. of Oxford, 4to., 
JSI4, vol ii. p, •-/. ; UKJ in his History ff the Van 

it/ur, 4ta, 1815, vol. ii. p. 312, et sea. 

DOCTORS' COMMONS, the College of Civilians in 
Loudon, near St. Paul's Churchyard, founded by Dr. Har- 
vey, Dean of the Arches, for the professors of the civil law, 

he official residences of the judges of the Arch 
Canterbury, of the judge of the Admiralty, and the mdjj 
the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, are situated there. 
It is also the residence of the doctors of the civil law prac- 
tising in London, v, ho live there t fin diet and lodging) in a col- 
tegieJe maimer, and common together, and hence the place ii 
■ '..vii by the name of Doctors' Commons* It was burnt 
down in the fire of London, and rebuilt at the charge of the 
profession. {Chambral Mag. Brit. Notilia.) To this college 
Wong a certain number of proctors, who manage causes 
for the i.i oltcivts, &c, 

In the Com men Hall are held all the principal spiritual 
courts, and the High Court of Admiralty, 


)DRIDGE, PHILIP, D D. (birth in 1702, and 
death \n 1 7^1), a dissenting divine, who, on account of bis 
singularly amiable disposition and manners, his ministerial 
hnty, piety* and learning, is regarded as one of the or- 
naments of the religious community to winch he belonged. 

The community of which we speak is I hat of the Old 

Dis- England; those «ho adhered to Che clem 

the church when the Aet of Uniformity, passed in 

1864, well after iho return of Charles II, from exile, pre- 

senbed the terms of ministerial conformity. These peri 

tunned a numerous and powerful party during the whole 

of thai reign, and at length succeeded, though after much 

suffering, in enforcing their right to have their meeting- 

hou- .and themselves allowed to assemble 

under the same protection which was extended to ministers 

and people who were willing to conform kinder that act. 

right however was n ised till alter the revulu- 

tie act of parliament which gave it is called the Act 

Toleration, and was one of the fir>t legislative mea- 

of the new government, being passed in 1689. 

The i i hat the aon-conifonning or dissenting 

body became cast into i h with Ufl own plat 

WOrahip, where the HSUsl ordinances ot Christianity were 
administered; each having also its own pastor, who was 
either a minister who had been silenced by the act of IGG2, 
or a minister who had been trained under those mm, 
and ordained by them. 

Doddridge was born En oneof these families living in L-n- 
don, where Lie had the early part of In* education. Li 
then LW a time at St, Albans, where lived a minister, Mr. 
bo irai hut gTeat friend, and indeed patron, for the 
I'm bar of Doddridge had died while he was young, and had 
Li tie for the expense of his education. It was early per- 
ad that his turn of mind peculiarly pointed to the pro- 
: ■ minister, and be was entered si a dissenting 
which Mr. John Jennings presided 
of one of the minister* silenced in 1662. This academy \\a^ 
kept at the village of Kibworth in Leicestershire, Dr. Dodd- 

ridge entered it in 1718 or 1719, and in 1722 commenced 
his ministry at KiL»\vorth T bis late tutor Mr, Jennings re- 
moving in that year to Hinckley, where he died in the suc- 
ceeding year. 

The death of Mr. Jennings was an important event m the 
history of Dr, Doddridge. Great expectations had 
formed among the Dissenters of iLie success of Mr, Jennings 
in the education of ministers, and it was thought a poinl 
Importance to maintain all academy of that kmd in ono of 
the central counties. Mr. Jennings had mentioned his pupfl 
Doddridge as being a person whom he thought cmine 
qualilicd to carry and the eyes of the D 

era Were generally directed to him as the person best quali- 
fied to do so. 

Howev er, sevi i passed, during which Doddri 

wus leading the life of a non-coufbrmisl minister, his servicer 
diviaed between the people who attended the chapel 
at Kibworth, and the congregation at the neighbouring 
town of Market Harhorough. He waa diligent in his mi 
try both in public and private, but he found time also for 
much theological reading:, by which means he qualified him- 
self the better fur the office which he and Ins friends had 
ever kept in view. 

In 1 729 he began his academy, which soon attained a hi^h 
reputation. It was the institution in which mo>t of the 
more distinguished ministers of Lbe Old ts in the 

middle of the eighteenth century were educated It was first 
established at Market Harborough, where he at the time re* 
sided; but before the end of the year he removed to North- 
ampton, having been invited to become the minister of the 
nting congregation intbat town ; and at Northampton 
he continued both as pastor of the Dissenting congregati 
and head of the Dissenting academy, till his death* He 
died at Lisbon thirteen days after his arrival. He hod 
gone thither with little Rope of recovery. 

Doddridge lived at a tune when the zeal of the class oi 
persons to whom he belonged had lost some part of its antient 
fervour. This he saw with regret, and was ve s tu 

revive it. This appears to have been a principal oh i 
one kept steadily in view both in his ure 

and his published writings, His printed sermons ore 
remarkable for the earnestness with which he 
the great importance of a relicious life, the evil ot 
indifference or carelessness, ami the indispensable 
of uniting with the practice of the moral duties th 
vation of the spirit of piety, and a deep and serioi 
to the momentous truths of religion. This appears 
larly in a book of his winch has been popular l>oth at home 
and abroad, entitled * The Rise and P Helicon 

in ihe Soul* There is the same spirit of animated piety, 
and occasionally touches of genuine eloquence, in the prac- 
tical part of another publication of his entitled *The Fte; 
Expositor/ In which we have the whole Scriptn. 
New Testament, (the gnnpelft being in a harmony,) with s 
paraphrase, a series of critical notes, and reflections, or, is 
calls them, improvements of each section into which the 
whole is divided. This work has also been often printed) 
and it may be regarded as an evidence of liis learning, as 
well us of his piety ; the notes abound with cutical re- 
marks, gathered out of numerous authors, or suggestions 
of his own mind, full of that knowledge which fits a man to 
illustrate thuse difficult writings. The course of meia- 
physical, ethical, and th< lectures, through which 

he conducted the young men who were trained by Lira for the 
christian ministry was published after his death, and fonns 
an excellent text-book of systematic divin ally 

m the later edition by Dr. Hipp » a very 

.1 bod) of references lo writers on 
under the heads of mettiphy , or divinity, 

must it be omit him the Dissenters ow 

best hymns which are sung by them in their p 

Thus living a life of activity and usefulness, practising 
the virtues which he taught to others, and exhibiting d 
Npir.t of an un le lived greatly I by 

many eminent persons beyond the pale of his own religious 
unity, and in that community his death bq 

ape WSS felt to be a great and general misfortune. Hi* 
till never mentis i • them but nr. 

IV ■■ounts of his life have been put The 

fits! by Job Orton, another divine of a kindred spirit, who 
belonged to the same community : the second by Dr. 
Kfpnift, a pupil of Dr. Doddridge, and also a minis 
has introduced it in the 'Biographia Britaniwca,*of which he 

D D 



«uthe editor, The reader may see in these worki all the 
public labours, his principles, and plan of lee- 
:id will easily understand Jroui ihern the innY 
ia racier on the body to which he belonged. One of 
u Is has within the last ten years given to the 
collection of his correspondence and 
In them we see his inmost mind 
>E'CAGON. a figure of twelve sides; a term igctie- 
i equiangular and equilateral (or regular) 

fa regular dodecagon inscribed in a circle is 

- : and of that about a circle ' 5338984 

lm*. Similarly the radii of the circles inscribed 

ri re urn scribed about a dodecagon are 1*8660254 and 

>17 of the side. The area of a dodecagon is three 

r aquatic of the radius of the circumscribed circle. 

if the square on the side. 

\I A, the name of any order in the L in- 

ration of plants wherein the number of - 

!!E*DRON. [Solids, Regular] 
"NDRIA, the twelfth class in the Jinnean 
i »f plants. It contains species having twelve 
twelve stamens, provided they do not adhere by 

HITS, a genus of birds generally supposed to 
ery existence has been doubted. We 
•taken some ; >llect the evidence on this sub- 

, tad we here present it to our readers. 

Written and PtcTORtAL Evidence. 

ap p ears that Vasco de Gama, after having doubled the 
Cap* of Good Ho| o, or Cape of Storms) 

nd it, a bay, An- 
pa de Ban Bias, near an hie. where he saw a very threat 
:ds of the form of a goose, but with wings like 
taett of the bats, which the sailors called solitaries. On then 
r tf u i a , h ihe Portuguese touched again at San Blaz, 

tb*re ibey torik a great number of (he-* 1 coin 

mat* them , railed the island ' llha des 1 

the East Indies, in 1598, 
K Jarob Van Neek and Wybrand van Warwijk (small 4to., 
XTt^enUm ere is a description of the W<dgh<**- 

ph m (W island of Co rue, now called Mauritius, us being 
n hrgees <ror swans, with large heads, and a kind of hood 
thereon ; no wings, hut, in place of them, three or four black 
tale pent {pewrekens), ana their tails consisting of four or 
tvt curled plumelets (pluymkens) of a greyish colour. The 
fosat is spciken of as very good, but it is stated that Hie 
Tgya j ptf* preferred some turtle-doves that they found there. 
1 spnoars with a tortoise near it t in a small engraving, 
oat of stx which form the prefixed plate. 

lathe frontispiece to De Bry iQuinta Pars Indian Orien- 

'j - x M.DCI), surmounting the architectural design of 

page, will be found, we believe, the earliest en- 

ptvfags of ibe Dodo. A pair of these birds stand on the 

rornice on each side, and the following cut is taken from the 

ft band. 

io Insula? Do Ceme a nobis Mauri- 

i: 'Carulean parrots also 

n great numbers. r birds; besides 

mother larger kind, (freatwr than our swans, 

*i heads* ■ with a skin, as it were, 

». *e bird* are without win^s in the place of 

vfoch ere t r rather black feathers (quarurn loco 

prndcunt). A few curved 

titute the tail. These 

Vri» we ra 7, because the longer they were 

e Island of Bourbon Wat «lii. 
i. enhn* in iMf, lad *t that itme 
4, *nd lLat U rtettved tit* ii*me of M^ittobiti ur Ma»- 

cooked the more unfit for food they became (quod quo Ion- 
seu dint ins elixarentur, pins lentesoerent et esui JsV 
ires fleretrt). Their bellies and breasts were neverlbe- 
rf i pleasant flavour (saporis juctmdi) and easy of maw* 
(ication. Another cause fur the ap, ellution we gave ihem 
was the preferable abundance of turtle-doves which were of 
a far sweeter and more grateful flavour,* It will bo ob- 
served that the bill in Do Bry 1 a figure is comparatively 

Clusius, in his * Exotica' (1605), gives a figure, here co- 
pied, which, he says, he takes from a rough sketch m a 
journal of a Dutch voyager who had seen the bird in a voy- 
age to the Moluccas in the year 1598. 

The following is Willughby's translation of Clusius, and 
ii is thus headed: 4 The Dido, called by Clusms 
Gal lux gallinaceus peregrinm, by Nieremburg Cygnus cu- 
cullatus, by Rontius Dronte* 'This exotic bird, fouud by 
the HollantUri m the island called CygtiBoa or Ceme, (that 
is ihe Swan Island) by the Portuguese, Mauritius Island by 
the Low Dutch, of thirty miles' compass, famous especially 
1 ii [.lack ebony, did eoual or exceed a swan in bigness, but 
was of a far different shape ; for its head was great, covered 
as it were with a certain membrane resembling a hood : be- 
side, its bill was not Mat and broad, but thick and long; of 
I yellowish colour next the head, the point being black. The 
upper chap was hooked ; in Ibe nether had a bluish spot in 
the middle hi! v and black part. They re- 

ported that it is rovered with thin and short feathers, and 
wants winga, instead wheieuf it baih only four or five long 
black feathers ; tint ihe hinder part of the body is very fitf 
and fleshy, wherein for the tad were four or live small 
I feathers, twirled up together, of an u&h mlum. li- 
ne thick rather than long, whose upper [art, u.s tar as 
the knee, is covered with black feathers; the lower \mtt, 
together with the feet, of a yellowish colour: its foal divided 
Lh(ree(and those the longer! standing f»n\aid, 
the fourth and shortest backward: all furnished with black 
After 1 had composed ami writ down ihe history of 
thih bird with a> much duigeiice and faithfulness as 1 could, 
[ happened io see in the house of Peter Pauwiua, primary 
professor of physic in the university of Leyden, a le^ thereof 
cut otf at the knee, lately brought over out of Mauritius his 
island. It was not very long, from the knee to the 1 ending 
of the foot being but little more than four inches, but of a 
LTrai thickness, so that it was almost four inoDAS in oom- 
jiass, and covered with thick-set scales, on the upper side 
broader, anil of a yellowish colour, on the under (-r bsv 
side of the leg) lesser and dusky. The upper side of the 
toes was also covered with broad scales, the under sloe 
wholly callous. The toes were short for so thick a leg: for 
the length of the greatest or middlemost toe to the nail did 
not much exceed two indies, that of the other toe next to 
it scarce came up to two inches: the back- toe fell some- 
thing short of an inch and a half; but the claws of ull I 
thick, hard, black, less than an inch long ; but that of the 
back -toe longer than the rest, exceeding an inch.* The ma- 
riners, in their dialect, gave this bird the name Wajgfa I 
get, that is, a nauseous or yellowisht bird; partly Eeoaf 
after long boilinii its fab became not tender, but continued 
bard and of a difficult concoction, excepting the breast and 
gizzard, which they found to be of no bad relish, partly be- 
cause they could easily get many turtle-doves, which were 
much more delicate and pleasant to the palate. Wherefore 
it was no wonder that in comparison of those they despised 
this, and said they could bo well content wit hunt ii. M< 
over thuy said that they found certain stonea in in ^tzz:>nl, 
and no wonder, for ait other birds, as welt o* these swull re 
stones, to assist ihem in grinding their meat* Thus far 
Oust us.' 

In the voyage of Jacob Heemskerk and Wolfert Har- 
mansz to the East Indies, in 1601, 1602, 1603 (small 4to , 
Amsterdam, 1648), folio 19, the Dod-aarsen (Dodos) are 
enumerated among the birds of the island of 'Cerne, now 
Mauritius f and in the * Journal of the East Indian Voyage 
of Willcm Ysbrantsz Bontekoe van Hoorn, comprising 

• Wr an* indebted to Mt, Gray for the following m»*oiuTpm*ot of ihe f.*jt in 
Ihf BrUiiL Museum;—* I lei \ 

• Ive 3 iDchea ; bnek loe If iucli : fr\tm ;ire iumcIi wuro. 

8 line* . b-ick cU«, »l»n mi V :\t the leK 

m»'L»U-jnfil by ClUiiui if i n.ueuieiH, 

ihe tpednen which w*j »(lerwiirdi noliced by Grew, »mt Anally eain« in the 
lintiih Mukuqi. 

tSjirj WttkffMrj ri ii iomewhAt indi»iinct, and lbrre tatty b« 

error, In the original th* worda are ' IVaiqh V«$+L l»oe ♦'«!, turn— m tteTen* 
•Vi#, rarlim quod, kc-i ibe word iherefuie ia att uiUfpol 

D O D 


D D 

many wonderful and perilous things that happened to him' 
'from 161 B to 1625 (small 4to„ Utrecht, 1649)— under the 

bead of the 'Island of Mauritius or Maskarinas,' mention 
, made (page 6) of ihe Dod-eersen, which had small wings, 

but could not fly, and were so fat that they scarcely could 


Figure from Cluahu. 

Herbert, in his Travels ( I K3-J>. Rives a figure or rather 
figure* of a bird that he calls * Dodu,' and the following ac- 
count: — 'The Dodo cornea first to our description, here, 
and in Dygarrois (and no where else, that ever I could see 
or hcare of, is generated the podo}. (A Portuguize name 
it is, and has reference to her simplenesh a bird which for 
shape and rarenesse might be called a Phosnix (wer't in 
abia) ; her body is round and cxtreame fat, her slow pace 
gets that corpulencie ; few of them weigh lessc than fifty 
pound: better to the eye than the stomack: grease ap- 
petites may perhaps commend them, but to the indifferently 
curious nourishment* but prove offensive. Let's lake her 
picture: her visage darts forth melancholy, as sensible of 
nature's injurie in framing so great and mass ie a body to 
be directed by such small and complementall wings, as are 
unable to hoise her from the ground, serving only to prove 
her a bird ; which otherwise might be doubted of: her head 
is variously drest, the one halfe hooded with downy blackish 
feathers; the other perfectly naked; of a whitish hue, as 
if a transparent lawnc had covered it: her bill is very 
howked and bends downwards, the thrill or breathing place 
" i in the midst of it ; from which part to the end, the colour 
i a greene mixt with a pale yellow ; her eves be round 
small, and bright as diamonds ; her cloathing is of 
finest downe, such as you see in goal ins j her traync is (like 
a China beard) of three or foure abort leathers ; her legs 
tfeicfcj and black, and strong; her tallons or pounces sharp ; 
her stomack fiery hot, so as stones and iron are easily di- 
gested in it ; in that and shape, not a Utile resembling the 
Africk oestriches: but so much, as for their more certain 
difference I dare to give thee (with two others) her repre- 
sentation,' — (4th ed n 1677,) 

Herbert'! fiffur*. 

Nierembcrefs description may he considered a 

or»ov of that of Clusius, and indeed his « more 

compilation. As wo have seen above, he names the bird 
CygnuM eurullafti** 

In Tradeseant's catalogue Mus&um Tradeseantitmum; 
or, a Collection of Rarities preserved at South Ln 
near London, by John Tradescant, 1 London, 1656, LZino.), 
we find among the * Whole Birds' — " Dodar, from the island 
Mauritius; it is not able to tlie being so big.* That thii 
was a Dodo there can be no doubt; for we have the testi- 
mony of an eye-witness, whose ornithological competent 
cannot be doubted, in the affirmative. willughby at the 
end of his section on * The Dodo,' and immediately beneath 
his translation of Bontius, Im the following words: 'We 
have seen this bird dried, or its skin stuft in Tradescant'* 
cabinet/ We shall, hereafter, trace this specimen to Ox- 

Jonston (1657) repeats the figure of Clusius, and refers 
to his description and that of Herbert. 

Bontius, edited by Piso (1658), writes as follows; 'Be 
Drottte, aliis Dod-aers. y After stating that among lbs 
islands of the East Indies is that which is called Cerm by 
some, but Mauritius 4 a nostratibus,* especially celebrated 
for its ebony, and that in the said island a bird * mira? con- 
(brmalkmis called Drvntt abounds, he proceeds to tell us— 
we take WiUughby's translation — that tt is * fur bigness of 
mean size between an ostrich and a turkey, from which it 
partly differs in shape, and partly agrees with tbera, espe- 
cially with the African ostriches, if you consider the rump, 
quills, and feathers: so that it was like a pigmy among 
them, if you regard the shortness of its legs. It hath s 
great, ill-favoured head, covered with a kind of membrane 
resembling a hood; great black eyes; a bending, promi- 
nent fat neck ; an extraordinary long, strong, bluish* white 
bill, only the ends of each mandible are of a different 
that of the upper black, that of the nether yellowisl 
sharp-pointed and crooked. It gapes huge wide as 
naturally very voracious. Its body is fat, round, 
with soft grey feathers, after the manner of an ostrich**.* 
each side instead of hard wing-feathers or quills, it is fur- 
nished with small, so ft- feathered wings, of a yellowish ash 
colour; and behind, the rump, instead of a tail, is adoruet 
with five small curled feathers of the same colour. It hath 
yellow legs, thick, but very short ; four tees In each foot, 
solid, long, as it were scaly, armed with strong, black claws. 
It is a slow-paced and stuptd bird, and whit h easily becomes 
a prey to the fowlers. The flesh, especially of the brea- 
fist, esculent, and so copious, that three or four Dado* 
sometimes suffice to fill an hundred seamens* bell es. I 
they be old, or not well boiled, they are of difficult cor 
lion, and are salted and stored up for provision of vie 
There are found in their stomachs stones of an ash col- 
of divers figures and magnitudes; yet not bred there, ai 
the common people and seamen fancy, but swallowed by 
the bird ; as though by this mark also nature would mi 
fest that these fowl are of the ostrich kind, in thai i 
swallow any hard things, though they do not digest tin 


iah, both 

Dmitt, Figure from ftontim (wood 

Til*** U *1«? ft filf f Ol- <.-rr* In ljl# r T 



tf~_r ra 

4» tmra 

D D 

If appears from Adam Olearius (Die Gottornsche Kunst 
Rammer, 1666K that there was a head to be seen in the 
: hut the figure (Tab. xiii. f. 5) is very like 
that of < It is mentioned as the head of the I 

Btus is referred to. In the plate thi 
h sK»dcd. and has a more finished appearance: the rot tS 
the bird is i : 
Grew C Musamm Rcgalis So a catalogue and 

and artificial rarities belonging 
In the Royal So 'Ion, folio, 1681)* at p. 68, thus 

describes the bird which is the subject of our inquiry. 
TV leg ofa Dodo ; called Cygnut cucu/iafu* by Nierem- 
; or Clusius. Gatlm gallinaceu* peregritws . by 
railed Bronte, who salth that by some it is called 
i Dratrh) iJod-uers, largely described in Mr. Willughby's 
fClu us and others. He is more especially 
Sfltinguished from other birds by the membranous 

hea L, the greatness and strength of his bill, the 
ftJSBsga of his wings, his bunchy tail, and the shortness of 
fea leg*. Abating his head and legs, he seems to be much 
ft* an ostrich, to which also he comes near as to the big- 
hts body. He breeds in Mauris's Island. The leg 
bans £fY*erred is covered with a reddish-yellow scab 
" above I t above five in thick! 

he y rein, though it be inferior to 

joined with its >hort- 
I almost equal strength/ At p. 73, 
The head of the M 
rosed by some to be tbe 
bt/ul. That there is a bird 
mly known to our sen; 
?m wh n the head here pre-* 

>e the head of that bird, which they de* 
■ i be a very great one, the wrings whereof arc 
•at ot- 

what ship-* are coming to land, and so return. Whereas 
hardly n \ in? little or no wings, 

C sveh ma those and the Ot 

ivu^h the upper beak of this bill doth much 

• flut of the the nether is of a quite 

I eid the head ofa 

lib figure of it/ Grew 

description of the skull which 

and intituled * Head of the 

The leg above mentioned is 

preserved in the British Museum, where it was 

bar specimens described by Grew, 

to that national 

ubiisirrncn a as a well qualified observer, and 

in and compa- 
re it, there is no 
GftffV ma Hot familiar with Tra- 

ks of the Dodo 
Cjri Wdlughby and Kay, and 

that tb* Museum of tin iety of London 

<c£ of tise JJodo. This was evidently the leg 
i to. 
to hu descrtp'i on* of the Isle, ' which is called 
ivuvs, or Rodrigo,' mvesthe 
ii the 
king to the 
re, and brought 
*le an excellent ragout with 
fat Of all tbe birds in the 
that which goes by the name 

of them. The 

colour ; the feet 

hut a Im! ijked. 

.1 covered with 

Tupper of a horse; they are 

straight* and a little 

ur key's when it lifts up its 

i head without 

rvw tty, I heir wings are too little to 

rve only to beat 

^^Hlftfr o ii they cad one another. They 

t&wfcxl about for twentj times together on the 

* ' A ^rm *n\+c* to tiic Eait Imli« hy Prancii t^rguat and hli com- 
ic* IS twoDtMit J*lua<U,&cV&vo., Loudi'D, 

iliat thi 
, or else we have nowh< 

?a a ven 
Vre4 I Tab. 6), 

%* as it doubtless was. 

P.C^ No. $37. 


same side during the space of four or five minutes ; the 
motion of their wings makes then a noise vary like that of 
a rattle, and one may hear it two hundred paces off. The 
bone of their wing grows greater towards the extremity, and 
forms a little round mass under the feathers as big as a 
musket-ball: that and its beak are the chief defence of 
this bird. Tis very hard to catch it in the woods, but easy 
in open places, because we run faster than they, and some- 
limes we approach them without much trouble. From 
March to September they are extremely fat, and taste ad* 
mirably well, especially while they are young ; some of the 
males weigh forty-five pound. 

* The females are wonderfully beautiful, some fair, some 
brown ; 1 call them fair because they are of the colour of 
fair hair : they have a sort of peak, like a widow's, upon 
their breasts, which is of a dun colour. No one feather is 
straggling from the other all over their bodies, being very 
careful to adjust themselves and make them all even with 
their beaks. The feathers on their thighs are round like 
shells at the end, and being there very thick, have an 
agreeable effect: they have two risings on their craws, and 
the feathers are whiter there than tbe rest, which livelily 
represent the fine neck of a beautiful woman. They walk 
with so much statelineas and good grace, that one cannot 
help admiring them and loving them, by which means 
their fine mien often saves their lives. 

* Though these birds will sometimes very familiarly come 
up near enough to one when we do not run after them, 
they will never grow tame i as soon as they are caught 
they shed tears without crying, and refuse all manner of 
sustenance till they die. We find in the gizzards of boih 
male and female a brown stone, of the bigness of a hen's 
egg; it is somewhat rough, flat on one side, and round on 

other, heavy and hard. We believe this stone was 
there when they were hatched, for let them be never so 

i& you meet with it always. They have never hut one 
of them ; and besides, the passage from the craw to the 
gizzard is so narrow, that a like mass of half the bigness 

1 not pass. It served to whet our knives better than 
any other stone whatsoever. ft >e birds build their 

nests they choose a clean place, gather together some palm- 

I for that purpose, and heap them up a foot and a half 
hu»h from the ground, on which they sit. They never lay 
hut one egg, which is much bigger than that of a goose 
The male and female both cover it in their turns, and the 
young is not hatched till at seven weeks' end: all the while 
they are sitting upon it, or are bringing up their young one, 

bolrearj Bird of Ut/ttL 

N<Hm\Xmt-; EL 




which is not able to provide for itself in several months, they 
Will not suiter any other bird of their species 1o come within 
two bundled yards round of the place; but what is very sin- 
gular is, the males will never drive away the females, only 
when be perceives one be makes a noise with his wings to call 
the female, and she drives the unwelcome stranger away, not 
leaving it till it is without her bounds. The female does 
the same as to the males, whom she leaves to the male, and 
he drives them away. We have observed this several times, 
and 1 atlirm it to he true. The combats between them en 
this occasion last sometimes pretty long, because the 
stranger only turns about, and does tint l\y direcilv from 
the nest: however, the others do not forsake it till they 
have quite driven it out of their limits. After these I 
have raised their young one, and left it to itself, they are 
always together, which the other birds are not ; and though 
they happen to mingle with other birds of the same sp« 
these two companions never disunite. We have ofien re- 
marked, that some days after the young one leaves the nest, 
a company of thirty or forty brings another poena one to 
it, and the new-Hedged bird, with its father and mother 
joining with the hand, march to tone bye place. We fre- 
quently followed them, and found that afterwards the old 
ones went each their way alone, or in couples, and left the 
two young ones together, which we called a marriage. This 
particularity has something in it which looks a little fabu- 
lous; nevertheless, what 1 tay is sincere truth, and what I 
have more than once observed with care and pleasure. 1 
The worthy narrator then indulges in some reflections on 
marriages in general, and early marriages Ln particular. It 
is worthy of note, with reference to the alleged juxtapo- 
sition of the hones of a large land-turtle and those of I be 
dodo, to which we shall have occasion to allude, that the 
same author, in the dcscriplion of the same island, speak* 
of the multitude of land-turtles; of which he say a, * I have 
seen one that weighed one hundred pound, and had flesh 
enough about it to feed a good number of men." 

The preceding cut is copied irom Leguat's figure of ' the 
Solitary Bird.* 

In the frontispiece is representor! one in a sort of land- 
scape, and eke land-turtles; and in ■ a plan of the settle- 
ment' in the Island of Rodrigo, many, some in pairs, are 
placed about. This plan shows the situation of the houses, 
fee., of Lcgual and his companions: there are also land- 
turtles and other animals.* 

We now proceed to trace the specimen whUdi was in the 
lusapum Tradescant i an um. There were, it seems* three 
Tradescant*, grandfather, father, and son. The two former 
are said to have been gardeners to Queen Elizabeth, and 
the latter to Charles f There are two portraits to the 
* Musaeum/ one of * Joannes Tradescantus pater' and the 
other of * Joannes Tradescantus films/ by Hollar. Xbeee 
two appear to have been the collectors: for John Trades- 
cant» the son, writes in bis address l to the ingenious rea- 
der' that he *was resolved to lake a catalogue of those 
varieties and curiosities which my lather had scedulously 
collected and my selfe with continued diligence have 
augmented, and hitherto preserved together,' Tins John 
Tradescant, the son, must have been the Tradescant with 
whom Elian Asbuiole bearded for a summer when Ash rnole 
agreed to purchase the collection, which was said to have 
been conveyed to Ashmole by deed of gift from T 
and his wife. Tradescant died soon after and Ashmole, in 
1662, filed a bill in Chancery for a delivery of the curio- 
ait ies. The cause is stated to have come to a hearing in 
16G4; and, in 1674, Mrs. Tradescant delivered up the col- 
lection pursuant to a decree in Chancery, and afterward* 
(April, 1678, some say) was found drowned in her own 
pond, Ashmole added to the collection, and presented it to 
the University of Oxford, where it became the foundation of 
the Asbraolean Museum. That the entire * Dodar* went 
to Oxford with the rest of Tradescant's curiosities there can 
be no doubt. Hyde (Religionis Veteruiu Persarum, 
Historia, 1700) makes particular mention of it as existing in 

* L* premier onlrur qui alt parte do Solitaire parAil ctr* Caste! &ton» dam 
forfeit il'un voyage fait en ISM. et pubtit •rulemeut m 1690. II touch* t 
I'll* *\p Houi-Uwi, alor* nominee Majcaraigne par lei Portugal, el encore in- 
tiabiier. qaoUjuc vlsilee dvpaU toug temp* par tea tiavigvtear*. I\irmi 
I hi a t— mr qu'il y nrtaarqua, it an partic'iUrine une etpace d* l& groeieur 
d'ua o»e, tree grande, avec det aiia# rourtci qui iw hit permettoirnt uaad* 
Cct oiwm ivatt etc. dtt-il, nommr jutqun Ik le giant, et Ilk' do 
France ■■ produit boaucoup ; il eat blauc, rt aalurellement ti doux. qu'on 
peul le prendre 1 la main; da molat il* ttoiant it peu efl'rayei a U vue dea 
-ikMuu, qn'U leur etoit oUA d"eu tu«r uu trti grand uombre ay«c dci baloai 
t di>t piertea. (De BUmvill*.) 

the Museum at Oxford. There, according to Mr. Duncan, 
it was destroy** in I T&Shf order of the visitors, and he thus 
gives the evidence of its destruction: — 

I In the Ashmolean Catalogue, made by Ed. Llhwyl. Mi - 
siei Procustos, lt>84 (Plott being Ibe keeper), the entry of 
the bird is ** No. 29. Gallus gallinaceus peregriuus Clusii. 
&c/' Tn a Catalogue made subsequently to 1755, it is stated 
*' Thai the numbers from 5 to 46, being decayed, were 
ordered to be removed at a meeting of the majority of the 
visitors, Jan. 8, 1755." Among these of course was 

the Dodo, its number being 2% This is further shown by a 
new Catalogue, completed in 1756, in which the ord 
visitors is recorded as follows : " Ilia quibus nullus m raar- 
giuo asst^natur numerus a Musseo subducta sunt ciroclia, 
amiueutibus Vice-Cancellario aliisque Curatoribus ad ca 
lustrandaeonvoeatis, die Januarii 8vo., A.n. 175J/' The Dodo 
is one of t, fa are here without the number. 1 (Dun- 

can On the Dodo; Zoo!. Joum , vol, iii,, p. 559.) 

Upon this solemn sentence, which left to the Mu 
nothing but a foot and a head, Lyell makes the I 
observation: 'Some have complained that it n on 

tomb stones convey no general information, except thai in* 
dividuals were born and died, accidents which must happen 
alike to all men. But the death of a species is so remark- 
able att event in natural history that it uesen 
ration ; and it is with no small interest that we le 
the archives of the University of Oxford, the exact day and 
year, when the remains of the last specimen ofthi ! 
which bad been permitted to rot in the Ashmolean Mi 
were cast away:' and the author concludes by giving ili<? 
fatal record at length with becoming gravity. 

We now come to the celebrated painting in the British 
Museum, a copy of which, by the kind assist 
officers of the zoological department, who ha.' 
every assistance in prosecuting this inquiry, and who had it 
taken down for the purpose, we present to our read* 

I I has been slated that the painting came into ih- 
sion of Sir Hans Sloane, president of the Royal So 
thai it was bought at his sale by Edwards, who 
lishiiig a plate from it in his Gleanings, prest 
Royal Society, whence it passed, as well as the 
British Museum. But Mr, Gray informs us 
foot only came with the museum of the Royal S 
scribed by Grew; and that tbe picture was an 
from Edwards. Edwards's copy seems to have been mi 
in 17611, and he himself says — ■ The original picl 
drawn in Holland from the living bird brought from S 
Maurice's Island in the East Indies in the eai 
the discovery of the Indies by the way of the Cape of Good 
Hope. It was the property of tbe late Sir Hans Sloane to 
the time of his death ; and afterwards becoming my pTO- 
pertj I deposited it in the British Museum os a grv 
Oiity, The above history of the picture I had from Sir Haw 
Sloane and the late Dr. Mortimer, secretary to the 

If, Morel, Ecrivain Principal des HGpitaux au Pert- 
Louis de flsle de France, writes as follows in hi> 
* Sur les oiseaux monstrueux n< ironies Dronte, Dodn. 
Capuchonne, Solitaire, et Oiseau de Nazare, et sur I 
Isle de Sable ii 50 lieues environ de Madagascar/ 
birds, so well described in the second volume i 
tory of Birds', by M. le Comte de Bufibn, and of wl 
do Borame has also spoken in his l Dietionar\ 
History/ under the names of Dronte, Dodo f II. 
(Cygne Capuchonnc), Solitary or Wild Turkey (Dind 
vage) of Madagascar, have never been seen in I 
France, Bourbon, Rodriguez, or even the Seychelles Iniclj 
red, during more than 60 years since when the* 
places have been inhabited and visited by French eo 
The oldest inhabitants assure every one that these mon- 
strous birds have been always unknown to them/ After 
some remarks that the Portuguese and Dutch who Hcst 
overran tbese islands may have seen some very large 
such as Emeus or Cassowaries, Sic, and 
each after his own manner of observing, M, Morel t!i 
ceeds: ■ However this may be, it is certain tin: 
an age (depuis pres un siecle) no one has here seen e 
mal of this species. But it is very' probable that 
islands were inhabited, people might have been abb I 
some species of very large birds, heavy and incapable ef 
tlight, and that the first mariners who sojourned there soda 
destroyed them from the facility with which the) 
caught. This was what made the Dutch sailors call th» 

Dotta, ftrum Hie picture 

ude dcgoflt* fWalck-Voegel), because they were 
with the- tloh of it » * * But among all the 
i i - u inch are found on this isle of sand and on 
lb* other isleU and rocks which are in the neighbour- 
I»le of France, modern navigators have never 
•& approaching to the birds above named, and 
referred to the number of species which may 
\ but which have been destroyed by the too great 
w4uch they are taken, and which arc 1 no longer 
itlBg upon islands or coasts entirely uninhal 

where there are many species of birds 
islands, none have been met with resem- 
ibove alluded to.* (Observations sur 
our tan 1778, torn, xiu, p. 15-1* Notes.) 
ri thus concludes his paper above alluded to : 
through the medium of a friend, to C.Tel- 
Port Louis, in the Mauritius, a naturalist of 
Lrch, for any information he could furnish or pro- 
rial ing to the former existence of the Dodo in that 
biained only the following partly negative state- 

is a very general impression among the 
the Dodo did exist at Rodriguez, as well as in 
itaelf; but that the oldest inhabitants have 
-rv*eeii it, nor has the bird or any part of it been preserved 
collection firmed in those i&lands, al- 
tfctcigh amateurs in natural history have 

hem.aLd formed extensive collections, 
supposed existence of ihe Dodo in 
r, although Mr. Telfair had not received, at the 
tg to Europe, a reply to a letter on trie sub- 
l1 addressed to a gentleman resident on 
stated that he had not any great expecta- 
tion* quarter: as the Dodo was not mentioned in 
nous manuscripts respecting thut island, 
ie travels of persons who had traversed 
all directions, many of them having no other 
than that of extending the bounds of natural 

We close this part of the case with the evidence of one 
evidently well qualified to judge, and whose veracity there 
js no reason to doubt. If this evidence be, as we believe it 
to he, unimpeachable, it is clear not only that the Dodo 
existed, but that it was publicly exhibited in London. The 
lac u nee in the print represent the spaces occasioned by a 
hole burnt in the manuscript* 

In Sloans M8S. (No. IB39, 5, p. lofl, Brit, Mus.) is the 
following interesting account bv L'Estrange in his observa- 
tion- 01) Sir Thomas Browned* Vulvar Errors.* It is worthy 
of note that the paragraph immediately follows one on Ihe 
1 Est ridge* (Ostrich), 

■ About 163S, as I walked London streets 1 mw the pic- 
ture of a strange fowl honi* out upon a cloth vas 
and myselfe with one or two more Gen. in company went 
in to see it. It was kept in a chamber, and was a great 
fowle somewhat bigger than the largest Turkey Cock and 
so legged and footed but stouter and thicker and of a more 
erect shape, coloured before like the breast of a yong Cock 
Fetal) (pheasant), and on the back ofdunn orrieaVe couluur. 
The keeper called it a Dodo and in the ende of a chimney 
in the chamber there lay an heap of large pebble stones 
where 4 bee gwre it many in our sight, some as bigg as nut- 
megs, and the keeper told ns sbee eats them conducing to 
digestion and though I remember not how farre the keeper 
was questioned therein yet I am confident that afterwards 
she cast them all agayne,'* 


The only existing recent remains attributed to the Dodo 
are, a leg in the British Museum, and a head (a cast of 
which is in Bnt. Mus.), and a leg in the Ashmoleau Museum 
* ford, the relics most probably of Tradescnnfs bird. 
Whether the leg formerly in the museum of Pauw be that 
at present in I lie British Museum may be, perhaps, doubt- 
ful, though we think with Mr. Gray that they are probably 

* This runout ttateruent it extracted in ihr recent edition of Sir 
Brown » vwkt by WLUtlua ; |mbtiilj,«d t>v Pickering. 

D D 


D O D 

identical ; but that the specimen in the British Museum 
did not belong to Tradescant's specimen is clear, lor it 
evicted in tlie collection belonging to the Ro>al Society 
when Tradescanfs 'Dodar was complete. In the *An- 
n ales des Sciences' (tome xxi. p. IU3. Sept. 1830) will be 
found an account of an assemblage of fossil bones, then 
recently discovered, under a bed of lava, in the lAe of 
France, and sent to the Paris Museum. They almost nil 
belonged to a large living species of land-tortoise, called 
Testudo Indica, but amongst them were the head, sternum, 
and humerus of the dodo. *M. Cuvier,* adds Mr. Ljell 
in his *• Principles of Geology," 'showed roe these valuable 
remains at Paris, and assured me that they left no doubt in 
his mind that the huge bird was one of the gallinaceous 

r *S 


Head of Dodo (from tui of Oxford «p<*tro*n 

Foot of Dodo (tpeidni*ii tu lhe BrUbh Musnim* 

In a letter addressed to the Secretary of the ZfifilogiCft] 
Society, by Charles Telfair, Esq., Corr- Memb, Z. S., dated 
Port Louis (Mauritius), No\embei B, 1S32, and read be- 
fore a meeting of the society on ihe J 2th March, 1833, it 
appeared that Mr, Telfair bad recently had opportunities of 
making some researches about the buried bones of the 
Dronte or Dodo found in the Island of Rodriguez. The 
i of I hese researches he communicated, and enclosed 
letters addressed to him by Col. Dawkms, military secre- 
tary to the Governor uf the Mauritius, and by M. Eudes, 
lent at Rodriguez. 

Daw kins, it was stated, in a recent visit to Rodri- 
guez, conversed with every person whom he met respecting 
the Dodo, and became convinced that the lard Hm 
exist there. The general statement was that no bird is to 
be found there ex* ept ihe Guinea-fowl and Parrot, From 
one person, however, he learned the existence of another 
bird, which was called Oismu-h&nf, a name derived from its 
voice, whieh resembles 4hat of a cow. From the description 
ii of it by his informant, Col. Dawkius ai first believed 
that tins burl was really the Dodo; but on obtaining a 
specimen of it, it proved to be a Ga/intH (apparently refer- 
* to Ihe Laser Ga/utet of l>r. Latham, the Sula 

!, and the for of Linuavus). It 

is found only in th< parts of the Island. Ooi 

Dawktns visited the caverns in which bones ha\e been dug 
My, anddus? in several places, but found only small j 

■ > autiful rich soil forms the ground- work of 
them, which is from six la eight feet deep, and contains no 
pebbles. No animal of any description inhabits th 
not even bats. 

M. Eudes succeeded in digging up in tbe large cavern 
various bones, including some of a large kind of bird, which 
no longer exists in ihe Island: these he forwarded to Mr. 
Telfair, by whom they were presented to the Zoolof 
Society. The only part of the cavern in winch 
found was at the entrance, where the darkness begins ; the 
little attention usually paid to this part by \ v be 

the hy they have not been previously found. 

Those near the surface were the least injured, and they 
occur to the depth of three feet, but nowhere in consider- 

able quantity; whence M. Eudes conjectured that the bird" 
was at till limes rare, or at least uncommon. A bin 1 
large a size as that indicated by the bones had never been 
seen by M. Gory, who had resided forty j cars on the island. 
M. Eudes added that the Dutch who first landed at Rodri- 
guez lefL cats there to destroy the rats which an 
them: these cats h,ve since become very numerous, and 
prove highly destructive to poultry; and he suggested the 
probability that they may have destroyed the large kind of 
bird to which the bones belonged, by devouring 
ones as soon as they were hatched, — a destruction whjeh 
may have been completed long before the Island was ift- 
The bones procured by M, Eudes for Mr. Telfair wets 
fed by that gentleman to the Zoological Sock 
the reading of the letter, &c, they were laid on the table, 
and consisted of numerous bones of tbe extremities 
or more large species of Tortoise, several fo 
binder extremity of a large bird, and tbe head of a A* 
With reference to the metatarsal bone of the bird, which 
was lonir and strong, Dr. Grant pointed 
aessed articulating surfaces for four toes, three di 
forward* and one backwards, as in t the Dwte 

preserved in the Briu-h Museum, to which it was also 
proportioned in its magnitude and form. (Zoul. Pr 
Part I.) 

Opinions of Zoologists and supposed place in th* 
Animal Series. 

Piso, in his edition of Bontius. places the Dodo imme- 
diately be ft) re t he Cassowary ; a i : v e t hat 
the figure of Bontius does not appear fo be identical with 
tbe picture whieh now hangs in the British M 
Though there is a general resemblance there ate \ a 
differences whieh go far to show, at all events, that t h< 
of Bontius and that in the picture are different port I 

Willughby 1 sets of * The greatest land- 

tr kind by themselves, which, by reason of 
the bulk of their bodies, and the smallness of their wings, 
cannot fly, but only walk. Th I the 1st 

section of this chapter, and the D**do the fourth and last, 
being immediately preceded by 4 the Cassowary or Emeu. 
Ray's section * Aves rostris rertioribus minusque hamatii 
maxima?, singulares et sui generis, ob oorporum molem at 
alarum bivvitatem volaiidi iinpotes* contains the same birds 
as Willugbbye ei rter, viz.: the Oitrich, the 

\atnch, the Emeu, Erne or Cassowary, and, las 

Moehrinj?, and after him, Brisson, gives the bird, under 
the name Of Raphus t a position next to the Ostriches also. 
Buff on places it independently. 

Linnaeus, In his last edition of the * Sy sterna Naturae' (tht 
121b, I7f»ti>, places the bird at the head of his* Gailitur! 
the order immediately succeeding the * GraUrr* utid 
name of iJidtu i/trj tu\, and immediately before ihe genu 
i. The genus St rut hi a is the last of his 
, and Rhea (American Ostrich) the last species of 
StrutJua, so that Didui ineptus stands between stmthio 
JZAflOj Linn., and Paro crixtatus (the Peacock). In a 
former edition Linnseu* had noticed the bird under the 
name Strut/no eiivuUatut. 

Latham in his ?.ynopsia (1782) followed Linnirus, but 
three species, viz., the Hooded Dodo, the Solitary 
and the Nazarene Dodo* 
Lin, in his edition of the * Systema Naturae' 
makes PmoMq (Trumpeter) the last genus of the Linntesi 
GraiUc A and Of in (Bustard) the first genu* of the Lin 

/% under winch last-mentioned order he a 
the genus Didus, placing it between the genera 
and Atpft which are both included by Omelin in the oci 
Outline?. He al 
uliic-h he describes as 'black, clouded with whi 

Is feet. 1 The following are his — 

at. XlL l f p. 267, n* 1 J Struthio cucu flatus, 
Nat, X. p. 15S; Rophu*, li: p, 1 4, I 

Xieremb. Nat. 231 ; GaJ/i 
Zrinus, Clus. E&ot. 99, t. 10; Olear. Mn 

ut. Jav. 70, Butf. Ili^t. Nat. i. p. 

^isu; Dod-aersen or Valgh^VogeL, Herbert it. p 

Dodo, Raj. A.V. p. - dL Gin. : 

Bdw. Glean, t J<U; Hooded D>dtu Lath. Byn. fii. I, | 
L 70. 2nd. Didus solitarius; Solitaire* Buff. Hist. NaL 

D O D 


D O D 

des Ois. i p. 485 ; Leguat it. i p. 98 ; Solitary Dodo, Lath. 
Syn. iii. 1, p. 3, n. 2. This species is described by Gmelin 
is * varied with grey and brown, with tetradactyle feet.' 
3rd. Didus Nazurenus ; Oiseau de Nazareth, et Oiseau de 
Sausie, Buff. Hist. Nat. des Ois. i. p. 485 ; Caurhe, Madng. 

S. 130 ; Nasarene Dodo, Lath. Syn. iii. 1, p. 4, n. 3. Gmelin 
escribes this species as 'black, with tetradactyle feet.' 
Blumenbach followed Linnesus ; and Dumenl and Vicillot 
followed Latham. 

Temminck instituted in his ' Analyse du Systeme G6n6ral 
d'Oraithologie,' the order Inertes, for the Dodo and the 
Apttryr; two birds, as Mr. Yanrell in his paper on the 
Apteryx {Trans. Zool. Soc, vol. i., p. 71) observes, differing 
decidedly from each other in their beaks; but in reference 
to their imperfect wings, as also in the nature of their 
external covering, having obvious relation to the species 
included in his order Cursores. ' But/ adds Mr. Yarrell, ' the 
situation chosen for this order Inertes, at the extreme end 
of his systematic arrangement, leads me to infer that M. 
Temminck considered as imaginary the subjects for which 
it was formed.' 

Uliger, in his Prodromus (1811), instituted the order 
lnepti for the reception of the Dodo alone, Apteryx not 
being then known, and he placed it immediately preceding 
Iris Cursores, containing the Strutkious Birds. 

Cuvier, in the first edition of his Regne Animal at the 
end of his notice on his family Brevipennes i Les Autruches, 
StruUuo, Linn.), has the following note appended to his 
description of the last specie?, Rhea. 'I cannot place in 
this table species but badly known, or, more, so little au- 
thentic as those which compose the genus Didus. The first 
or the Dronte (Didus inept us) is only known from a de- 
trription given by the first Dutch navigators, and preserved 
by Clusins, Exot. p. 99, and by an oil-painting of the same 
epoch copied by Edwards, pi. 294; for the description of 
Herbert is puerile, and all the others arc copied from CI li- 
ra end Edwards. It would seem that the species has en- 
tirely d i sappea r ed, and we now possess no more of it at the 
present day than a foot preserved in the British Museum 
(Shaw, Sat. Miscell. pi. 143), and a head in bad condition 
in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. The bill does not 
eem to be without some relation to that of the Auks (Pin- 
gomns), and the foot would bear considerable resemblance 
to that of the Penguins (Manchots), if it were palmated. 
The second species, or the Solitaire (Didus Solitarius), 
rests only on the testimony of Leguat, Voy. i. p. 98, a man 
who has disfigured the best known animals, such as the 
Hippopotamus and Lamantin. Finally, the third species, 
or V Oiseau de Nazare (Didus Nazarenus), is only known 
through Francois Gauche, who regards it as the same as 
the Dronte, and yet only gives it three toes, while all other 
authors give four to the Dronte. No one has been able to 
see any of these birds since these voyagers.' In the second 
edition H829), the note is repeated with the addition of a 
notice of Apteryx. With every reverence for the great 
soologist who wrote it, it is impossible to avoid observing 
the haste and incorrectness which mark it. His opinions 
certainly underwent considerable modification. When he 
was in this country at the period of the last French revo- 
lution, he had an opportunity of seeing the head preserved 
hi the Ashmolean Museum, and the foot in the British 
Museum, and he doubted the identity of this species with 
that of which the painting is preserved in the National 
collection. Lyell mentions these doubts, and we must 
sere recall to the reader the geologist's statement above 
eluded to, that Cuvier showed him the valuable remains in 
Fans, and that he assured him that they left no doubt on 
his mind that the huge bird was one of the Gallinaceous 
tribe. (Sur Quelques Ottsemens, $c., Ann. des Set., tome 
xxl, p. 103, Sept., 1830.) 

Shaw, as appears indeed from Cuvier's note, made men- 
tbn cf the Dodo in his Naturalist's Miscellany (plates 142 
and 143), giving a figure of the head preserved in the Ash- 
noiean Museum, and in his Zoological Lectures. The con- 
tainer of his ' Zoology* has the following sweeping notice of 
the bird : — 'The Dodo of Edwards appears to have existed 
only in the imagination of that artist, or the species has 
been utterly extirpated since his time, which is scarcely 
probable. Its beak is said to be deposited in the Ashmo- 
lean Museum at Oxford, and a foot in the collection in the 
British Museum. TKe former appears rather to belong to 
some unknown species of albatross than to a bird of this 
order, and the latter to another unknown bird ; but upon 

what authority it has been stated to belong to the Dodo, I 
am at a loss to determine. A painting by Edwards still 
exists in the British Museum.' 

'This hasty judgment,' says Mr. Duncan in his paper in 
the Zoological Journal, ' is fully refuted, especially by the 
existing head, and the exact resemblance of the leg at Ox- 
ford to that in London.' 

Mr. Vigors, in his paper 'On the Natural Affinities that 
connect the Orders and Families of Birds' (Linn. Trans., 
vol. xi v., p. 395, read December 3, 1823), thus writes on 
the subject of the Dodo .•— • Considerable doubts have arisen 
as to the present existence of the Linna?an Didus ; and 
thev have been increased by the consideration of the num- 
berless opportunities that have latterly occurred of ascer- 
taining the existence of these birds in those situations, the 
isles of Mauritius and Bourbon, where they were ori'jinally 
alleged to have been round. That they once existed I be- 
lieve cannot be questioned. Besides the descriptions given 
by voyagers of undoubted authority, the relics of a specimen 
preserved in the public repository of this country, bear de- 
cisive record of the fact The most probable supposition 
that we can form on the subject is, that the race lias be- 
come extinct in the before-mentioned islands, in conse- 
quence of the value of the bird as an article of food to the 
earlier settlers, and its incapability of escaping from pur- 
suit. This conjecture is strengthened by the consideration 
of the gradual decrease of a nearly conterminous group, the 
Otis tarda of our British ornithology, which, from similar 
causes, we have every reason to suspect will shortly be lost 
to this country. We mav, however, still entertain some 
hopes that the Didus may be recovered in the south-eastern 
part of that vast continent, hitherto so little explored, which 
adjoins those islands, and whence, indeed, it seems to have 
been originally imported into them. I dwell upon these 
circumstances with more particularity, as the disappearance 
of this group gives us some grounds for asserting, that 
many chasms which occur in the chain of affinities through- 
out nature may be accounted for on the supposition of a 
similar extinction of a connecting species. Here we have 
an instance of the former existence of a species that, as far 
as we can now conclude, is no longer to be found ; while 
the link which it supplied in nature was of considerable 
importance. The bird in question, from every account 
which we have of its economy, and from the appearance of 
its head and foot, is decidedly Gallinaceous ; and, from the 
insufficiency of its wings for the purposes of flight, it may 
with equal certainty be pronounced to l>e of the Strut/iious 
structure, and referable to the present family. But the foot 
has a strong hind toe, and, witn the exception of ils being 
more robust, — in which character it still adheres to the Strti- 
thionidee, — it corresponds exactly with the toot of the Lin- 
n&an genus Crax, that commences the succeeding family. 
The bird thus becomes osculant, and forms a strong point 
of junction between these two conterminous groups ; which, 
though evidently approaching each other in general points 
of similitude, would not exhibit that intimate bond of con- 
nexion which we have seen to prevail almost uniformly 
throughout the neighbouring subdivisions of nature, were 
it not for the intervention of this important genus.' 

M. Lesson, in his Manual (1828), after giving a descrip- 
tion of the Dodo (genus Dronte, Didus, Linn., Ruphus, 
Moehring, BrissoiO, says that the genus includes but one 
species which may be considered as at all authenticated, 
and which exists no longer; this is the Dronte, Didus 
ineptus, described by Clusius, ex. p. 99, figured by Edwards, 
nl. '294. * They possess,' he adds, ' a foot and head of it at 
London, figured in Shaw's Miscell., pi. 143 and 166.* Then 
comes the following statement: — *M. Temminck has 
adopted, after Shaw, the genus Apteryx, which he thus 
describes.' M. Lesson, after giving the description and 
noticing the only known species, Apteryx Australis, pro- 
ceeds to make the following queries : * fclay not the Dronte 
be the Cassotcary of the East Indies, to which has been 
added the bill of an Albatross? It is said that it was once 
very common in the Islands of France and of Bourbon, and 
that the former received the name of the Isle of Cerne from 
these birds. May not the Apteryx of M. Temminck be 
founded on the fragments of the Dronte preserved in the 
Museum of London i" To make the confusion complete, 
M. Lesson places immediately bef le the genus Dronte 
the Emou Kivikivi, Dromiceius Navcc Zeiandit*, Less., 
which is no other than the Apteryx Austral is of Shaw, and 
which has been so well described and* figured by Mr. 

D O D 



Yarrell in the first volume of the Transactions of the Zoo* 
logical Society <>f London. 

M- de Bhuiiville, in ■ memoir on the Didus ineptus, read 
before the Academy of BeJettBf, on the 3Qth of August, 
1830, and published in the * Nouvelles Annales du Mu- 
seum d'Hiaioire Naturelle' (torneiv,. p. I, 4to. t Paris, IB35), 
enters at large into the history of the bird, and terminates 
his list of authors thus: ' Finally, not lung ago (assez dcr- 
FtiereMfct) in England, an anonymous author, whom I 
believe to he Mr. Mac Leay, has returned to the idea lhal 
this genus ought to be placed among the Gallinaceous bin K 
Nevertheless, although he pronounces that Ihe brunts is 
decidedly a bird of this family, he adds, that it may, with 
the same certainty, be referred to the StruthitatiJcr, on 
account of the small neas of its wings ; but, adds he, m 
foot is provided with a hallux (poure), it departs (a'eloi 
from tins family to approach the MUU Corax, qui doit la 
commencer, according to him. Thus it is one of thflee 
genera which ho names osculant, farming the passage front 
one group to another/ Who this anonymous author may 
be we do not presume to guess, but we have the best au- 
thority for asserting that Mr. W« S. Mac Leay is not the 
person* From the context, we think it probable that Mr. 
Vil Hove given are alluded to, Corax being 

a mitprmt fcr ( 

M. de Bbinville, after giving the different points on which 
the claim of the Dodo to be considered a gallinaceous bird 
rests, and the reasons for and against it f thus proceeds :■ — 
'Among the orders of birds which include tin* largest 
species, there only remain the birds of prey with which the 
Dodo can be compared; and it scorns to us that it is to 
tin in that the bird bears the greatest resemblance.* In 
I of this it is necessary to attend to the following ob- 
servations: — 

1. The eyes are situated in the same part of the bdl as 
in CwthaoPtHk 

►e nostril? are oval, situated very forward, and with- 
out a superior scale, as in those birds. 

'3. The iWio ui the skull, its great width in the iuter- 
orbitury space, and Mi BetfMfj at the sinciput, are also 
nearly the same as in those vultures. 

A. Even tho colour of the bill, and the two caruncular 
fids of the origin of the curved part, are nearly the same 
as in those birds. 

Tho species of hood which the *kin forms at the root 

of the bill, and which have earned for ihe Dodo the name 

I IfgHui citcullatus, has a very similar disposition in 

6. The almost entire nudity of the neck, as well as its 
greenish colour seen through the few downy feathers winch 
DOVer it, are also rharactcnstie of the vu3i 

7. The form, the number, and the disposition of the foes, 
as well as the force and curvature of the claws, indicate a 
bird of that family at least as much as a gallinaceous bird. 

8. Til '.stem of the tarsi and of the toes more 
mblee also what is found in Gamartoa than what is 

lmI in the Gallinaceous birds. 

9. The kind of Jabot at the rout of the neck, and even 
the muscular stomach, are found in one order as well as in 
the Other. 

10. Lastly, M. de Blainvillo notices the absence of the 
spur which he remarks is nearly characteristic of 

ml birds* 
Iff, de Blainville, after expressing a hope that both the 
Ayr- Aye (Cli^ramys, whieh has not been seen a second 
the days of Sonnerat) and the Do4o may be yet 
recovered in the interior of Madagascar, thus concludes his 
iir: — 
* 1. There exist in the English collect i ns traces of at 
least three individuals of a large species of walking bird 
(oiseuti mnrchrur), to which has been given the name of 
Dodo, Dronte. Dtdus inept us. 

*2, These trai < i Eon ne since the epoch when 

Dutch began to take part in the disooverv of Ihe 
passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, that 
jy, about 1594. 

«ame of Dodo is employed for the first time bv 
Herbert; that of Dronfe by Piso, but without its ! 
possible to arrive at the origin and etymology of these de- 
Ihe country of this bird is the Itde of France; there 
being nothing to prove positively that it has been found 
either at Bourbon or at Fernandez, as has been thought* 

owing In the eonftision, no doubt, between the Dodo and 
Solitaire of Leguat, 

' j. The Dronte should be approximated to or even placed 
in the order of rapacious birds, near the vultures, rather 
than in that of the Gallinaceous birds, and, for stronger 
reasons, rather than among the GraUatores (Echassiers) t ot 
near the Penguins iManchots), 

*G. It is by no means certain that this bird has disap- 
peared fmm the number of living animals. If 
possible in the case of the Isle of France, it is not probable 
ui the case of Madagascar, the productions of whieh aie f<J 
little known, and which belongs, up to a certain point, to 
the same archipelago, 

* There remains another question to discuss, namely, whe* 
ther the incrusted bones which have been lateh 
Cuvier from the Isle of France really belonged to the Dodo, 
as JVE Cuvier was led to believe. It is a question which 
would be most easily solved by the immediate comparison 
of these bones with the pieces preserved in England. If 
this was so, which the difference of height iu the tarsal 
bone docs not permit us to believe, it would be at the same 
lime proved that the Dodo existed also at Rodriguez, for 
theee bones have been found in this isle in a cave (grotte), 
as M. Quoy, who saw them on his passage to the Isle of 
France, has assured me, and not at the Isle of France, 
under beds of lava, as M. Cuvier has stated from erroneous 
information, in his note read lately to the academy. Tbea 
there would bo nearly a certainty that the Dodo was a 
Gallinaceous bird; but in making the observation that 
these bones come from the Isle of Fernandez, and that the 
description of the Solitaire of Leguat accords sufficiently 
well with a bird of this order, or at least with a Gallinu- 
gralle, it might be that the bones actually in the bond* of 
M. Cuvier were no other than those of the Solitary Bird 
ly so called, and not those of the true Dronte.* 

The memoir is illustrated with four plates : the first is a 
coloured copy of the head of the Dodo from the Museum 
portrait, of the size of the original. In the painting the 
author observes the head is at least a foot long from the 
occiput to the extremity of the bill; but the head ai * 
is only eight inches and a half, or about two- thirds. Tho 
bill, he adds, makes out nearly three fourths of the 
length. The second plate gives a profile of the I 
head from a sketch taken from the original, and a Mew of 
the same seen from above, and skulls of the Urubu and 
J'utiur Papa. Plate 3 gives two views of the foot pre- 
served in the British Museum, and the remains of the foot 
at Oxford; a foot of the Heath-cock (Coq de Brum 
foot of a Penguin, and a foot of Jultnr Papa. Plate 4 

profile of the cast of the head at Oxford, and 
of the same seen from below. 

In the British Museum (1837) in cases 65 — 6S (Room 
XI 11.) are the Ostrich ; Bustards * which in many respects 
are allied to the Gallinaceous Birds;* the foot and 
the head of the Dod$ above alluded to : the Courser and Pra- 
tincole ; and at p. 99 of the Synopsis (lb3i) we ha\c the 
following observations : * Over the door adjoining the 
twelfth room is an original painting of the Dod 
to the Museum by George Edwarrls, Esq., the celebrated 
ornithological artist, and copied in his works, plate N 
who says it was * drawn in Holland, from a living bird 
brought from St. Maurice's Island in the East 1 
The only remains of this bivd at present known are a foot 
(case 65) in this collection (presented by the Royal N 
and a head and foot, said to have belonged to a speeimen 
which was formerly in Tra descant's Museum, bur i^ now in 
the Allimotean Museum at Oxford. The cast of the head 
above mentioned (in the some case) was presented by P. 
Duncan, Esq* The bird in the shortness of the 
tries the ostrich, but its foot, in general, raf! 
seuibles that of the common fowl, and the beak, fruin the 
position of its nostrils, is most nearly allied to the Vultures; 
so that its true place in the series of birds, if indeed such 
a bird ever really existed, is not, as yet, satisfactorily deter- 
mined. 1 

Mi Swainson (Natural History and Classification o/ 
Birds, IMS), speaking of the birds of prey, says (p. 285)) 
' The thud and last type of this family appears to us to be 
the Secretary Vulture of Africa, forming the genu* 
getanus* At least we cannot assign it to any other known 
.hu>nn of the Raptures, without separating it much more 
widely from its congeners than our present state of know* 
ledge will sanction. It has been thought, indeed, that this 




remarkable bird represented one of the primary divisions of 
the whole order ; in which case it would stand between the 
owls and the Dodo: but its similarity to the vultures and 
the fblcons, in our opinion, is too great to favour this sup- 
position ; while, on the other hand, it will subsequently ap- 
pear that the circle of the BaiconidUe is sufficiently complete 
to show that it does not enter into that family.' After 
some other observations, Mr. Swainson concludes his ob- 
servations on the Secretary thus : 'It must be remembered, 
also* that the very same objections occur against placing 
this bird (the Secretary) between the Strigidee (owls) and 
me Dididce (Dodos), as those we have intimated against 
considering it as the grallatorial type of the Vulturidee.' 

That a bird or birds called by the name of Dodo and the 
other appellations which we need not hero repeat once 
existed, we think the evidence above given sufficiently 
proves. We have, indeed, heard doubts expressed whether 
the Museum portrait was taken ' from a living bird,' and 
have aUo heard it suggested that the picture may represent 
a specimen made up of the body of an ostrich to which the 
Ul and legs of other birds have been attached. And here 
it a that the destruction of Tradescant's specimen becomes 
a source of the greatest regret. Whatever was the con- 
dition of that specimen, as long as the skin was preserved 
there existed the means of ascertaining whether it was real 
or a made-up monster ; and when the V ice-Chancellor and 
the other curators in making their lustration gave the fatal 
nod of approbation they destroyed that evidence. With 
regard to the picture we have endeavoured to place it before 
the reader as well as our limited means will permit, in order 
that he may have an opportunity of judging from the in- 
ternal eTidence as to the probability of the portrait being 
taken from a living bird, and with this view we have given 
the accessories as they appear in the painting as well as the 
principal figure. 
Mr. Gray, among others, still inclines, we believe, to the 
~iiion that the bird represented was made up by joining 

i head of a bird of prey approaching the Vultures, if not 
belonging to that family,* to the legs of a Gallinaceous bird, 
sad hi* opinion, from his attainments and experience, is 
worthy of all respect. But, if this be granted, see what we 
here to deal with. We have then two species, which are 
extinct or have escaped the researches of all zoolo- 
; to account for, one, a bird of prey, to judge from its 

, larger than the Condor ;> the other a Gallinaceous bird, 

me pillar-like legs must have supported an enormous 

a. As to the stories of the disgusting quality of the 
of the bird found and eaten by the Dutch, that will 
vrigh bat little in the scale when we take the expression 
to be, what it really was, indicative of a comparative prefer- 
ence lor the turtle-doves there found, after feeding on 
Dodos usque ad nauseam, 'Always Partridges' has be- 
almost proverbial, and we find from Lawson how a 


repetition of the most delicious food palls. ' We cooked 
•v nipper,' lays that traveller, ' but having neither bread 
■or nit, our nit turkeys began to be loathsome to us, 
ihhoogh we were never wanting of a good appetite, yet 
a eontmuance of one diet made us weary;' and again, 
* By the way our guide killed more turkeys, and two poi- 
nts, which he eat, esteeming them before fat turkeys.' 

With regard to the form of the bill, we must be careful 
how we lay too much stress on that Who would have ex- 
pected to find a bill ' long, slender, smooth, and polished, 
m form resembling that of an Ibis, but rather more straight 

• Mr. G»y"e nuoH for considering the Dodo iu belonging to the Raptor** 
dUj mt on the following beta, premising, as he doe*, that it is to be borne 
m saMthsU in the. Raptorial birds the form of the bill is their chief ordinal 
iniiMiii, eliwli ie not the ease with the GnUataret or the Natatvrei, where 
a* fans of the fret and legs are the chief character of the order. 

■ L The* hats* of the hill la enveloped in a Cere, as may be seen in the cast 
•here the foUis of the Cere an distinctly exhibited, especially over the back 
sfrhe mmU ile The Cere b only fbnnd in the Raptorial birds. 

•a The wntrDe ere placed exactly In front of the Cere, as they are in the 
after JsapYevvj ; they are oral, and nearly erect, as they are in the true Vml- 
*•»*• aad In thai fl"ous alone, and not longitudinal as they are in the Ca- 
•are*, all lb* OmiSuameme strrft, OrmUatoree and Katatorei, and they are 
■skrd mad covered with an arched scale, as is the case in all the Qallinaceer. 

•3. in EdwardVa picture the bill is represented as much hooked (like the 
BnaWi) at the? tip; a character which unfortunately cannot be verified on 
aV Osfar4 hewd. as that specimen is destitute of the homy sheath of the bill, 
sad osjIt sh»ws the form of the bony core. 

• Yfcfc retard to the else of the bill. It is lobe observed, that this part varies 
prady m the different species, of vultnrea. Indeed so much so, that there is no 
•soma a» believe that the bird of the Oxford head was much larger than some 
of tfce kaoera vultures. 

• Wk* M*rd to the foot,* adde Mr. Gray, ' It has all the characters of that 
ef rW 0*lh nmetomi MrcJs, aad differs from all the vultures in the shortness of 
As mieVihi toe. the form of the scales on the leg, and the bluntaen of the 

and depressed at the base*,* on an Emeu-like body With 
rasorial legs and feet? Yet such is the form of Apteryx. 
As to the argument arising from the absence of the spur it 
is worth but little at best ; and it may be said in favour of 
those who would place the Dodo between the Strutliious 
and Gallinaceous birds, that its absence in such an osculant 
bird would be expected. 

If the picture in the British Museum, and the cut in Bon- 
tius be faithful representations of a creature then living, to 
make such a bird a bird of prey— a Vulture, in the ordinary 
acceptation of the term — would be to set all tiie usual laws 
of adaptation at defiance. A Vulture without wings ! How 
was it to be fed ? And not only without wings, but neces- 
sarily slow and heavy in progression on its clumsy feet. 
The Vulturida are, as we know, among the most active 
agents for removing the rapidly decomposing animal re- 
mains in tropical and intertropical climates, and they are 
provided with a prodigal development of wing to waft them 
speedily to the spot tainted by the corrupt incumbrance. But 
no such powers of wing would be .required by a bird ap- 
pointed to clear away the decaying and decomposing masses 
of a luxuriant tropical vegetation, — a kind of Vulture for 
vegetable impurities, so to speak, — and such an office would 
not be by any means inconsistent with comparative slow- 
ness of pedestrian motion. 

DOEto'N A, the most antient oracle of Greece, was pro- 
bably situated in the valley of Joannina in Epirus, but its 
exact position has never been ascertained. Dionysius of 
Halicarnassus places it four days' journey from Buthrotum, 
and two from Ambracia. (Antiqu. Rom. i. 5.) Colonel 
Leake places it at the south-east extremity of the lake of 
Joannina, near Kastritza (Travels in Northern Greece, vol. 
iv., p. 1G8, and following), and there are many reasons for 
believing that the Dodonscan territory corresponded to the 
valley at the south of that sheet of water. It is true that 
there is no mention of a lake in the neighbourhood of the 
antient Dodona; but it is described as surrounded by 
marches, and it is not unlikely that the lake of Joannina 
may have been increased in later times from the catavothra 
in the country. (Leake, iv. p. 1 89.) The temple at Dodona 
was dedicated to Jupiter, and was of Pelasgian origin. 
(Horn. Iliad, xvi. 233 ; Herod, ii. 52.) Strabo is of opinion 
(vii. p. 328), that the priests at this temple were originally 
men, but that the duties of the office were afterwards per- 
formed by three old women. The people who had the ma- 
nagement of the temple are called Belli or Helli. (Creuzer, 
Symbol, i., p. 193, note 359.) The oracles were delivered 
from an oak (Sophocles, Trachin. 1171) or beech (Hesiod. 
op. S'trabon., p. 327; Sophocl. Track. 173). The temple 
at Dodona was entirely destroyed by Dosimacbus, the 
iEtolian praetor, B.C. 219 (Polyb. iv. 67), and probably was 
never restored, for it did not exist in the time of Strabo 
(p. 327); but there was a town of the name in the seventh 
century a.d., and a bishop of Dodona is mentioned in the 
council of Ephesus. (Wesscling on Hierocles' Synecdoche, 
p. 651.) 

There is a long article on Dodona in the Fragment of 
Stephanus Byzantinus, which is printed at the end of his 

DODSLEY, ROBERT, was born in 1703, at Mansfield, 
in Nottinghamshire, where his father is said to have kept 
the free school. Robert and several brothers, however, 
appear to have all commenced life as working artisans, or 
servants. Robert is said to have been put apprentice to a 
stocking-weaver, from whom, finding himself in danger of 
being starved, he ran away, and took the place of a footman. 
After living in that capacity with one or two persons, he 
entered the service of the Honourable Mrs. Lowther, and 
while with that lady he published by subscription in 1 732 
an octavo volume of poetical pieces, under the title of ' The 
Muse in Livery, or the Footman's Miscellany.' The situa- 
tion of the author naturally drew considerable attention to 
this work at the moment of its appearance ; but the poetry 
was of no remarkable merit. His next production was a 
dramatic piece, called 'The Toyshop;' he sent it in manu- 
script to Pope, by whom it was much relished, and who re- 
commended it to Rich, the manager of Coven t Gaiden 
theatre, where it was acted in 1735 with great success. With 
the profits of his play Dodsley the same year set up as a book- 
seller; and, under the patronage which Pope's friends-hip 
and his own reputation and talents procured him, his shop 

• Yarrell's ' DesertpUoa of Apteryx Australia/ Trent. Zooi &•«.. vol. * 

in Pall Mall toon became a distinguished resort of the 
literary loungers about town. His business, which he con- 
ducted with great spirit and ability, prospered accordingly ; 
and in Ins laher days he might be considered as standing 
at i he head of the bookselling trade. He continued also 
throughout his life to keep himself before the public in his 
ft ill profession of an author, and produced a considerable 
number of works of varying degrees of merit* b tfh hi prose 
and verse. In 1737 his farce of ' The King and the Miller 
of Mansfield' was acted at Drury Lane with great applause. 
It was followed the same year by a sequel, under the title 
of Sir John Cockle at Court/ which however was not so 
successful* Nor was he more fortunate with his ballad 
farce of * The Blind Beggar of Bethnall Green,' which 
brought out at Drury Lane in 1741. This year also he set 
up a weekly magazine, under the title of * The Public Re- 
gister,* to which he was himself a principal contributor; 
but it was discontinued after the publication of the twenty- 
fmrih number- It is curious to note that, in his farewell 
address to his readers, he complains that certain rival ma- 
gazine publishers (understood to mean the proprietors of 
the Gentleman's Magazine) had exerted their mHii- 
wilh success to prevent the newspapers from advert isiug his 
work. In 1745 he published another short dramatic piece, 
entitled * Rex et Pont ifex, being an attempt to introduce 
upon the stage a new species of pantomime; 1 but this never 
was acted. A collected edition of all these dramas was 
published in 1 748. in a volume, to which he gave the title of 

The following year he produced a masque on the sub- 
ject of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, under the title of 
'The Triumphs of Peace,' which was set to music by Dr. 
Arne, and performed at Drury Lane. In 17 SO appeared 
anonymously his ingenious and well known little work, 
*T!i of Human Life, 1 which was long attributed 

to Lord Chesterfield, and was from the first extremely 
Uler. The first part, entitled * Agriculture," of a poem 
in blank verse, on the subject of public virtue, which he 
published in 1754, was so coldly received that the second 
and third parts which he originally contemplated were 
never produced. In 1758 he closed his career of dramatic 
auili ith a tragedy entitled 'G'leone,' which was 

vent Garden with extraordinary applause, and 
i luring a long run. When it was 
2000 copies were sold the first day, and i( 
reached a fourth ' C leonV h o rn 

is now nearly forgotten: although Dr. Johnson de- 
ihat if Otwny had written it he would have been 
Jtniembcred fee nothing else, — a compliment which the 
modest author, when it was reported to hun, observed with 
asure was 'too much/ Dodsley died at Dir- 
to ■ friend, on the 25th of September, 
He had retired from business some years before, 
: made a good fortune. Dodsley's name is associated 
veral works of which he was only the projector and 
the publisher, but from his connexion with which he is now 
more generally remembered than tor his own product ons. 
/ them may be mentioned the two periodical works, 
'The Museum/ begrun in 1746 and extended to three vo- 
. in which there are many able essays by Horace 
ole, the two Wartons, Akenside, kc. (of this Dodslev 
uly one of the shareholders], and * The World/ 
] 7,>4-57, conducted h\ Edward Moore, and contributed to 
ds Lyttelton, Chesterfield, Bath, and Cork, Horace 

Soame Jenyns, &c. ; *The Pi 

'n which Johnson wrote a preface : and especially the 

'Annual Register/ begun in 17un, and still carried on and 

known by his name. [Annual Kkgistkh 1 These and the 

other WOtta in which he was engaged brought him into 

intimate connexion with most of the eminent men belong- 

orld of letters dun i! _ his able and 

Career. He has also the credit of having first 

cucnuraped the talents of Dr. Johnson, by purchasing his 

L ndon in 1 738, for the sum of ten guineas, and 

of havitv? many years after r of the 

-!i Dictionary. A second volume 
lected works, funning a continuation of the *Trilt< 
published under the title of 'M i 1772. (Be- 

tides the articles in the second edition of the * ttio<;raphia 
in Chalmers, and in the ' Biu^raphia Dramatical 
many noti ting Dodsley in Nicholses 

J of the Eighteenth C 

DODS WORTH, ROGER, an eminent an liquefy, was 

the son of Matthew Dods worth, registrar of York Cathedral, 
and chancellor to Archbishop Matthews. He was born 
July 24, 158.1, at Newton Grange in the parish of St. Os- 
wald, in Rvdale, Yorkshire. He died in the month of 
August* 16*4. and was. buried at Ruffe rd in Lam 
Ilia manuscript collections, parity relating to Yorkshire, m 
a hundred and sixty-two volumes folio and quarto, a hundred 
and twenty-two of them in hi* own hand-writing, 
bequeathed' to the Bodleian Library at Oxford, in 1671. bv 
General Fairfax, who had been Dods\vorth 1 s patron. Chal- 
bal Fairfax allowed Dodsworth a yearly salary 
to preserve the inscriptions in churches. 

Dods worth was the projector, and collected many of tbe 
materials for the early part of the work now known as * Dug- 
dale's Monastieon, 1 in the title page of the first volume of 
which his name appears as one of (he compilers. 

There is a detailed catalogue of the contents of Dixk* 
worth's collections, now in the Bodleian, in the great 
catalogue of the Manuscripts of England and Irelai 
Oxon. 1*97. (Gough's Brit. Top, vol. i. pp. 123-4 ; 

Biogr. Diet. vol. xiL. p, laO; and the pref* to tltt 

Li hun of th 
DODWELL, HENRY, was born in Dublin in 1642. 
His father, who had heen iu the army, posaessed some pro- 
perty in Ireland, but having lust H in the rebel! 
brought over his family to England, and settled at \ 
lfi48. Young Dodwell was here sent to the free »chooL 
where he remained lor five year*. In the meantime tab 
his father and mother had died, and he was re 
season to great difficulties and distress from the want of all 
pecuniary means, till, in 1G54, he was taken under the pro* 
tecti on of a brother of his mother's, at whose expei 
was sent, in 1656, to Trinity College, Dublin. Here hi 
eventually obtained a fellowship, which however h 
quished in 1666, owing to certain conscientious acruplei 
against taking holy orders. In I G 72, on his return 
land, after having resided some yeans at Oxford, he made hu 
first appearance as an author by a learned pi 
which he introduced to the public a theological tracl 
late Dr. Stearn* who had been his college tutor: it w« 
entitled *De Obstinatione,' and published at Dublin. Dud- 
well's next publication was a volume entitled ■ Two Lc 

: 1, For the Susception of Holy Ord 
Studies Theological, especially such as are rational/ It ap- 
peared in a second edition in 1G81, accompanied with • 
* Discourse on the Phoenician History of Bam 
which, found in Porphyry ait : 
i lo he spurious. Meanwhile, m 1674, Dud well 
had settled m London, and from this time to his death lie 
led a life of busy authorship. Many of his publicatio 
on i he popish and nonconformist controversies ; they haw 
the reputation <»f showing, like everything else he wroie, 

ret and minute learning, and great skill in l\n 
cation of his scholarship, but little judgment of a larger kind 
Few, if any, of the champions of the church 
have st tamed the pretensions of that establishment * 
D dwell iiOMH to have done; but his wboleliie 
perfect conseieuh ud disregard of pergonal con*c« 

quencefl under which he wrote and acted, In I Cos 
elected Camden 1 by the Univc 

Oxford, but was deprived of his office, after ht 
ahnut three years, for refusing to take theoath of allegianes 
to William and Mary. He now retired to the yill 
Cookham in Berkshire, and soon after to S 
the same neighbourhood, where he spent tl 
He possessed, it appears, an estate in 
allowed a relation to enjov the principal part of thi 
only referring such a moderate main 
sumcedforl and unexpenaive habits of life. It n 

■aid however that his relate lb began to 

ihe subtraction even of thti pittance; uh . 
resumed his property, and married. He took this 

n his 53rd year, and he lived to see Im.i 
iher of ten children. The work* for which he is 

i all produced in the latter pa ' 
life* Among these are his Disseriati. : 
the Gi- raphers, published to Hudson'- • (• 

phin? \ iptores GrsBci Minores," Oxon 

Vnnales Thucydideier 1^96; 

aronologia Grieco-Romana pro Hypo tin 
Haliearnassei/ iG9i: and bis * Ann ales Velleiani. Quia- 

, Staliani,* 169&. These several clironol' 
which are drawn up with great ability, have all been 




ly reprinted. DodwelVs principal work is con- 
r *> be his * De Veleribus Grteeorum Romanorum- 
, Obitcrquu tie Cycle JudsDorum oe .Elate (_'! 

'5, 1 4to., Oxom, 1701* He also published in 
HJ6, ' An E pistol ary D iseou rw», pro v i i ig fron i tbe 
nptures and the first Fathers, that the Soul is a principle 
ururally mortal, but immortalized actually by the pleasure 
f God, to punishment or to reward, by its union with the 
Imne baptismal spirit ; where it is proved that none have 
he power of giving this divine immortalizing spirit since 
*tles, but only the Bishops/ This attempt to make 
ml for the bishops the new power of conferring immortality 
•ai>ed no small outcry against the writer, and st 
aairf even of those who had not seen any extravagance in 
us Armer polemical lucubrations. Of course it go 1 . 
fleace to the Dissenters, all of whose souls it un< 

u a future existence on any terms, 
Shottesbrooke on the 7th of June, 171 1. 
H ma sons, the eldest, Henry, who was a barrister, pub- 
isbed anonymously in 1742, a tract, which has been gene- 
lily, but perhaps erroneously, looked upon as a 

ipon revealed religion, under the title of ' Chris- 
ed on Argument:* and another, William, 
f ho w« in the church, distinguished himself by some 
fttuphlcts in the controversy with Dr. Corners Middleton 
boot miracles; and also wrote an answer to his brother's 
nooytn ost mentioned, 

_!i^b name for the digiligrade quadruped 

y attached 1o man, 

Unif rtnscan genus Cants are lo be found the 

lie wolves ; the 

(Cam's Vuipest &c); 

t jack Lhe Mexican wolf ((' 

intli of Hernandez : and Cams T/i 

Cuvier arranges under the ^enus Cant* * tes Chktts," 
m ilc-r- ailed {Cam* famtliaris and its va- 

tiia Lupus, i us, f.ljtil 

ii the jackal* (' Loup (lore, Cam's aureus); and 

foxes (which Brissoo and others have 

p**ai*d under the name of Vulpes) may be distinguished 

e wolves and the dogs by their longer and more 

by a more pointed muzzle; by the pupils of 

*s» which by day present a kind of longitudinal alii 

of the round form; and by the superior incisors 

lobated (echanerees) ; and he observes on their 

odour, their disposition to dig for themselves earths, 

ihe weaker animals. These he phu 

uding the Zerda i ' of Iliiger, 

,alande, Cam* Zerda of Gnieh;. 

ait be terms the Zerdas especes de renards, though he 

aider them as a section, and notices them as 

Iliiger: the Ih/trna n •rmlira of Burchell, 

'ijtrna pirta of Temminck (wild dog of the Cape), termi* 

staC;i 'iidcPy and he then passes on to the 

If, l> Manual, begins the second section of 

lii, and he adopts the 

: — 

hich have the pupil of the eye round, 
ig the dogs property so called, the wolves, and the 

ra in which the pupil of the eye contracts 
Htfca" das. 

ma-like feet; the hya?na-dog, 
bini pictus, Desm., Hy&na pieta, Tetnra., L , 

Hibn il to a consideration 

jw$ famti arieties: the other subfamilies 

t treated of under their respective titles. 

l)H given by LinncBUS of Cants fa- 
rosuin) recurval 
I curl and his lengthened 

after enumerating the varieties, of winch he 
gb it may appear to some almost ridi- 
iwte and not very delicate, is eminently cha- 
os that the domestic dog, Corn's 
-tingubhed by its recurved tail, and 
, in stature, form, colour, and 
hair. It exhibits, ho adds, * the most 
polar, complete, and the most useful con*| 

ha* lhe whole species is become our 

: each individual is entirely devoted to his master, 
~.C, No, 538, j 

adopts his manners, distinguishes and defends his property, 
and remains attached to bun even unto death; and all this 
springs not from mere necessity, nor from constraint, but 

■ly from recomwissance and a true friendship. ] 
swifu strength, and the highly developed power of 

smelling of the dog,Tiave made him a powerful ally of man 
against the other animals, and were perhaps no- 
the establishment of society. It is the only animal that 
has followed man all over the earth, 1 

Now comes the question — What was the parent-stack of 
ihis faithful friend of man ? Some zoologists are of opinion 
that the breed is derived from the wolf* others that it is a 
familiarized jackal; all agree that no trace of it is to bo 
found in a primitive state of nature. That there were d 
or rather animals of tbe canine form, in Europe long ago, 
TC \wix^ e\idence from their remain-, which W€ i* ha it pre- 
sently notice : and that there are wild dogs we know. 
India, far example, atFords many of them, living in a state 
of complete independence, and without any indication of a 
wish to approach the dwellings of man. These dogs, tho:, 
they have been accurately noticed by competent 
do not throw much light on the question. They may bate 
escaped from the dominion or half dominion of man, smd 
have betaken themselves to a vagabond life. It becomes 
necessary however to examine into tbe state of these it 
some of which are entirely wild, and keep to tbe mountain 
and forest, whilst others hang about the villages, and though 
without owners, give tokens of a more social disposition, 
and are tolerated as the scavengers of the place, which t 
clear of disgusting incumbrances, somewhat after the Por- 
tuguese fashion. 

Col. Sykes thus describes the Dukhun (Deccan) dog, 
Cam* Dukhunemis, Sykes, Kobtm of the M 
* Red, paler underneath; tail bushy, pendulous; pupil 
rounded,' 'This is the Wild Bo* of Dukhun. Its head is 
c o i li pi esaed an 1 1 e n ot v cry sharp, 

are oblkjue: the pupils round, irides light brown. The 
• of the couutenLuu-e that of a coarse ill-natured 
in Greyhound, wilhout any resemblance to the Jackal, 
the Fux f or the JFoff, ami in consequence essentially dis- 
tinct from the Canis Quao, or Sumatr 
Hardwiekc. Ears long, erect, somewhat rounded at 
top, without any replication of the trogui, Limbs rev 
ably large and strong in relation to the bulk of the an in 
its size being intermediate between the H of/" and the Jackal, 
Neck long. Body elongated. Between the eyes and tl 
red brown: end or the tail blackish. From the tip of 
nose to the insertion of the tail 33 inches in length: tail 
h\ inches. Height of the shoulders, lr>A inches/ 

adds that none of the domBiticoitd dog* of Dukhun 
nimon to Europe. The first in strength and size 
t be Jirinjaree Dag, som ew bat resembling 1 h e PerstQ 
hound, then (1831) in the possession ot the ZookMj 

but much more powerful. The Pariah Dog, be sta 
is referable to M. Cuvier's second section. 1 I, 
numerous, not individual properly, but breeds in tho towns 
and villas* unmolested. Itu remarks that the 

Turnspit Dog* long backed, with short crooked le^s, ii In 
quently found among the i The** is also a petted 

minute variety of thePtmVj/i Dog t usually of a white colour, 
and with long silky hair, corresponding to B 

of Europe ; this is taught to Carry flambeaux and Ian- 
terns. The kail variety nulieed is the Dog with 
short as to appear naked like the C< It 

known to Euro] the name of the Puly^ 

Proa* part i., 18*1.) In L&3£ the skin q{ the H 
Dog of wbi compared bi C >loael 
cimeu of tbe Kolaun of the Mabrattas above described, and 
be stated Ins impression to be that the animals are identical, 
differing unly by the denser coat and more wuolli feet of 
the > , a difference readily accounted for by ihe 

tor cold of the elevated regions inhabited by it. lie 
declined however pronouncing a decided opinion, which, he 
thought, could only be arrived at by more extensive com- 
parison and a full acquaint b the habits of I 
Dog of Nepal. iZool. Proc, part ii i In 1833, Colonel 
Sykes plueed on the table of the Zoological Society his spe- 

[l of the Wild Dog ' t Dukhun {Canis Dukhun* > 
Sykes), for the purp i paring it with a skin of the 

Wild Dogoi Nepil, {Com* jnmcrvus, Hodgson), then re- 
cently presented iety by the last-named l 
man. He showed tl dogs are perfectly similar in 
their general form, and in the form of the cranium \ wA 





that in his specimen, equally with that of Mr. Hodgson, the 
In inter tubercular tooth of the lower jaw is wanting. The 
lifference remarkable between the two specimens was 
in ill- od colour of the fur, that of the DtMun 

being paler and lew dense than that of the Individual 
linm Nepal These differences, depending probably on 
climate and individual peculiarity, cannot be regarded as 
sufficient to indicate a distinction" between the two r 
Identical as they are in form and habits, Colonel Sykes 
considered them as belonging to one species. (Zool. Proc. t 
part U 1833, and see a more detailed account in the * Trans- 
actions of the Royal Asiatic Society/) 

M>. Hodgson, in B paper' On the Mammali a of 
published in the 'Journal of ihe Asiatic Society of Cal- 
cutta/ meniions, inter atia* under the title of Canit J 
U'arti, Liivn., the Pariah as the only Dog of the lower and 
central regions. The Thibetan Mastiff, he states, is limited 
to Kach:\r <Caciiar>, into ffhtch it waj introduced from its 
native country, but in which it degenerates rapidly; there 
are, he observes several varieties of it; he also notices his 
Canu priman-ttJi. {ZoaL /W., part ii., I 

These contributions we consider very interesting; but we 
must be on our guard ag* bogging of the question, 

which lurks under the specific name fm given bv a 

gentleman to whom Indian zoology owes so much, and it 
is fot this reason tbal we have laid before the reader the 
I arativc views of Colonel Sykes. who has so widely ex- 
tended our knowledge of the Oriental Fauna. 

Mr. Hell in his 'History of British Quadrupeds, 1 ap- 
proaches this difficult question more boldly than most 
s, Mn order,' says Mr Bell, *to eome to any ra- 
tional conclusion on this head, it will be necessary i<> ascer- 
tain to what type the animal approaches most nearly, after 
having for many generations existed in awjld 

state, removed from the influence of domestication and of 
association with mankind. Now we find that there are 
lifferenl ins d ice? of the existence of dogi in such 
rteof Wildfl have lost even that common cha- 

ter of domestics colour and marking. Of 

Dhole of India, and 
the is besides a half reclaimed 

race amongst the Indians of North America; and another, 
also pari i*th America, which ftes 

Eld that these ra es, ia different 

re more wild, exhibit 
e lengthened limbs, the long 
1 1 c imperative 

win wolf; and that the tail of the ! 

i. >1 as the most renin to 
ihe slightly l 

animal \ nstdereble 

apy i to D well-known wild animal of the 

(hough donbtl tided from 

lu illy assumed the wild 

n: and it In worthy of especial remark, that the 

if ill,* wolf, and ular, does 

mi thill of d, more than the 

■ h other. The cranium 

re all, or nearly all, the other 

la; and to strengthen still further ihe pi 

v of their identity, ih If will readily breed 

together, and their progeny is fertile. The obliquity of the 

•if U one 
which it differs from the i id aHliough it it 

much upon the effects of habit or 

lUrainins the point to attribute 

the dogs to the constant 

habit, for many sui snerations, of looking forwards 

to their i I obeying his Vo 

lie identity of ges- 
S ix t y -three days form the period during which the 
goes with young el) the same time i 

ef re the she -wolf gives birth to her offspring. Upon 

r rather the pos- 
mch a duration in lh< >nofa particular 

i do not 1 • when opp 

l! period being sixty thr« 
►If and aoj blind, and 

. at the expiration of 
file t« Ifth day. 

Hunter's important experiments proved without doubt 
lltot the wolf and the jackal would breed with the dog; but 
he had nut sufficient data for coming to the conclusion that 

all three were i den Heal as species. In the course of those 
experiments he ascertained that the jackal went fifty-nine 
days with young, whilst the wolf went sixty- three, nor does 
he record that the progeny of the dog and jackal would 
breed together : and he knew too well the value of the 
argument to be drawn from a fertile progeny not to have 
dwelt upon the fad if be had proved it ; not to have men- 
tioned it, at least, if he had ever heard of it. 

Skull of Jackal ; from F. CurUv. 

Mr. Bell disposes of the objection arising from the si 
leged untameably savage disposition of the wolf by relating 
two un< mi his own authority, and the other on 

thai of M. F. Cuvier, in proof of the susceptibility of attach* 
ment to man, and the appetite— for it is an nppet* 
bis caresses on the pari of the wolf. The first occurred to 
the Gardens of the Z iety in the R» 

London, and was exhibited in the person of a si 
came forward to be caressed, and even brought her pu : 
caress i r M r. Bell i >r any one whom 

approached her den. Indeed she killed all her unfortunate 
young ones in succession, by robbing them against the bar? 
of her cage in her zeal to have them fondled by her 1 

Menagerie du Roi a 
and no faithful aog could show more affe 
attachment to his master or distress on account of 
sence than did the male wolf which is the subject of M F. 
Cuvier's touching account. 'With all these an 
properties of form and structure*— wc quote Mr. Bull — * as 
well B ition, I cannot but inch' 

opinion that the wolf is the original source from 
all our domestic dogs have sprung: nor do 1 
great variety which the different 

cient ground for concluding that they may not, all ol 
have descended from one common stock. The ti 
and the mastiff, the pug and the greyhounl 
more unlike each other than any of the varieties 
domestic animals; but if it be true that variation depends 
upon habit and education, the very different employment! 
to which dogs have in all ages heen trained, and the v arums 
climates to which they ha\e heen naturalized, must 

ents in producing these dij 
forms. The care, too, with which do£s of parti* 
tched with similar ones, for the purpose 

uch distinctions.' The same author thu- 
up his n the whole, the argument in 

of the view which I have taken, that the wolf is probably 

of all the canine races, may be thus 
structure of the animal is identic* 

ili<* Btronj ice in its favour. The 

dqg must have been derived from an animal s 

tion, and 

mankind; which has been ah 
of the wolf Do returned to a wild 

continued in that condition through man] 
hihit cb Inch appr 

of the wolf, in proportion a 

to act. The two animals will breed together and 
produce fertile young. The period of gestation is the same. 1 

icmcnt of the denti- 

tli* gTMti t Lin mi us. M. F. Cuvier 

that dug* in mve forty-nine teeth, viz 

U" ilars, one 

tt tub* the upper jaw ; and six incisors, 

e molars, o -tor, and two tu- 

r b in the lower jaw. Ofalltl* he ob- 

heir ahape in any appreciable degree 

CteVeT. Only tbere is sometimes found an 

molar or tubercular tooth.* 

tea; hind feet with four toes; claws 

th*t th 

hn« iupcrnumt-rary l«>*-»k are cU'veluped In 

ItMM njinUiitAOuQ* *r*i out |««*fi«!Uj.iW, M. K. 
u«iti< ihv»t C4*u*U1g# which givv no fuumlsuuu Wt Itio 




Generally speaking, all dogs have five toes on live fore 
feet, and four on the hind feet, with the rudiment of a fifth 
metatarsal bone, which does not show tlseli" externally. 
Nevertheless some dogs have this fifth toe very long and 
well proportioned, and advancing as fir as the origin of the 
first phalanx of the neighbouring toe ; and in those dogs 
which have only a rudimentary fifih horn- of the tarsus, 
tliis bone articulates itself to the lower facet of the peat 
cuneiform hone, which is itself placed in relation with the 
scaphoid hone, the second cuneiform bone, and the second 
bone of the metatarsus, counting as one the rudiment in 
question. But in the dogs that have the fifth too complete, 
a fourth cuneiform bom ped between the first and 

the second toe T and in that case, in some varieties, the great 
[form bone elevates itself and on its internal side oners 

: 1 US. 

The tail is very variable in the number of caudal vertebras 
which range from twenty-one down to three or even two. 
In following out our inquiry as to the domesticated 
U that variety which is found with 
i in his most uncivilized state, as the point of com- 
menrement. Some of the New Hollanders, perhaps, ap- 
] i i he slate of nature than any other savages. 
wli.ii dog is a^ociated with these people. 
The New Holland dog, or as it is ra ally termed, 

the Australian dog or Dingo, is so wolf-like in its appear- 
ance, that Bewick figures it as *the New South Wales wolf.* 
Governor Phillip de be heigh 1 of thia species, when 

ct, as rather less than two feet, and the length 
feet and a half. The head, he sa\s, is formed much 
like that of a fax, the ears short and erect, with whiskers 
from one to two inches in length on the muzzle. The ge- 
i the Upper parts is pale brown, growing lighter 
towards the belly; the hind port of the fore-legs, and the 
fore part of the hinder ones white, as are the feet of both: 
the tail U of a moderate length, somewhat bushy, but in a 
Let* degree than that of a fox: the teelh. he add*, are much 
the usual in the genus. 

Skull af Diiitfo; ftoro F. Curler. 

description may be considered as accurate, wil 

he animal generally bears a greater affinity 

to the wolf than the fox. *1» the author last 

auoted, describing a female, 'much of the manners of the 

i is of a verys&vagp nature, end not likely to change 

ID Uiis particular* It laps like other dogs, but neither 

nor growls if vexed and teamed; instead of which, it 

i virs of the whole body like bristles, and seems 

furious: it is very eag< prey, and is fond of rabbits 

or rhiekens raw, but will not touch dressed meat. From 

reemeu and agility it has greatly the advantage of 

nimalsmueb superior in very fine 1 

fox-dog being put to it, in a moment it seized him by the 

• uld have soon put an end to his existence had 

not help been at hand. Willi the Utmost rase it is able to 

leap over the back <>f an a*>, and waiver) near worrying one 

to death, having fastened on it so that the creature was not 

able to disengage himself without assistance ; it has also 

heen known to run down both deer and sheep. A second 

of these is in the possession of Mr. Lascelles, of which we 
have received much the same account in respect of its fero- 
city : whence it is scarcely to be expected that this elegant 
animal will ever become familiar/ 

Dampier, in his voyage to New Holland (1699), well de- 
scribes the Dingos, where he says that his men saw two or 
three* beasts like hungry wolves, lean like so many skeletons, 
being nothing but skin and bones/ Indeed ill-treatment 
of the dog seems to be the characteristic of savage or semi- 
barbarous nations. Thus Lawson, in his History of Car 
m/ttta, 'When all the viands were brought in, the first 
figure began with kicking out the dogs, which ore seem- 
ingly wolves, made tame with starving and beating, ibey 
he worst dog-masters in the world; so that it is on 
infallible cure for sore eyed evet to set- an Indian's dog fat/ 
Among the oriental nations the natives of Java seem to 
their dogs almost as scurvily as the wild American 
Indians did in Law son's time. (Deer, vol. viii., p 369*3J 
To return to the Dingo. Mr. Bennett, in his Gardens ami 
rie of the Zoological Society, vol. i. (1830), thus 
writes : — * The specimens in the Garden appear to have 
shaken off some of their original witdness, and to have 
begun to accustom themselves in some degree to the cir* 
meed in which they are placed. One of them ha* 
been lor nearly two years in the Society's possession - the 
second is a much later acquisition/ This is remarkable as 
indicative of an si pp roach to greater domestication, but the 
following statement by Mr. Bell, in his work above quoted 
(1836), carries this much farther, and enables us to trac* 
the first effect of the more mild dominion of man upon tbii 
wolf-like dog. 'The effect of domestication in pro 
variation in colour, to which' allusion has already been made, 
has lately been exhibited in a very striking and inte 
manner in the menagerie of the Zoological Soeiel 
Australian bitch, or Dingo, had a litter of puppies, ike 
father of which was also of that breed: both of ihei 
been taken in the wild state, but were of the unit* : 
dish brown colour which belongs to the race, and ilie 
mother had never bred before; but the young, bred 
Bnement, and m a half domesticated stale, were all 
<>r leas spotted. 

Uiii^o t Cnnti f.»in0i kiii Anrir.i1 1* K. 

to the dogs of other comparatively unci d 

nations we find the pi aid other indications 

half-reclaimed animal. The Esquimaux clog, ( 

/fans/' l, or Mackenzie River 

dog, Cani* familiaru Lagoput, will occur as instances to 

ho have been familiar — and who are not? — with the 

a of our northern expeditions, and the garden of the 

Zoological Society of London in the Regent s Park. In 

that menagerie the three dogs lost named might at one 

time be seen sid- ding the best opportune 

comparison, Peter, the Esquimaux dog, kept in, 

the garden, was of a dingy white with e tinge of yellow 

on the upper parts, gradually fading away upon the sides; 

in short, of nearly a uniform colour, but in general this 

hibils a predominance of black markings. Thus 

Akshelli brought from the Polar sea by Mr. Richards in 

Captain Pan e, and described by Mr. Children 

in the Zoological Journal, was almost entirely blackish, or 

of a colour nearly approaching to black on the upper parts, 

and white underneath, tail included. Akshelli seldom 

barked, but, if displeased, uttered a low wolfish growl, and 

DOG 61 


wis a rely powerful dog. Peter was brought to this country 
bi LieuL Henderson, one of the companion! of Captain 
Rosa, in his first voyage, and lived long at the Regent's 
Park. He was very good tempered and familiar* The 
Hmre-Indian dogs, it is said, are never known to bark 
their own country, and it is worthy of note that 
*e which were brought from thence to the Regent's 
Park never barked at all, but the younger one which 
w»* born here harked like the other dogs. It is curious 
to observe these steps, * The period/ says Mr. Bell, 
*at which the domestication of the dog firivt t<iok place 
i* wholly tost in the mist of antiquity. The earliest 
WtiSian of it in the sacred Scripture occurs during the 
aojoarn of the Israelites in Egypt . — " But against Israel 
ados» move his tongue. It is again mentioned 
the Mosaic law in a manner which would seem to 
• that they were the common scavengers of the Israel- 
toll camp, as they are still in many of the cities of the 
— " Neither shall ye eat any flesh that is torn of beasts 
:«e field: ye shall cast it to the dogs." A similar office 
mems to be repeatedly alluded to in the course of the 
;sh history: — "Him that dieth in the city shall the 
4sg« eat, and him that dieth in the fields shall the fowls of 
the air eat ■"* a common curse, as it would appear, as it 
ocmri verbatim on no less than three separate occasions in 
the First Book of Kings; and evidently intimates a violent 
and without the honour of sepulture. 

The dog was considered by the Jews as eminently an un- 
eJeaei animal, and was the figure selected for the most con- 
It is impossible not to be struck with 
ng similarity which exists in the feelings of many 
entntal nations at toe present day, anionic whom the vetj 
f the Scriptures is, with little modification, 

we proc a sketch -and our limits will 

to more— of the varieties of the dog as fos- 

another word as to its origin. 

gainst being led to a 

: it origin by any particular developments 

*Tt>-v more susceptible of modi- 

than the dog, and man has succeeded in producing 

n«l every degree of change in the form oi its cranium, 

fur. With regard to the latter 

-t entirely absent, and we 

lose wool from a curious 

bould be borne in mind throug 
to the origin of the dog. None of the wild 
r, apparently living in a state of nature, have 
nd KO return to the true form of wolf. 

d variety which was most probably 

it that civilized and settled man called in aid 

ks from beasls and birds of prey and the 

mman tribes, is remarkable for the 

m and Us great sagacity. 

Stall cfSfcephanTft Dug, Chien de Br/gcr ; (tom F. Covjcr. 

It is indeed distinguished by this cranial development 
even above the spaniels and their varieties, and the hounda 

Skull of Spaniel j from V. Cim»*r. 

which comprise the most useful and intelligent dogs. In 
the bull -dogs and nmsiifTs, * digues de a y of the 

Preach, though the heed ii one-third larger than those of 
the shepherd's dog and of the spaniel*, 'Barbels,* the I 
nial capacity is not by any means so great. 

Skull of Dogtio da fort* r*e* } from F.Curicr. 

Dr. Cams, the physician of queen Elizabeth's time, wrote 
several papers on Natural History for the use oi Gesner, 
Ins eorteepondent and friend. In one of these treat 

rittali dogs into — 1st. The most generom kuidx t 
hieh be subdivides into the <%« of ckace, including i\^ 

divides the British 

Hounds, viz . the Terrier, /farrier, and Btoodhound - at ^ 
the (iitzrhnund, Greyhound, Levfair, or Lyemmer, lvn ^ 
Tumbler .— The Fowlers, viz. the Spantei, Metier t H utpr 

Fiwler:- and the Imp Dogs, viz. the Sp un , 
Gentle, or Comforter. Sod; The Farm-Dng 9t ^ ^n 

L «ve* 




Shepherd's Dog, and the Mastiff, or Ban-dog. 3rd* Mon- 
grel* \ viz. IVappe, Tt tcer. 

Bewick enumerates the following \ — The Shepherd's Dos ; 
the Cur Dog, the Oreenland Dog % the BuU-dog, the ilfa 
the Ban-dog, the Dalmatian, or C the /mA Grey- 

hound, the Highland md, the Gaaehound, the' 

hound, the Italian I E, the Lyemmer, the Aw/-- 

the Tumbler, the Terrier, the Beagle, the Harriett the 
hound* the Q&l English tfound, the Kibble Hound, the 
Blood Hound, the Spanish Pftinter, the English Setter, the 
Newfoundland Dog, the Rough Water D 
Spaniel, the Small Water Sjiariiel, the Sfrimr^r, or Cocker, 
v ZtajT, the Pyrame Dog, the £MorA £o#, the 
JLiOtt /?o^ (a small and rare variejy). the CW- 
small spaniel), the Turns} it, and the /Vg\ We could add 
many more to this list, which i* long enough, The French 
divide the dogs into three groups w vu., thi r, the 

jiisil find a Hounds and Pointer u and the 

v (ihe last oontainin cfag*, &c.) 

Tlw ThtM Dog. Canto fr miliaria, irar. Moh«.»»ii TWboiitnq*. 
ena le the following late 

1 Mr. Bennett, * r l the 

r -, the Bhoteas, to wl 

tttached,ar Jar race, of a ruddy 

luur, indicating the bracing air which they breathe, 
lat disposition, Their clothing 
Id climate they inhabit, and consul 
[h. The men till the ground I 

8 down to trade, bringing 
borax, tineal* and musk, for sale. They sometimes pene- 

trate as far as Calcutta. On these occasions the 
remain at home with the dogs, and the encamp 
watched by the latter* which have an almost in 
on to Europeans, and in general tly fen 
white face. A warmer climate relaxes all their ei 
and they dwindle even in the valley of Nepaul.* 
which were in the Zoological Society's Garden in die 
Regent's Park died soon after their arrival. They won 
considered very great rarities, and were brought 
this country by Dr. Waltieh. The Hon. Edward Gardner, 
BrftlAh resident at the court of the Rajah of > 
heard of any other instance of this variety being dome* 
tieated by Europeans, 

In all the varieties the period of gestation is sixty-thrt* 
The Utter is generally numerous, otYen as many at 
eight or nine. The whelps are born blind, and do not tee 
till nine days are fully expired: they sometime* see OB 
the tenth, and sometimes not till the twelfth day. At 
the fourth month the teeth begin to change, and at two 
years the growth of the animal is considered corn pi 

lered old at the expiration of five years, and th§ 
of his existence rarely exceed twenty years. 

It is confidently stated that in all the varieties, if a dog 
has any white on any part of his tail, that colour will inva- 
riably he found at the tip. 

Those who would pursue their inquiries as to the 
of breed-, of dogs, should refer lo The Sportxm<> 

volumes entin ed to the subject, and 

beautifully illustrated* ■ £fcim*7*J Rural Sports; the t 
on 'Dogs 1 in The Menageries {Library of Enter f 

I . and Sir John Sebright's interesting and well- 
digested little book, in addition to the works re fen*, 
this article. 

Fossil Dogs. 
It may bo doubted whether any fossil remain> 
properly so called, have ever been ibund. The 
of the hones of the wolf and the fox in the ossifero 

U known ; but in pursuing this part of the 
inquiry it should be remembered how difficult it is to dia* 

U the bones of the wolf from those of the mo 
Cnvier observes, and the Shepherd's Dog. The 
SpeUeus of Gold fuss, the remains of which were found at 
GauVnreuth, bears the strongest resemblance in the form of 
the cranium generally to the wolt; but the inuzzle is 
and the palate is wider. The Agnotherium of Kauj 

I by him to have been as large as a lion, and to bs 
allied to the dog. 

DOGE was 'the title of the first magistrate of t] 

{jublic of Venice. The first settlers on the island- 
ajmne were governed by magistrates sent i 
Afte? Padua was devastated by the Huns and other bar- 
barians, a. d. 4j2*6U, the colonists of the lagune being left 

: elected a magistrate calk 
bune. An annual selection was made of m 

tribunes, who ed the government of (m 

whole community, A council of forty persons chosen hi tha 
general assembly of the people had the legislative and judi- 
cial powers. As population and wealth increased, and the 
community was threatened by hostile ncighl 
found necessary to concentrate and strengthen the 

te for life was elected by the 
assembly of the people, and was called doge, a 

■rul of the armed force. The 
:, The 
third & ted in 724, 

k Ravenna, wh 
[ to the ] who, us a 

i tract on tl 
inland as conli- 

ido. The 

gistrate was substituted, but the fi 

on son, 

people b 

till 1172 about forty doges ruled in 

.ii died a violent death or were depoa 
or had their eyes put out, some] 

id sometimes by popi 

ua, or Council of Forty, which t\ 
government during the interregna, assumed by degu 




power of electing a doge in order to put a Btop to the fre- 
quently recurring tumult and anarchy ; the choice however 
was subject to confirmation by the assembly of the people. 
The first doge thus elected was Sebastiano Ziani in 1 1 72, and 
the Forty made him swear to a new constitution, or funda- 
mental law, by which, instead of the general assembly of 
the people, the sovereign power was vested in a great 
council of 470 citizens, elected for one year, but capable of 
indefinite re-election. These were chosen by twelve elec- 
tors, two for each sestiere, or district, of the city of Venice 
alone, who were themselves appointed by the inhabitants 
of their respective districts, the other islands and terri- 
tories of the republic having no part in the elections. The 
Great Council was to appoint six individuals who were to 
be the doge's counsellors, without whose concurrence no 
art of the doge should be valid. This council was after- 
wards called *la Signoria.' In important cases the doge 
was to consult with another council of sixty members, called 
Prpgadi, or ' requested,' taken also from the Great Council. 
This is the body which in course of time became invested 
with all the powers of the state, and is generally known by 
the name of the Venetian Senate. The citizens of Venice, 
weary of tumult, and being secured in the exclusive right of 
furnishing the members of the Great or Sovereign Council, 
wra To have willingly acquiesced in these constitutional 
changes, and a distribution of golden pieces made by the 
new doge served to gratify the populace. About a century 
after, another organic change took place. Pietro Gradenigo 
being elected doge in 12S9,by the influence of the old or 
aristocratic families, proposed a law which passed the Great 
Council in 1298 after much opposition and delays, that 
no one should in future be eligible to sit in that assembly 
except those who then had a seat in it, or whose fathers, 
grandfathers, and great-grandfathers, had been members of 
il The number of the members of the Great Council was 
no longer limited to 470. Lastly, in 131 9 a new law passed 
the Great Council, by which that assembly declared itself 
permanent and hereditary, all the members who were then 
Biting in it (about 600 in Dumber) remaining for life in pos- 
•essioa of their seats, their sons who were above twenty-five 
fears of age being likewise admitted, and their descendants 
after them, to the exclusion of all other families. This 
decree, known in history as * la serrata del maggior con- 
■gtio," established an hereditary and exclusive aristocracy 
at Venice, which lasted till the end of that republic. The 
confirmation of the doge by the people was henceforth dis- 
pensed with. The doge himself became merely a state 
pageant, the servant of the councils, which had the power 
«f trying and deposing him, and even sentencing him to 
teath. They took away from him the command of the 
military and naval forces, his children were excluded from 
eiwr office of state, and he had no patronage except the 
srebendal stalls of the cathedral of St. Mark. The doge 
was president by right of all the councils, with a double, or 
casting vote. He was simply addressed by the title of 
Messer Doge. iMemori Venete di Giovanni Gallicioli, 
Venice, 1826 ; Dam, Hutoire de Venine, books 6 and 39 ; 
and an article in the Edinburgh Review, No. 91, June, 

The doges at Genoa were at first magistrates for life 
[Boccanera], as at Venice, but the frequent contentions 
and aril factions among the aspirants to that dignity in- 
faced Andrea Doria, in his reform of 1528, to make the 
•See of doge to last only two years. [Doria.] 

DOGGERBANK, a very extensive sand-bank in the 
North Sea, lying between the east coast of England and the 
west coast of Holland, and situated between the Well-bank 
sad the Broad-fourteen. The western part of the Dogger- 
bonk is about twelve leagues east from Flamborough head, in 
the east riding of Yorkshire, whence the bank extends in a 
inaction nearly E.N.E. to within twenty leagues of Jut- 
had. In some places this bank is twenty leagues broad, 
act it is contracted towards the east, and terminates nearly 
in a point. The shoalest part is that nearest the English 
coast, where it has nine fathoms water, so that it presents no 
dangers or difficulties to navigators ; in other parts the sur- 
lm' rises generally towards the centre: in some places the 
depth of water is as great as twenty-seven fathoms. 
The Doggerbank is a noted station for the cod- fishery, and 

\a much frequented by both English and Dutch fishermen. 
It is also known in history as the scene of an obstinate naval 
engagement which took place in the summer of 1781 be- 
tween the English and Dutch fleets under the respective 

commands of Admirals Parker and Zoutman. The dis- 
abled condition of the ships on both sides put an end to tho 
battle, in which neither side could claim a victory. 

DOGMA (coy pa), a word borrowed from the Greek, means 
an established principle, a fundamental article of belief de- 
rived from undisputed authority, and is generally applied to 
the essential doctrines of Christianity which are drawn from 
the Scriptures, or from the authority of the Fathers. Hence 
that branch of divinity called dogmatic theology is an ex- 
position and assertion of tho various articles of the Christian 
faith as founded upon authority acknowledged by Chris- 
tians in general, and is distinguished from scholastic 
theology, which assumes to establish the truth of the 
Christian doctrines by argument. John Damascenus was 
one of the first who wrote an exposition of Christian 
dogmatics. [Damascenus.] But although the authority 
of tho Scriptures and of the early fathers is acknow- 
ledged by all Christians, there are other authorities which 
are acknowledged only by one communion, and not by 
others. Thus the Greek church acknowledges the au- 
thority of tho earlier councils only, while the Roman 
Catholics look upon the later councils and the bulls and de- 
cretals of the Popes as equally positive authority in matters 
of faith ; and the Protestant and reformed churches, re- 
jecting the latter, recur to their respective Synods and 
confessions of faith. Melancthon wrote a concise exposition 
of the dogmas of the Protestant or Lutheran church. 
Among the numerous Roman Catholic writers on dogmatic 
theology, Bell arm ine is one of the most distinguished. Dog- 
matic theology, as distinct from scholastic as well as from 
moral theology and Biblical divinity, constitutes a separate 
chair in several Roman Catholic universities in continental 

In tho Protestant Universities of Germany there is a 
chair for the history of dogmas. The business of the pro- 
fessor is to examine the doctrines of the various sects which 
have divided Christianity, their sources, and the arguments 
by which they are supported. Such a course of lectures 
forms an important addition to the study of Ecclesiastical 

DOG'S-BANE, the English name of the poisonous 
plant called by botanists Apocvnum. 

DOG'S-TAIL GRASS. [Cynosurus.] 

DOGWOOD, the English name of various deciduous- 
leaved shrubs belonging to the genus Cornus. [Cornack>e.] 
They are cultivated as ornamental plants, for *he sake of 
their bright red shoots, which are an embellishment of 
plantations in the winter; and also for the sake of the 
charcoal obtained from them, which is one of the best sorts 
for the manufacture of gunpowder. 

DOIT or DUYT, a small Dutch copper coin, being the 
eighth part of a stiver, in value half a farthing. Doit is also 
a division of the English grain Troy. See Snelling's ' View of 
the Coins of Europe,' 8vo. London : 1 766. Kelly's ' Complete 
Cambist,' i. 219 ; ii. 278. The word is used by Shakspeare, 
Coriofanus, act. i., sc. 5. 

DOL. [Ille et Vilaine.] 

DOLABELLA. (Malacology.) [Tecti branch iata.] 

DOLABR1FORM, a term applied in botany to certain 
fleshy leaves, which are straight at the front, taper at tho 
base, compressed, dilated, rounded, and thinned away at 
the upper end at the back, so as to bear some resemblance 
to an old fashioned axe-head. 

DOLCI, CARLO, an excellent painter, was born at 
Florence, on Thursday, May 25, 1616. His father Andrew, 
and his mother's father and brother, Pietro and Bartolomeo 
Marinari, were all painters, and much esteemed and re- 
spected in their native city. At the age of four years, 
Carlo had the misfortune to lose his father, and his mother 
was obliged to maintain a numerous family by her in- 
dustry. At the age of nine she placed him with Jacopo 
Vignali, a pupil of Roselli, who was famous for his powers 
of teaching. In four years Carlo could paint. His first 
efforts attracted the notice of Piero de' Medici, an amateur, 
who procured him the notice of the court, and he soon be- 
came very busily and profitably employed. In 1654, by tho 
advice of his friends, ho married Theresa Bucherelli, by 
whom he had a numerous family. About 1670 he was in- 
vited to paint the likeness of Claudia, the daughter of 
Ferdinand of Austria, at Innspruck, which place he visited 
for a short time. After his return he was afilicted with 
melancholy, and he died on Friday, January 1 7, 1686, leav- 
ing one son in holy orders, and seven daughters, of whom 

D O L 


D O L 

Agnese, married to Carlo Baci, a silk merchant, painted to 
the manner of bet father. 

Dolci's biographer, Baldinncci, attributes his excellence 
in painting to the goodness of Heaven, as a just reward for 
his linguist pietv\ in illustration of which numerous anec- 
dotes are told. When invited to take Claudia.** portrait, he 
(It- lined fef fear of the length of the journey, never having 
lost sight of the cathedral dome and campanile of his 
favourite city since his birth; and his assent was only pro- 
cured by obtaining the commands of his confessor, which 
he obeyed at once. In like manner he ffu n covered from 
Ins first tit of melancholy by the command of his confessor 
to proceed with a picture of the Virgin. He appears to 
have been extremely good and amiable, but singularly timid. 
His last illness was brought on by a remark which Luca 
Giordano uttered in joke, according to his intimate friend 
Baldinueci, that hia slowness would never allow him to 
amass J .>0,uuu dollars as the expeditious Giordano had done, 
but that he must starve. Upon this, poor Carlo seems to 
have nam bewildered; he decried Ihe works of the other, 
whom be thought to be taking the bread out of his mouth, 
and refused: food for some time. In the midst of his troubles, 
his excellent and beloved wife died, and death soon released 
hira from his grief In all his insanity be was never vio- 
lent, but dejected and helpless, and as obedient as a child 
to his ghostly adviser. 

Proa his first attempts at painting Carlo determined to 
paint none but sacred subjects, and he almost literally ob- 
served this rule. His stvle is pleasing, and full of gentle 
and tender expressions ; fiis drawing for the most part, but 
not always, correct ; his colouring varied, soft, bright, and 
harmonious; sometimes too pearly in its tint. Lanzi b 
in his painting something of the manner of Rosselli, who 
was, as it were, hia grandfather in art. He elaborated all 
be did with the most consummate patience and delicacy. 
His pictures are numerous, and found in many collec- 
tions, for he painted many duplicates, and many copies 
were made by his pupils Alessandro Lomi and Bartulonieo 
Maneini, and Agnese, his daughter. Ormrio Murinari* his 
roLi^in and scholar, gave great promise, but died young. 
(Baldinuct l) 

DOLC1GNO, or DULCIGNO, in the Albanian tongue 
DULTZUNE, and in the Turkish OLGUN, a town in 
Upper Albania, near Scutari. [Albania,] This town is 
on the coast, and has a good harbour. The inhabitants 
who amount to about fiOou, are engaged partly in com- 
merce, but chiefly in piracy. They were regarded 1 till of 
late as the most formiaable pirates of the Gulf of Venice, 
Some of their seamen enter into the service of the Barbary 
States. This town, or perhaps Dnlcigno Veeehie, which 
Mr. Hobhouse (in the map prefixed to his Travels) places 
on the coast, five or six miles more to the north, was 
antiently called Olcinium, a name containing the same de- 
nts as the modem Albanian and Turkish names ; the 
Illyrians of Olciuium followed the same piratical course 
as the modern Dulcignoles. (Hobhouse, Travels in 

DOLE, a town in France, in the department of Jura, on 
the north-west bank of the Doubs, a feeder of the Sao no, 
and on the road from Paris to Geneva, It is about 1 90 
miles in a straight line south-east of Paris, in 47° V N. ttt 
ami .V J <>*' E. i 

Dole is not clearly identified with any Roman site ; but 
in the town and its environs vestiges of the Romans have 
been traced. In the middle ages, while Besancon was yet 
a municipal republic, Dole was considered as the capital 
of La Canitl de Bourgogne, or La Franche Oomte, It was 
taken and almost destroyed by the French in 1 17 ( J. It 
wan again attacked by the French, under the Prince of 
Condc, in 1536. In 1669, La Franche Comic having been 
luered by ihe French, the ramparts of Dole were rased, 
hoi repaired by the Spaniards, to whom the town was re- 
stored by a treaty of peace the same year. At a subsequent 
period* after La Franche Comte had come finally into the 
of the French, they were finally demolished. 
The town is pleasantly situated, but its streets are steep, 
and the houses poor and irregularly built. The church of 
Notre Dame is worthy of notice, and there is a pleasant 
pr tmenade. The population, in 1832, was 7304 for the town, 
or 9927 for the whole commune. The inhabitants carry ao 
trade iu corn, wood, and iron ; they manufacture hosiery 
and glass. There axe iron-works and coal-mmes in or near 
the towu. 

There are a library, a high school, an agricultural society, 
and l theatre. There is ako a prison at Dole. 

Dole if the capital of an arromhsaement, which had m 
1899 a population of 72,992. 

DOLGELLY. [Merionethshire.) 

DO'LICHONYX. [Boboli sk ; Emberiztd^.] 

DQ'LICHOS. Under this name Linnaeus included the 
greater part of those tropical twining leguminous plant 
bear eatable fruit like the kidney-beans cultivated in i 
A large number of species, ill distinguished from each 
and differing materially in the structure of their t'\\ 
lion, were for so long a time collected under this name 
that, although they are now broken up into several genera, 
we shall briefly notice the more remarkable in this j 

Dnlic/to$ itself is confined to the species with a euro- 
pressed linear pod, having incomplete cellular di^epimenti 
and ovate seeds with a small oval hilum. Of these D. 
Cttfjtujg, the pulse of which is called Boberloo in India, is 
an annual, and has somewhat deltoid leaves an pilar at 
the back, few-flowered peduncles, and erect pod 
cultivated in the fields in many parts of India during the 
dry season, and its seeds are extensively consumed by the 
poorer natives, D. Itgnostis, a perennial, with long ra- 
cemes of flowers, broad heart-shaped leaflets, and linear 
sharp-pointed pods, is extremely common all over India, 
where it is cultivated * during the cold season in garde m 
and about the doors of the natives, forming not only cool 
shady arbours, but furnishing them with an ex 
for their curries/ &e. There are several varieties of it 
constituting the commonest kidney-beans of India, J). 
bifiorus t &n annual, with oblong pointed leaflets and scv 
mitar-shaped hairy pods, furnishes the puise called to 
India horse-gram ; and D. sph&rospermwt produces Ihe 
(Jahivana or black-eyed peas of Jamaica. 

Labiub has a compressed scimitar -shaped pod, rough 
with tubercles nt the sutures, and furnished with tr.ins\- 
imperfect cellular partitions, and ovate seeds with a funeoti 
callous linear scar. Luhlab vulgaris, the old Dokckot 
Lafjlitb, is a common plant in the hedges in man-. 
India, whence it has travelled into the tropical 
Amenea. It is a smooth perennial with showy white of 
purple flowers, and large horizontal pods, containi: 
three to four seeds. It has a heavy disagreeable bug 
smell, prefers a rich black soil that cannot be flooded hj 
rains, and produces a coarse but wholesome pulse, UNO 
eaten by the lower classes in India. 

Pachyrhizw has a long compressed pod, with kidney' 
shaped seeds and no dissepiments, and is remarkable for m 
principal species, P. angvtahts (formerly Dolicho* fa// 
producing a root of the size and substance of a turnip. It 
is reported to tune been carried to the Philippint 
South America, and thence to have been intruduci 
the west of Asia. The fide leaflets are nearly triangular, 
that in the middle lozenge-shaped, slightly toothed, and 
*huggy on both sides. The flowers are very beautiful, of I 
violet blue colour, and arranged in axillary nearly erect 
racemes, from one to two feet long. Its root is a common 
artiele of food iu ihe Malay archipelago, but no other part 
of the plant is eaten, 

In Pxophocarpw the pods are oblong, and have fuur Ion 
gitudinal wings; the seeds are roundish. It comprehend* 
the Dolichos tetragonolobus, a twining annual, the poda or 
tuberous roots of which are a common Indian esculent. 

oeajta, with long straightish compressed pods, having 
short wings at the lower suture, cellular dissepiments* 
and oblong seeds with a narrow hilum. comprehends the 
h American Lima beans and the Sword beans of India. 
The species have a handsomer and firmer foliage than the 
other genera, and the tlowers are usually hir^e and sin 
C. glaiiiaia t the common cultivated species, has often \ 
as couch at two feet long, and varies with red. grry, ai 
white seeds. 

Finally, the genua Mucuna, known by ite oblong puck- 
ered compressed hispid pods, includes all the species from 
which Cow h age is obtained. [Cowhagb or CowitchJ 

doh'olum; [Dipkydks. vol. «,, p. i n 

DO'LIUM. [Entomostomata/1 

DOLLAR. [Monky.] 

DOLLOND, JOHN, an eminent optician, was He* 
from ■ Pveoeh refugee family, settled in Spitalfields, am 
born on the 1 0th of June, 1706, 

His parents were hi humble circumstances, his father 
being an operative silk weaver; and the man who was 

D O L 


D O L 

tmed to add so important a discovery to our knowledge of 
the laws of light was compelled to spend his boyhood in 
the drudgery of a manufactory, and in a capacity which had 
nothing congenial to his tastes. The little leisure however 
which he had was spent in the acquisition of a varied 
circle of knowledge. Besides the study of mathematics 
and physics, to the latter of which his reputation is chiefly 
due, he studied anatomy and natural history in general, on 
one hand, and theology and ecclesiastical history on the 
other. In furtherance of this diversified class of subjects, 
which, considering the toil to which the day was devoted, 
was sufficiently extensive, he undertook tne Greek and 
Roman classics ; he was partially acquainted with several 
of the modern languages, but with French, German, and 
Italian, he was intimately conversant. It is very rare 
to see the happy union of great powers of reasoning, of me- 
y, and of observation, that was displayed by this eminent 

Notwithstanding the cares of a family and the duties 
which it imposed upon him, Dollond still found means to 
cultivate the sciences ; and having apprenticed his eldest 
son, Peter, to an optical instrument maker, he was in due 
time able to establish him in business in Vine Court, 
Spttalfields. In this business he finally joined his son, for 
the especial purpose, it would seem, of being able to unite 
l his tastes with his business more perfectly than silk weaving 
enabled him to do. 

Immediately on this arrangement being completed, Dol- 
lond commenced a series of experiments on the dispersion 
ef light, and other subjects connected with the improvement 
ef optical instruments, and especially of telescopes and mi- 
croscopes, the results of which were communicated to the 
Royal Society in a series of papers. Three of them were 
printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1753, one in 
1754, and the last in 1758, the titles of which are given 
below. It was about 1755 that he entered upon a syste- 
matic course of experiments on dispersion, and after, to use 
fass own words, ' a resolute perseverance' for more than a 
jear and a half, he made the decisive experiment which 
showed the error of Newton's conclusions on this subject 

The memoir in which the series of investigations was 
ittaifol appeared in the Philosophical Transactions, and 
*as the last which he gave to the world. It was rewarded 
if the council of the Royal Society with the Copley medal 

It was the lot of Dollond to undergo considerable annoy - 
on account of the claims set up for this discovery m 
of others, especially of Euler; but there is not a 
of a doubt of Dollond's priority as well as 
sriginality, in this very important discovery, left on the 
Binds or the scientific world. The discrepancies which 
Hewed the application of Newton's doctrine to the varied 
cues, that presented themselves in the course of different 
experiments might, in speculative minds, have created a 
aribft of the accuracy of that doctrine ; yet there does 
appear to have been the least hesitation among gri- 
lle men in attributing these discrepancies to errors of 
fkmvation exclusively* and consequently not the least 
ramd for honestly attempting to deprive Dollond of the 
favour of the discovery. 

In the beginning of the year 1761 Dollond was elected 
s Fellow of the Royal Society, and appointed optician to 
the king. He did not long survive to enjoy the honour 
v advantages of his discoveries ; as, on the 30th of September 
sf mat year, he was attacked by a tit of apoplexy, brought 
m by a too close and long continued application to a paper 
which he was studying. This attack immediately deprived 
kiss of speech, and in a few hours of life itself. 

H—j*«* his eldest son Peter, already mentioned, ho left 
smother son and three daughters. The two sons carried on 
fe business jointly with great reputation and success ; and 
tssn the death of the younger, it went into the hands of a 
sephew, who took the family name, and who still carries it 
» without diminution of the high character attached to the 
aune of Dollond. 

Mr. Dollond's appearance was somewhat stern, and his 
address and language impressive ; but his manners were 
cheerful, kind, and affable. He adhered to the religious 
doctrine* of his father, and regularly attended the French 
Protestant Church, of which his life and conversation ren- 
dered him a bright ornament, 
ft The following is the list of Dollond's published papers : — 
\ 1 A tetter to M \ James Short, F. E. S., concerning an 
ft P. C, No. 5oV. 

Improvement in Reflecting Telescopes; PhH. Trans., 1753, 
p. 103 

2. Letter to James Short, A.M., F.R.S., concerning a 
mistake in Mr. Euler' s Theorem for correcting the Aber- 
ration in the Object Glasses of Refracting Telescopes; Phik 
Trans., 1753, p. 287. 

3. A description of a Contrivance for measuring Small 
Angles; Phil. Trans., 1753, p. 178. 

4. An Explanation of an Instrument for measuring Small 
Angles; Phil. Trans., 1754, p. 551. 

5. An account of some experiments concerning the dif- 
ferent Refrangibility of Liffht ; Phil. Trans., 1758, p. 733. 

DE DE, was born at Grenoble on the 24th of June, 1750. 
In early youth he was admitted a member of the religious 
order of Malta, but in consequence of a quarrel with one of 
his companions, which ended in a duel fatal to his adver- 
sary, he received sentence of death, but, after imprison- 
ment, he was pardoned, and went to France. After some 
hesitation whether he should devote himself to classical 
literature or to natural history, he decided in favour of the 
latter. While at Metz with the regiment of carbineers, in 
which he had obtained a commission, he formed an acquaint- 
ance with the celebrated and unfortunate La Rochefoucault, 
which ceased but with his existence ; and the attachment for 
science, by which this nobleman was distinguished probably 
contributed to confirm Dolomieu in the choice of the pursuit 
which he had previously made. He was soon afterwards 
elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences, 
and quitted the military profession. 

At the age of twenty-six he went to Sicily, and his first 
labour was an examination of the environs and strata of 
ifitna. He next visited Vesuvius, the Appenines, and 
the Alps, and in 1783 published an account of his visit to 
the Lipari islands. 

He returned to France at the commencement of the Re- 
volution, and early ranged himself on the side of liberty. He 
had however no public employment until the third year 
of the republic, when he was included in the Ecole de Mines, 
then established ; and he was one of the original members 
of the National Institute, founded about the same time. 
He was indefatigable in the pursuit of geological and mine- 
ralogical science, and in less than three years he published 
twenty-seven original memoirs; among which were those 
on the nature of leucite, peridot, anthracite, pyroxene, &c. 

When Bonaparte undertook the conquest of Egypt, Dolo- 
mieu accompanied the expedition; on the arrival of which 
he visited Alexandria, the Delta, Cairo, the Pyramids, and 
a part of the mountains which bound the valley of the Nile. 
He proposed also to explore the more interesting parts of 
the country ; but before ne could carry his plan into execu- 
tion his health became so deranged that he was compelled 
to return to Europe. On his passage home he was, with 
his friend Cordier, the mineralogist, and many others of his 
countrymen, made prisoner after being driven into the 
Gulf of Tarentum, and confined in a miserable dungeon. 
His companions were soon set at liberty, but the remem- 
brance or the disputes which had existed between him and 
the members of the Order of Malta led to his removal and 
subsequent imprisonment at Messina, where he was con- 
fined in a dungeon lighted only by one small opening, which, 
with barbarous precaution, was closely shut every night. 
The heat, and the small quantity of fresh air admitted by the 
window of his prison, compelled him to spend nearly the 
whole of his lime in fanning himself with the few tattered 
remnants of his clothes, in order to increase the circulation 
of the air. 

Great exertion and urgent demands were made by the 
scientific men of various countries to obtain his enlarge- 
ment ; and when, after the battle of Marengo, peace was 
made with Naples, the first article of the treaty was a stipu- 
lation for the immediate release of Dolomieu. On the death 
of Daubenton he was appointed professor of mineralogy, 
and soon after his return to France he delivered a course of 
lectures on the philosophy of mineralogy at the Museum of 
Natural History. 

In a short time he again quitted Paris, visited the Alps, 
and returned to Lyon by Lucerne, the glaciers of Gnn- 
delwald and Geneva, and from thence to Chateauneuf, to 
visit his sister and his brother-in-law Dc Dr6e: here he 
was unfortunately attacked by a disorder which proved fatal 
in the 53rd year of his age. 

He had projected two journeys for adding to his vast stat* 




of geological knowledge, the first through Germany, and the 
second through Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. He also 
proposed to publish a work which he had planned in his 
prwon nt Messina; of this he printed a fragment on Mine- 
ral Sf. eries, which is a monument at once of his misfortunes 
and hi* genius, being written in his dungeon in Sicily, on the 
margin of a few books with a bone sharpened against his 
prison walls for a pen, and the black of his lamp smoke mixed 
with water for ink. In this work the author proposes that 
the integral molecule shall be regarded as the principle by 
which the species is to be determined, and that no other 
S|M'cific characters should be admitted than those which 
result from the composition or form of the integral molecule. 
It must however be admitted as an objection to this pro- 
posal that the integral molecule is not always easily ascer- 
tained or characterized. 

1 From a careful perusal of the works of Dolomieu,' ob- 
serves Dr. Thomson, Annuls of Philnsnjihy, vol. xii., p. 166, 
'especially his later ones, the following appear to be the 
results of his observations and the bases of his geological 
system : 

1 It appears highly probable, from geometrical considera- 
tions and from the theory of central forces, that the earth at 
the time when it received its spheroidal shape was in a state 
of fluidity. This fluidity was probabiy neither the result of 
igneous fusion nor of aqueous solution, but of the intermix- 
ture of a substance or substances with the earthy particles 
fusible, like sulphur, at a moderate heat, capable of entering 
into more rapid combustion when exposed to the air, de- 
composing water, and involving the gas thus produced so 
as to enter into strong effervescence when the superincum- 
bent pressure does not exceed a given quantity. 

'The surface of this fluid, by the action of the air on the 
combustible ingredient which occasioned its fluidity, would 
at length become consolidated, and would envelop the 
whole spheroid with a shell of less specific gravity than the 
fluid part, and therefore floating securely on its surface; 
this latter essential condition being rendered extremely pro- 
bable from the well-known fact, that the mean specific gra- 
vity of the globe is considerably greater than that of any 
natural rock hitherto known. 

'The interposition of this solid shell of stony matter, a bad 
conductor of neat, between the liquid and gaseous portions 
of the nlobe, would enable the aqueous and other easily-con- 
densible vapours to separate themselves from the perma- 
nently-elastic gases, and thus the matter of the globe would 
be arranged in four concentric spheroids according to their 
respective gravities : namely, the liquid central portion, the 
solid stony, the liquid aqueous, and the permanently elastic. 
As the water penetrated through the stony portion to the 
nearest fluid part, it would be gradually decomposed, the 
consolidation would proceed downwards, the newly consoli- 
dated part would enlarge in bulk, and thus, aided by the 
elastic expansion of the hydrogenous base of the decom- 
posed water, would occasion rifts of greater or less magni- 
tude in the superincumbent mass. Some of the larger of 
these rifts would open a free communication between the 
ocean and the fluid central mass, a torrent of water would 
rush down, and the effervescence occasioned by its decom- 
position would produce the first submarine volcanos. The 
lava thus ejected would in time raise the mouth of the vol- 
cano above the surface of the water, when it would either 
become quiescent, or, if su) plied laterally with a sufficient 
quantity of water, would assume the character of a proper 
volcano, or burning mountain. The secondary rocks, i. e. all 
those which either themselves contain organic remains or 
are associated with those which do, were deposited from so- 
lution or suspension in water. By the deposition of these, 
and the increase by consolidation of the primitive rocks, the 
thickness of the mass incumbent above the central fluid is 
continually increasing ; and those causes which antiently 
broke through the solid crust of the globe are now rarely 
able to produce the same effect ; hence the greater magni- 
tude and frequency of volcanic eruptions in the earliest ages 
of the earth ; for the same reason the elevation of large 
mountainous or continental tracts above the general level 
no louger takes place; and thus the surface of the globe has 
become a safe and proper habitation for man and other ani- 
mals. If the land animals were created as early as possible, 
that is, while the great changes of the earth's surface above- 
mentioned were stdl in process, many of the most antient tra- 
ditions of deluges and other catastrophes may be founded on 

' The fluidity of the central part of the globe, and its en** 
nectiou with the active volcanos, affords a plausible theory 
of earthquakes, and particularly accounts for the propaga- 
tion ef the shock, witn diminishing intensity, to great dis- 

4 The crystals of hornblende, of felspar, &c^ which occur 
so abundantly in most lavas, are, according to this theory, 
net those component ingredients of rocks which have re 
sisted the heat while the other substances associated with 
them have been melted ; nor are they the result of the slow 
cooling of a vitreous mass, but are produced by crystalliza- 
tion in the central fluid, and are accumulated, on account 
of their inferior specific gravity, about its surface, toge- 
ther with the peculiar inflammable matter in which they 
float, whence they are disengaged during volcanic erup- 

DOLOMITE, a variety of magnesian limestone first no- 
ticed by Dolomieu. It occurs mostly massive, and in 
mountain masses ; it is usually white, sometimes greyish or 
yellowish ; its structure is sometimes slaty ; it is frequently 
translucent on the edges. It is softer than common lime- 

The Apennines are partly composed of dolomite, and it 
occurs at Iona. Sometimes it is met with in veins accom- 
panied by quartz, carbonate of lime, &c. The dolomite of 
the Apennines consists of 59 carbonate of lime and 40 
carbonate of magnesia : it contains a variable quantity of 
oxide of iron. 

Compact Dolomite or Gvrhoffian is snow white, and very 
compact. The surface, when newly broken, is scarcely 
shining, and the fragments, which are sharp, are translucent 
on the edges ; the fracture is flat conchoidal, and its hard- 
ness is considerable. It occurs in veins traversing ser- 
pentine between Gurhoff (whence its name) and Aggsbach, 
in Lower Austria. According to Klaproth, it consists of 
carbonate of lime 70.50, and carbonate of magnesia 29.50. 

DOLPHIN. [Whales.] 

DOMBES, a principality in France, to the east of the 
river Saone ; one of the divisions existing before the Revolu- 
tion. It consisted of two portions separated from each other 
by an intervening part of the district of Bresse by which 
the eastern portion was entirely surrounded. The western 
portion was bounded on the west by Lyonnois, Beaujolais, 
and Maconnois, from which it was separated by the river 
Sadne ; on the south, by the districts of Franc- Lyonnois 
and Bresse; and on the north and east by Biesse. It is 
now comprehended in the department of the Ain, It 
contained seven towns, among which were Trevoux, the 
capital, and Thoissey. Dombes was governed by sovereign 
princes of its own, who derived a considerable revenue from 
it, until the year 1762, when the reigning prince exchanged 
his principality for the duchy of Gisors in Normandy, and 
other lands. Dombes was united to the crown ; but re- 
tained its ' parlement,' or local civil court. 

DO'MBEYA, a name given by botanists to a Steren* 
liaceous genus of shrubs or trees inhabiting the East Indies 
and the Isles of France, Bourbon, and Madagascar. They 
have a five-parted persistent calyx, surrounded by a three- 
leaved unilateral involucel. The petals are five. The 
stamens are from fifteen to twenty, scarcely monadelphous, 
five of them being sterile, with fiom two to three fertile ones 
between each sterile stamen. The name Dombeya was also 
applied to the plant now called Araucaria excelscL 

DOME. The mathematical theory of a dome, so far as 
considerations requisite for security are concerned, is more 




ample than that of an arch. Imagine two vertical planes 
passing through the axis of a dome, and making a small 
angle with each other. These planes intercept (as in the 
cut) two symmetrically opposite slices of the dome, which 
tend to support each other at the crown. This support 
might be made complete and effectual upon principles ex- 
plained in the article Arch ; so that in fact each small slice 
of the dome, with its opposite, might compose a balanced 
arch. Any slice of such a dome is supported by the oppo- 
site one only, so that all the rest might be taken away. 
Now suppose such a dome to be constructed upon an inte- 
rior centering, of which however the arches are not sepa- 
rately balanced, in consequence of the weight of A P K be- 
ing so great that the resultant of this weight and the hori- 
zontal thrust at A falls obliquely, not being, as in a ba- 
lanced arch, perpendicular to P K, but cutting the line K P 
produced towards the axis. Still this dome cannot fall : for 
since every part of the horizontal course of stones has the 
same tendency to fall inwards, these pressures inwards can- 
not produce any effect, except a lateral pressure of each 
slice upon the two which are vertically contiguous. Hence 
the condition of equilibrium of a dome is simply this, that 
the weight of any portion AMPK must be too great for 
a balanced arch. Upon this same principle a dome may 
eren be constructed with a concave exterior : and in a dome 
of convex exterior a portion of the crown may be removed, 
as is the case when the building is surmounted by a lan- 
tern. The tendency of the upper part to fall inwards being 
equal all round, each stone is supported by those adjacent. 
From the preceding it appears that it would be (in com- 
parison with an arch) easy to construct a dome with per- 
fectly polished stones, and without cement The friction of 
the stones and the tenacity of the cements are of course ad- 
ditional securities. The part in which the construction is 
weakest will be near the base, more particularly if the joints 
become nearly horizontal at the base, or if tne circumfe- 
rence at the base be very considerable. This weak point is 
generally secured in practice by bringing strong chains or 
hoops round the horizontal courses at the interior of the 
base. Dr. Robison says 4 The immense addition of strength 
which may be derived from hooping largely compensates 
for all defects ; and there are hardly any bounds to the ex- 
tent to which a very thin dome vaulting may be carried 
when it is hooped or framed in the direction of the hori- 
zontal courses.' This system of internal hooping is every 
way preferable to reliance upon cements, and may, without 
interference with the ornamental part of the design, be 
carried to any length. Among other advantages, a dome 
may be made by means of it to rise vertically from the base, 
which cannot be the case in an arch. 

The thickness of a dome should increase towards the base. 
A perfectly spherical dome, that is, a segment of a hollow 
shell eut off by a plane, and therefore of uniform thickness, 
will stand securely if the arch of the generating circle sub- 
tend at the centre less than 51° 49'. The law of the thick- 
■ess necessary to secure equilibrium is as follows : 


Let the dome be formed by the revolution of A V and 
B W, and let P K, the joint of one of the stones, be always 
perpendicular to the interior curve ; which is usually the case 
in practice. Let AM = i, M P = y, P K = s, arc B P = * ; 
and let p be any constant greater than unity, and A any 
constant whatever. Then there will be equilibrium, the 
equation of B P W being given, if 

Ap f**V~ l ±. ** 

or e being the angle KGB, and p the radius of curvature 

For the demonstration of this formula, see Venturoli's Me 
chanics (CreswelVs translation), or Robison's Mechanical 
Philosophy. It is not necessary that p should be a con- 
stant: a reference to the work first cited will show how io 
proceed on the supposition that it is a function of x greater 
than unity. 

DOME, a term applied to a covering of the whole or part 
of a building. The Germans call it Dom, and the Italians 
Duomo, and apply the term to the principal church of a 
city, although the building may not have any spherical or 
polygonal dome. From this and other circumstances we may 
infer the term to be derived from the Latin Domus, house. 

The remains of antient domes are generally spherical in 
their form, and built of stone or tufo. 

The word dome is applied to the external part of the sphe- 
rical or polygonal roof, and cupola to the internal part. 
Cupola is derived from the Italian cupo, deep, whence also 
our word cup. But cupola and (tome are often used 
synonymously, although perhaps incorrectly. 

Ruins of numerous d mes still exist in the neighbourhood 
of Rome and Naples. The principal in and near Rome are 
the Pantheon and the temp es of Bacchus, Vesta. Romulus, 
Hercules, Cybele, Neptune, and Venus, and also some of 
the Chambers of the 1 henna?. 

The most magnificent dome of antiquity is that of the 
Pantheon, supposed to be a chamber of the great baths of 
Agrippa. The diameter of the dome internally is 142 ft 
Hi in., with a circular opening at the top in the centre 28 ft. 
6 in. in diameter. The height of the dome from the top of 
the attic is 70 ft. 8 in. Internally it is decorated with five 
rows of square compartments. Each row is considerably 
larger than that immediately above it, as they converge to- 
wards the top. The large squares, all of which are rather 
more than 1 2 feel each way, contain four smaller squares sunk 
one within the other. It is supposed that these squares were 
decorated with plates of silver, from some fragments of that 
metal having been found on them. The opening at the top 
of the dome was decorated with an ornamented bronze 
moulding, gilt. The external part of the dome appears a'so 
to have been decorated with bands of bronze. ConstantiusII. 
removed the silver and bronze with which the building was 
decorated. The base of the dome externally consists of a 
large plinth with six smaller plinths or steps above it ; and 
in the curve of the dome a flight of steps is formed which 
leads to the opening at the top of the dome. From the 
drawings of the architect Serlio it appears that flights of 
steps were formed at intervals all round the dome, which 
are now covered with the lead placed there by order of 
Urban VIII. The dome is constructed of bricks and rubble. 
Sunk bands round the hollow squares or caissons appear to 
be formed in brick, and the other parts in tufo and pumice 
stone. The thickness of the dome ofthe Pantheon is about 
1 7 ft. at the base, 5 ft. 1 J in. at the top of the highest step, and 
4 ft 7 in. at the top of the dome. The circular wall which 
supports the dome is 20 ft. thick. This wall is however di- 
vided by several large openings, and is furnished with dis 
charging arches of brick. It is most probable that the dome 
of the Pantheon was executed by means of a centering of 
wood with the hollow squares formed in relief upon it, as 
was afterwards done in constructing the great vaulting of 
St Peter's. 

The dome of one of the chambers ofthe Therm© of Ca- 
racalla was 1 1 1 feet in diameter. In the Therm© of Titus 
there are two domes each 84 feet in diameter, and in the baths 
of Constantino there was one of 76 feet. There were three 
domes in the baths of Diocletian, of which two still remain ; 
one is 73 feet 6 inches in diameter, and the other 62 feet 3 
inches. Judging from tho^e that remain, there is every 
reason to believe that in the Thermso they were all lighted 
from above, like the dome ofthe Pantheon. NearPozzuoli 
there is a very perfect circular building, with a dome 96 feet 
in diameter, built of volcanic tufo and pumice stone. The 
temple of Minerva Medica, without the walls of Rome, was 
on the plan a polygonal dome of ten sides built of brick and 
pumice stone. This building does not appear to have had 
any opening at the top. 

The antients appear to have constructed domes on 
corbels. At Catania there is a spherical dome which covers 
a square vestibule ; and in one of the octagonal rooms of 
the enclosure surrounding the baths of Caraca lathe corbels 
still remain which most probably supported tie dome of the 
i The dome of Santa Sophia, at Constantinople, built in thft 

Parallel Section of fhe four principal Domes of Europe, to the fjunewal* ; by Jowph GwiH ; published by Prieitley and We*l«, Hitfh Street* BIoom»bary. * 

(Wilh Hm» perroitiioo of the PabliitaenO 

reign of Justinian, is the most remarkable and the earliest 
constructed after those of the Romans. Anthemius of Tralles 
and Isidorus of Miletus were the architects. The present 
dome, however, was reconstructed by the nephew ofltid 
It rests on the square formed at the in termed ion of the arms of 
IheGreek cross: the diameter is about 1 1 1 feet, and the dome 
40 feet high. The dome is supported* by four corbellings 
placed in the angles of the square. The corbels are sur- 
mounted by a kind of cornice which supports a circular gal- 
lery. The lower part of the dome is pierced with a row'of 
small windows idol column* on the exterior. Ex- 

ternally the dome is divided by projecting ribs, rounded and 
covered with lead. The top is surmounted by a lantern or 
finishing like a baluster, on which is a cross. The dome of 
Anthemius and Isidorus was not so high, and was partly de- 
stroyed twenty-one years after its construction by an earth- 
quake during "the lifetime of Justinian. In the reconstruction 
the nephew of Anthemius used very light white bricks, only 
one fifth the weight of common bricks, which are said to 
have been made in Rhodes. It appears from the history 
and description of the building of Santa Sophia, by P 
pius, thai ncountercd many difficulties, which 

arose probably from not being thoroughly acquainted with 
the principles on which domes should be constructed. (Pro- 
copius. sripl KTWftnrtuv, lib. i. cap. I.J 

The dome of San. Vitulc, at Ravenna, which is con- 
sidered to be more anlient than that of Santa Sophia, is 
curiously constructed. The tawer part of the plan of the 
dome is a regular octagon, which is supported by eight piers 
placed at the angles of the dome. Between these angles 
are seven tall niches divided into two stories. The lower 
port of these niche-, is open* and ornamented with coin: 
like iua. The eighth side of the dome is pie! 

with a frrcat arch forming an entrance. Thil arch is of the 
same diameter and the same elevation as the niches. The 

wall above the niches and arch, which is without openings, 
Itwtaini a hemispherical dome, the plan being a circle ue- 
senbed withm ii regular octagon. Corbels are not era- 
ployed as at Santa Sophia, but the arches support the 
fathering over, or corbelling, which forms the circular 
base of the dome. The base of the dome is pierced willi 
eight windows, each divided in the middle by a column 
which supports two small arches- The dume itself is I 
with a double row of pipes, hollow at one end and pointed 
at the other, the point of one being placed in the hollow of 
the preceding. They are thus continued in a gentle spiral 
line until I hey finish at the top. Between the top of 

1] arched windows and the piles there is a construction 
formed with vase*, not unlike the system adopted in the 
circus of Caracalla, [Circus, vol. vii,, p. 197.] The dome 
itself is covered with mortar both within and without. 

The church of San Marco al Venice* biult in the tenth 
century, by order of Pietio OrseoLo, the then doge, is deco- 
rated with five dome*, QllG of these, placed in the centre 
of the church, is much larger than the others, Eaeh dome 
is enclosed within four pieces of semi-cylindrical vaulting, 
together forming a square* in the angles of which are four 
corbels, which gather in the circular base of each dome. 
The lower part of the dome is pierced with small windows. 
The interior is covered with mosaic, and the top of the dome 
is terminated with a finishing on which is a cross. In 1523 
the doge, Andrea Gntti, caused the domes to be repaired, 
and Sansovinus, the architect, restored in a great measure 
the supports, and placed (at about one third of its height) 
a great circle of iron round the large dome to prevent its 
ng; a precaution which has been completely successful. 
Hie other domes are not so well preserved, In 1729 one 
of the smaller domes was in danger of fulling, from the 
decay which had taken place in a circular bond placed at 
the base of the dome. Stone was however substituted fur 

tfae wooden bond, and a circle of iron placed without the 
kme near its base. In 1735 Andrew Tirali, the architect 
Jo the church, placed an iron eirele round the dome which 
11 near the great gate, on account of some small frac- 
^ which were then perceived. If, however, the other 
are constructed with a wooden bond, it is very pro- 
► that they will eventually fall unless steps be taken in 
i to remove the timber. By the use however of eorro- 
sublimate, now used in Kyan's patent for preserving 
d from the dry rot, wood may be used in the construe- 
of domes with much more security as regards dura- 

The celebrated dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, built by 
Broneleschi, is far superior in construction to the domes of 
Santa Sophia and San Marco. Bruneleschi first constructed 
Kile octagon tower which supports the dome. Each face of 
the tower is pierced with a circular window; the walls are 
17 foet thick* and the cornice which terminates the tower 
is 175 feet from the ground. From this cornice rises the 
double dome. 

The external dome is 7 ft. I o in. thick at the base. The 
internal dome, which is connected at the angles with the 
external dome, is 139 ft. in diameter and 133 ft. high from 
the top of the internal cornice of the tower to the eye of 
the lantern. This dome has eight angles, forming a species 
of Gothic fault, and was the first double dome with which 
we are acquainted. Some time after the dome was finished, 
leraal fractures were perceived in it, which were owinpj to 
Ktuements in the masonry; but the fractures were tilled 
op. and no new signs of settlement have showed themselves 

The first modem dome constructed in Rome was that of 
[he Church uf Our Lady of Loretto, It was commenced in 
Antonio Sangallo. The dome, which is double, is 
areolar on the plan. The internal dome is constructed on 
lotlble consoles, instead of corbelling The double con- 
vies are crowned with a small cornice, forming an ifltpotl 
far eight arches, from the upper part of which spring the 
bne. On the top is a lantern light, which is not apparent 
Otamally. Up to this time domes had been constructed 
« walls and corbelling; but in St. Peter's at Rome 

C\ias adopted. The dome of St, Peter's stands upon 
piers 61 ft. 11 in. high, and 30 ft. 10 in. thick, mea- 
in a straight line with the arches. From the arches 
the corbellinjrs, which are finished by an entabla- 
Upon this entablature is a plinth. The plinth is 
n octagon, and internally a circle. The external 
of the octagon is 192 ft. 9 in., and the internal 
134 ft ^ in.; the thinnest part of the wall, be- 
tbe octagon and the circle, is 29 ft. 3 in. On the 
1 1* a circular - 28 ft. 6j-in. thick, This thick* 

1 1» divided into three parts by a circular passage, 5 ft. 
It isl wide : the two walls on each side of Ibis passage are, 
taporUYvly. the internal wall 1 4 ft. 7 4 in. thick, and the 
ntarnal 8 ft In the internal wall are other smaller pas- 
af*% % ft JO in. wide, forming nights of steps communi- 
uin^ with the four spiral staircases formed in the thickness 
i the wall of the drum of the dome. Above the circular 
ftlobele, which is 12 ft. A[ in. high, is placed the drum 
4 the dome, which b 10 ft. 1$ in. thick, measured to the 
aiuk tine of the pilasters, which decorate the interior of 
%$ dome. The pilasters themselves are 1*78 ft, thick in 
kkUuon. The construction I of rubble and frag- 

nrati of brick. The interior is lined with bricks stuccoed. 
Eiteraally the work is faced with thin slabs of travertine 
The drum is pierced with 1 6 windows, 9 ft. 3j in. 
► irvd 17 ft high. The walls arc strengthened on the 
between the windows, with 16 buttresses, con- 
i solid masonry. Those buttresses arc 13 ft. 
In. wide and :»1 ft. G itu in height from the base to the 
of mi tlin entablature. Each buttress is decorated and 
itewftbrtied with half pilasters, and terminates with two 
wepted rolutnns engaged, the diameter of which is 4 ft, : the 
*w*r »» Corinthian. When the base of the dome had been 
milt to tine height of tin- entablature of the drum, Michel 
lafckv died ; but some time before his death he had caused 
i W vio de n model to be made, with ample details, to which he 
rided drawings and tnatructions. After his death Pirro 
Latvia and Vignola were appointed the architects. Giacotno 
Mia Porta, the pupil of Vignola, followed his master as 
irrhttect to the cathedral : but though the designs of 
ICichd Angela >v . the dome itself was 

\ under the pontificate of Sixtus V. Sixtus gave 

Giacotno della Porta as a colleague Domenico Fontana, by 
whom the dome was constructed. 

On the constructions of Michel Angelo a circular attic 
was first formed, 19 ft. 2}irj- high and 9 ft. 7 in. thick. 
This attic is strengthened externally by 16 pRHjtastfi 
2 ft. 11 in. deep and 6 ft. 4^ in. wide, placed over the but- 
tresses of the dome. On the attic rises the double dome, 
the internal diameter of which, at the base, is [.is ft. 5 in. 
The curve externally is an arc of a circle whose radius is 
84 ft. 1'62 in- To the height of 27 ft. 8 in. from Ihe attic 
the dame is solid. At the base the thickness is 9 ft. 7 in. ; 
and as the external dame is raised higher lhan the internal 
dome, the thickness is increased as the curve ascends, so that 
where the dome is divided the thickness is 1 1 ft 4 in. The 
circular space which divides the two domes is 3 ft. 2 J in. 
wide; the internal dome is 6 ft. A in. thick; and the height 
from the attic to the opening of the lantern is 6't ft. 18 IB. 
The diameter of the lantern is 24 ft, Itf in. The external 
dome is S ft 10) in. thick where it separates itself from 
the internal dome ; and it is stretij^theued externally hy lt» 
projecting bands of Ihe same thickness. The 09011 
pierced with three rows of small windows. As the curves of 
the dome are not concentric, the space between them be- 
comes wider as it rises ; so that at the opening of the lan- 
tern the space is in feet wide Thaw domes are joined 
together by J ft walls or spurs, diminishing in thickness as 
they ascend to the lantern ; at the hase they are 8 ft. thick, 
and at the summit 3 ft. The base of the lantern is Bichod, 
and pierced wiih small windows Above (he two domes is 
a circular platform, surrounded wish un iron gallery. In 
the centre rim the lantern, on a sly tuba to broken into 18 
parts, forming projecting pedi ve which tire hut- 

tresses similar to the buttresses of the drum, decorated 

nally with coupled Ionic columns, 17^ in. in diarm 
The space between the buttresses is filled with arched 
openings, which givo light to the lantern. The externa] 
diameter of the lantern is 39 ft.; the interna) diaio 
ftj ft If* J in. ; and the height from the platform to ihe top 
of the cross is 89 ft. 7^ in. The whole height, from the 
external plinth of the dome to the cross, is iG3 ft. The 
total height from the pavement is 437 ft, 5 in. The total 
height internally, to the top of the dome of the lantern, is 
387 ft. 

Sixtus V. covered the external dome with lead, and the 
bands with bronze gilt. One hundred thousand large 
pieces of wood were used in making the centering of the 
domes which was so admirably constructed, thai it appeared 
suspended in the air* (See the drawings in the work by 
Fontana, on the construction of this dome.) This centering 
was more for the purpose of a scaffolding for the materials 
and workmen, than to sustain the weight of the double 
dome. During the construction of the dome it is believed 
that only tl ' CUretofl of iron were placed round the masonry, 
one of whirl i was placed on the outside of the internal dome, 
at about 36 feet from its springing, and one fool above the 
division of the domes. The bands of iron of which this circle 
is composed arc- :i in, wide by 1 J in. thick. A similar eirele 
is placed about the middle of the solid part of the dom 
about 17 feet G inches above the springing of the internal 
dome. Near the top of the internal dome there are several 
holes, at the bottom of which upright iron bars appear. 
These bars are said to be the connecting rodi which b 
together other circles of iron placed at different bttfl 
within the maaomr, which are finally terminated by a circle 
round the eye of the dome. 

The domes were constructed with such haste, that suffi- 
cient time was not allowed to the work to form solid beds 
as it was carried up. in consequence of which a ^reat num- 
ber of vertical Ketllements took place, and the circle of iron 
round the internal dome was fracture]. To obviate the 
danger arising from these settlements, six circles of iron 
were placed round the external dome at different hei 
and the broken eirele of the internal dome was repaired 
The first circle was placed above the cornice of the external 
stylobaie, or continuous plinth, on which the buttresses 
stand; the second circle was placed above the cornice of 
the buttresses, the third above the attic at the springing of 
the external dome, the fourth halfway up the external 
dome, and the fifth under the base of the lantern, A sixth 
ihorUy after placed at one foot below where the dome 
divides itself. The iron bands are Hat, from IG to 17 B 
long, 34 inch** wide, and Sft in, thick. At one end of the 
n of iron a hole is made \ th» oVVwfc ^ \* vw^wV 

D O M 



up and passed through the eye of the next hand. The 
WBOta Of these bands are fixed with iron wedges^ driven 
into the rubble with mallets* Sheets of lead arc placed 
under the inn (tittle* In the 4 Encyclopedic Methodique* 
there is a detailed account of the various fractures of the 
tl nnv, and ihe means employed to repair them, (* Coupole/ 
Ettrtjcittpedie Methodique, i Architecture. 1 ) 

The dome of SL Paul's cathedral, London, is placed over 
the intersection of the four naves. The ground plan is a 
regular octagon, each face of which is 44 feet 8J inches 
wide; four u£ these sides are firmed by the four g 
arches of the naves; the other four sides are formed by I 
arches of the same size ; in each of these arches there 
is a great niche, the base of which is pierced with two 
arches. By this means eight supports are obtained instead 
of four, and the corhellings do not project too much* as in 
other similar constructions. The corhellings gather in a 
circle, the diameter of which is 104 feet 4 inches, the 
octagon base being 107 feet. The corhellings are sur- 
mounted by a complete entablature 8 feet 3 inches high, 
di- 1 -muted with consoles. The drum is set ba**k 3 II 
inches from the face of the frieze, and this intermediate 
space is occupied by two steps and a seat. The cornice is 
el y I inches from the pavement. Thi height of the 
drum from the top of the seat is 62 feet 6] i the 

springing of the internal dome. The wall forming the drum 
is inclined internally I feet 11$ inches, or about the 1 2th 
<>! is height. This was designed by the architect to 
ase the resistance of the walls to the united pressure of 
,-ual vault and the conical dome which carries 
the la ti tern. 

The interior of the drum is decorated with a continuous 
slylobate, on which is an order of Corinthian pilasters. The 
paces between the pilasters are filled with 24 windows 
and eight large niches. Externally the drum is decorated 
wit] i an order of 32 Corinthian columns engaged, which are 
united to the wall of the drum by eight solid constructions 
in masonry. In each space between the constructions there 
are three intercolum nations, the columns being joined at 
their bases by walls pierced with arches. The external 
colonnade is surmounted by an en I with a mm 

cornice, on which is a balustrade; behind this is a terrace, 
lnI by the recast The attic is 29 feet li inches 

high from the top of the balustrade to ihe under side of ihe 
if the uthc. Above the internal order of the drum 
rises the interior dome, the diameh b at thy spring- 

ing IS 1 1)2 feci 2} inches fcn :>i feet il height. The top of the 
dome has a circular open bes in diameter. 

e the attic are two steps, from which the external 
dome springs. T; L dome is < 1 of wood, 

nd decorated with projecting; ribs forming 

frvod at the end?*. This dome terminates wiih a 
nisfiing which joins the base of the lantern: the circular 
galleiy farmed on the finishing U hove 

the pavement of the nave. The lantern is supported on a 
conn-a] bower, terminated by a spherical dome. Tms tower, 
which is joined to the internal dome at its base* disen^ 

in it at the height of 8 feet 6 inches above the 
springing of the same. The perpendicular height of this 
tower ii M feet 9 inches, and the walls are ; A de- 

grees from the perpendicular: the diameter of the base is 
loo feet i biefa measured externally, and 34 feet i inch at 

aging of the spherical dome which finishes it. The 
wail of (Ins tower is built of bnck, and is I foot 7 inches 
thick, with circular rin^s of masonry, fastened with iron 
bonds. The spher at the top of the tower has an 

opt ; in diameter at the summit. Between Ihe 

and the wall of the tower are 32 walls or buttn 
which aU o bear the ribs of the wooden external 

ut the same time that Wren built the dome of St. 

Paul's, Hardoutn Mansard, a French architect, constructed 

dome of the Invalid* The plan of this dome 

v, in ffbjefa is inscribed a Greek cross; in the 

re there are four chapels. The dome is 

I m the centre of the Greek cross; the base suppor 

gonal figur u r large and four small 

The four small sides form the faces of the piers of 

the dome; the large sides are tin ; enings of the 

v circular entablature is placed 

ver the s, and on the entebl 1 the 

»he dome, the diameter of which is 79 feet 9j inches, 

interior of the drum is decorated with a continuous 

stylobate, above which are coupled pilasters of the eonmo- 
siie order, and the wall is pierced with 12 windows. The 
dome* which is doubt ED a springing common to 

both. The lower or internal dome, constructed with ma- 
sonry, is spherical, and is 83 feet in diameter, with an open* 
inff or eye at the top 53 feet : inches in diameter, il 
which part of the outer dome can be seen. The out e 
is of a spheroidal form, and constructed of stone at the base, 
and of brick above. Externally the dome is formed with 
a stylobak", on which is a Corinthian order of column 
which is an attic with pilasters, and buttresses in tl 
of consoles. The fir urn is fortified externally by eight pro- 
jections, placed two and two above each pier of the 
The external dome is framed of wood, and cover 
lead, like St. Paul's, London, but the construction is mucb 

i . The external diameter of the dome is 85 feet 4 
inches, and its height k 57 feet 2£ inches. The finishing 
of the dome is decorated with consoles, on which is formal 
■ circular balcony round the base of the lantern, 
of wood, which is 39 feet 4j inches high; the lantern above 
it, with the cross, is 35 feet 4f inches high. The tola! 
height from the ground is 330" feet. 

The dome of the Pantheon at Paris is constructed entirely 
of stone, and is placed in the centre of a Greek cross. It m 
supported by four triangular piers strengthened by engaged 
columns of the Corinthian order. The four piers who 
the lines of the intermediate arches form externally a lanjt 
square, each side of which id 74 teet D inches. 

These four piers are pierced above with arched openings* 
and between the piers with the openings are large arches, 
the diameter of which is 44 feet Hi inches, and the 
85 feet 5 inches. Between these arches rise the corbelling 
which are gathered in to form the circular plan of tl 

:chcs and the corhellings are crowned with a lares 
entablature 13 feet 4 inches high. The upper part of the 
cornice of the entablature is raised UH feet above the pave- 
ment of the nave. The diameter taken at the trie/ 
feet. The internal drum which is constructed on ll- 
hlature is 55 feet 1\ inches in height to the spri 
internal dome. The interior of this drum is de< 
I continuous st ylohutc* which is the basement of a colonnade 
of 16 Corinthian columns almost isolated from the Wilt 
These columns are 35 feet 2 J inches in height D 
the columns are 16 windows; four of which are false, and 

above the four piers of the dome. The culuimade » 
crowned with an entablature, above which is a large plinth 
which rises to the springing of the internal dome. Tlu 
ternal dome is Gt\ feet bi inches in diameter at th< 
ing, and is decorated with octagonal caissons or sinkings 
with a rose in the centre of each. The eye at the top 
of the dome is 31 feet 3J inches in diameter. Through 

e is seen the upper part of another or 

e rnal dome is placed on a circular base 
108 feet 74 inches in diameter and square at the bottom* 
The angles are strengthened by flying buttresses, A bote 

1 circular wall is constructed, fori: 
external continuous stylobeta winch supports an < 
colonnade. The external o >lonnade constructed on thi 
stylohate forms a peristyle round the dome, an 

! ited columns of the Corinthian 
5} inches high. This colonnade is divided into four parti 
by the solid constructions in masonry raised over the four 
piers. The external colonnade is surmounted 
blature and balustrade above if* There is an an 

ihe circular wall of the drum, 
feet lu inches, and pierced with 16 windows, tv 
which li'^ht the space between the internal tl 
intermediate domewhicb bears the lantern. This 
terminated with a cornice with a siep or plinth al 

7 feet 8 J in diameter, measured on I he out - 
LStructed with masonry ; the he i^ht is 45 feet $\ inches 
from the top of the attic to the underside of the R 
against which the curve terminates-. The on 
dome 1- covered with lead, and is eorially dividi 
by 16 projecting ribs. The intermediate dome, btult for the 
purpose of earning the lantern, was in tended to 
with subjects by the painter, and wo believe it hn 
been decorated. The form of lea the 

id ul' an e 1 iminences at n 

of the attic at the point whi lUtrnal dome bi 

disengage itself. This dome is 50 IV et { incl 
70 feet 31 inches in diameter, and is pierced witn four 
great openings at the lower part 97 feet 3 inches h%*h, 




feet 10$ inches wide at the base. On a circular 
a above the summit of the dome arc eight piers with 
which support the finishing against which the ex- 
iorae terminates* Above this is the lantern of the 

full details of the most remnrknble domes in Europe 
n in the * Encyloprdie Meihodique' (Architecture), 
lich this brief notice is in a great measure taken, 
iccount of the construction of wooden-ribbed domes, 

n't Architectural Dictionary ; also the section 
on dome by Taylor and Creasy; and the work 

\ by Font ana. 
i ill owing admeasurements of most of the principal 
" Europe are from Mr. Ware's * Tracts on Vaults 

Domes of Antiquity. 

Feet High from 

in diameter, ilia 

taken externally, ground line. 

Pantheon . , . 112 143 

Minenu Medica at Rome . 78 97 

Baths of C'ar.n- , 112 }IK 

Baths of Diocletian 74 83 

rury .... 68 

Diana .... 93 73 

Apollo . . . , 120 

Proserpine and Venus 87 77 

Domes of comparatively modern Times* 

Constantinople , . 115 201 

i met, ditto . , . 92 120 

i at Ravenna ... 55 91 

» al Venice ... 44 

i the time of Brunelleschi to the present period, 






del Fiore at Florence - 139 

at Fh 

r at Rome . . 139 

lella Salute at Venice 70 

Superjja at Turin . G-l 

at Paris . . SO 

Val , Paris , . 55 

Paris ... 40 

vi , Paris , 67 

I of St. Paul's, London • 112 

s born at Bologna, in 1581, of poot 

ig to some authorities, his first master 

; but Bellori gives him Fiammimro tor 

eacher. The latter, entertaining n jealous dislike 

biographer) to the Caracci, beat his pupil, and 

m out of doors, because he found the boy copying 

by Ann ibale. On the occasion of his dismissal 

mdc known to Agostino Caracci, he was admitted 

if the Caracci, and he soon gained one of the 

customarily distributed, to the sur- 

How-Students, who had expected little from a 

bashful, retiring, awkward manners. After 

Parma, Domenichino went to Rome, where he 

time under Annibale Caracci. 

•wards obtained the patronage nal Giero- 

gucchi, and while he lived in his house painted 

Sum. Besii .ng, he studied archi- 

was appointed architect to the apostolic p 

r the death of thai pontiff, finding 
komewhat reduced in circumstances, and receiving 
removed thither with his 
He died in 1641. During bis life he was 
i rticularly strict friendship 
house he lived for two years when 
as so slow in his early progress as to dis- 
and he had the appellation of 
Indents; but Annibale Caracci, 
lit- marks of that genius which he 
I fruitful industry of 
He retained the utmost delib 
king lo the last; and it was his 
n, not to proceed at 
rk with his pencil, but to reflect some time upon , 

htl subject; when, however, he onco took it in hand, slow 
as he was, he did not leave it until he had completed it, 
li is said that he had many maxims which justified his 
slowness: such as, that no line was worthy of an artist 
which was not in his mind More it was traced by his hand. 
He entered so fully into his subject, that ho was onco sur- 
prised acting the scene which ho had to paint, in pen 
by Annibale Caracci, who hurst into raptures at BO instruc- 
tive a lesson. Annibale ever sympathized with enthusiasm 
and activity of will in painting, Domenichino only left 
his retired study to make sketches and observations upon 
expression in active life, and spent much of his time in 
rending history and poetry. 

Domenichino was profoundly studied in his drawing, rich 
and natural in his colouring, and, above all, cor 
lifesomc in his expression. Annibale is said to have been 
decided in his judgment between two pictures of the 
Scourging of St. Andrew, painted in competition by Dome- 
nichino and Agostino Caracci. by hatting an old 
point out with much earnestness the beauties of Domcui- 
ohinoa to a little child, describing every part as if it were 
u living scene, while she passed the other over in sih 
To the graver design of the Bolognese school Domenichino 
added something of the ornamental maimer of the \\ 
tian, his pictures being rich in the accessaries of architec- 
ture and costume. His genius, however, is not character- 
ized by great invention, and ho has been accused of bor- 
rowing too directly from tho works of others; and his dra- 
peries have been confessed by his admirers to be harsh and 
too scanty in tho folds. Nevertheless, he has been esteemed 
by the best judges (and among them are the Caracci and 
Nicholas Poussin) as one of the first of painters, and by 
some second only to Raphael. Such, however, he will 
never be thought by the world at large. 

Domenichino excelled also in landscape, and was famous 
for his admirable execution of the figures with which he 
enlivened them. His principal works are at Rome and 
Naples; among them the Communion of St. Jerome and 
the Martyrdom of St. Agnes are the most celebrated. (Bel- 

DOMESDAY BOOK, the register of the lands of Eng- 
framed by order of King William the Conqueror. It 
was sometimes termed Rotulus fWntoniee, and was the book 
from which judgment was to be given upon the value, te- 
nures, and services of the lands therein -\. The 
comprised in two volumes, one a large folio, the 
other a quarto. The first begins with Kenl, and cuds vjih 
Lincolnshire; is written on three hundred and eighty-two 
double pages of vellum, in one and the same hand, in a 
st n;i] [ lull plain character, each page having a double column ; 
it contains thirty-one counties Alter Lincolnshire d'.l. 
373), the claims arising in the three ridings in Y 
are taken notice of, and settled ; then follow the claim 
Lincolnshire, and the determinations of the Jury upon them 
(fol. 375); lastly, from fol. 379 to the end there is a recapi- 
tulation of ever\ r wapentake or hundred in the three ridings 
of Yorkshire; of the towns in each hundred, what number 
of rarucatcs and ox-gangs are in every town, and the names 
of the owners placed in a very small character above them. 
The second volume, in quarto, is written upon four hundred 
and fifty double pages of vellum, but in a single column, 
and in a large fair character, and eont;< 
Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk. In ihi 'eri 
homines* are rai trate; and there is also n til] 
super Rcgem.* 
the Exchequer, in the Chapter Hous md, 
at the end of the second, 

riers of the tune of its completion 
Octou' tto ab In earn at ion e Domini, vigesimo vi 

. Willie! mi, fticl 
hos tresComitatus, sed etiam per alios. From internal 
dence tber no doubt hut that flu :$fl t 

is assignable as the date of the first volume* 

In 1767, in - m addre of 

Lord- fol ihu public 

this Surrey. It was not, however, till b 
work was acti. 

1 to Mr. Abraham 1 
great experience 
daily recourse i It 

early in i"s J, having been 
ing through the press, and thus became ^rovwta.VV} ws.- 

ujssible to the antiquary and topographer. It was printed 
in fae-similc, as far as regular types, assisted by the repre- 
sentation of ^articular conti actions, could imitate the 

1 1 1 1816 the commissioners upon the Public Records pub- 
lished twovohimoa supplementary to Domesday, which now 
form one set with the volumes of the Record: one of these 
contains a general introduction, accompanied With two dif- 
ferent indexes of the mimes of places, an alphabetical index 
of the tenants in capiie. and an * Index Rerum.' The other 
Contains four records; three of them, namely, the Exon 
Domefiday, the [nquiaitio Eliensis, and the Liber Wintmi., 
Contemporary with the Survey; the other record, called 
''Boldon Book/ is the Survey of Durham, made in 1183, 
by bishop Hugh Pudsey. These supplementary volume* 
were published under the superintendence of Sar Hcnrv 

Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmorland, and Dur- 
bam were not included in the counties described in the 
Great Domesday ; nor does Lancashire appear under its 
proper name; but Furne*8, and tbe northern part of that 
- aunty, as well as the south of Westmorland and part of 
Cumberland are included withtll the West Riding of York- 
shire: that par t of Lancashire which lies between the rivers 
Kibble and Mersey, and which at the tune of the Survey 
comprehended six hundreds and 188 manors, is subjoined 
to Cheshire. Part of Rutlandshire is described in the 
counties of Northampton and Lincoln f and the two antient 
hundreds of Atiscross and Exilian, deemed a part of Che- 
shire in the Survey, have been since transferred to the 
of Flint and Denbigh. In the account of Glouces- 
tershire we find a considerable portion of Monmouthshire 
included, seemingly all between the river* W>e and Usk. 
Kelham thinks it probable that the king's commissioners 
Blight find tl impossible to take any exact survey of the 
hernmost of all, as they had suffered so 
much from the Conqueror* vengeance. As to Durham, 

&dd$i all the country between the Tecs and Tyiie had 
been conferred by Alfred on the bishop of this see; and at 
the coming in of the Conqueror he was reputed a count- 

observed in writing the Survi 
to set down in the drat place at the head of every county 
(except Chester and Rutland i the king's name, Rex With* 
elmtvs l and then a list of the bishons, religious bouses, 
ehurches, any great me: ng to their rank* who held 

of the king in capite in that county, liki bis tuains, 

ministers, and servants: with a numerical figure in red ink 
before them, for the better finding them in the book. In 
soiiii pital boroughs are taken 

notice of before the list of the great tenants is entered, with 
the particular laws or custom* who h prevailed in each of 
iheui,' and in others they are inserted promiscuously. 
After the list of the tenants, the manors and possessions 
themselves which the king, and also to each 

owner throughout the whole county, whether they lie in 
the same or different hundreds, are collected together and 
minutely noted, with their under-tenants. The king's 
demesnes, under the title of Terra Regit, always stand 

For the adjustment of this Survey certain com 
called the king's justiciaries, were appointed. In folios 164 
and IB] of the volume we find them designate 
'Levari Regis.* Those, for the midland counties at least, 
if not for all the districts, were Re m iffi us, lush op of Lincoln, 
Iter GuTard, eexl of Buckingham. Henry de Ferrers, and 
Adam, the brother of Eudo Dapifer, who probably as* 
eked with them Bome principal person in each shire. These 

[llisttOTS, upon the oaths of the i each 

manor, the pri of every church, the raves of every 

hundred, the bailiffs and six villains of every village, 
to enquire into the name of (he place, who held it in the 
time Of* kin^ Edward, who was the present possessor, 
hu\v many hides in the manor, how many enrucates in 
demesne, how many homagers, how many villains, how 
many rotarii, how many servi, what free-men, how many 
tenants in socage, what quantity of wood, how much me* 
and pasture, what nulls and Ssh-ponds, how rnuch ad 
or taken away, what the gross value in king Edward's I 
what the much each free-man, or 

hinan had. or has. All this was to be irinl ated: 

first, M t he estate m the time of tne < 

then as it was bestowed by king William ; and third] 

its value stood at the formation of Ihe Survey. The juron 
were, moreover* to stale whether any advance could be 
made in the value. Such are the exact terms of one of tho 
inquisitions for the formation of this Survey, still preserved 
in a register of the monastery of Ely. 

The writer of that part of the Saxon Chronicle which 
relates to the Conqueror's time, informs us with some de- 
gree of asperity, that not a hide or yardland, not on ox, 
COW, or hog, was omitted in tbe census. It should seem, 
however, iliat the jurors, in numerous instance^ 1 
returns of a more extensive nature than were abs. 
required by the king's precept, and it is perhaps oi 
account that we have different kinds of descriptions in dif- 
I on n ties. 

From tho space to which we are necessarily Urn i 
is impossible to go more minutely into the contents of tail 
extraordinary record, to enlarge upon the classes of te- 
nantry enumerated in it, the descriptions of land and other 
property therewith connected, the computations of money, 
the territorial jurisdictions and franchises, the tenures and 
services, the criminal and civil jurisdictions, the ece 
tical matters, the historical and other particular events ah 
lo did to, or the illustrations of antient manners, 
information relating to nil of which it abounds, t 
its particular and more immediate interest in the local iliei 
of the country tor the county historian. 

As an abstract of population it fails. The tenants 
pita, including ecclesiastical corporations, amounted s< 
to 14UH- the under-tenants to somewhat less thai 
The total population, as far as it is given iu the n 
amounts to no moro than 282,242 persons. In 
pannage (payment for feeding) is returned for 16.5J5, tn 
Hertfordshire for 30,705, and in Essex tor 92,9 a 1 hogs; 
yet not a single swine-herd (a character so well known in the 
Saxon times) is entered in these counties. In the Norman 
period) as can be proved from records, the whole of Essex 
was, in a manner, one continued forest; yet oj 
that county is a forester mentioned, in the entry com 
Writile Saltworks, works for the production oflead and 
iron, mills, vineyards, fisheries, trade, and the manual arU, 
must have given occupation to thousands who arc unre- 
corded in the survey; to say nothing of those v, 
Mi. flocks and herds, the returns of which so grea 
large the paj^es of the second volume. In some c< 
we have no mention of a single priest, even where ch 
are found; and scarcely any inmate of a nion 
corded beyond the abbot or abbess, who stands as a 
in i anile/ These remarks michl be extended, but tl 
sufficient for their purpose. They show that, in this 
of \ ieir, the Domesday Survey is but a par 

uded to be a record of population fu 
was required for ascertaining the raid. 

There is one important fact, however, to be gathered 
iVi. id n> entries. It shows in detail how long a ume 
elapsed before England recovered from the violence at- 
tendant on the Norman Conquest, The annual value of 
property, it will be found, was much lessened as compared 
with Ihe produce of estates in the tunc of Edward tl 

In general, at the Survey, the k 
more highly rated than before the Conquest ; and hn 
from the burghs was greatly increased ; a few also of the 
larger tenants in capite had unproved their cstak 
whole, the rental of the kingdom was reduei 
twenty years after iht: Conquest the estates wete, on an 
<\ valued at lillle more than three fourths pf the 
former estimate. An instance appears in the county of 
Middlesex* where no Terra Re^is however occurs. The 
first column, lveaded t. r. e., shows the value of the 
in the lime of king Edward the Confessor; the second, the 
sums at which they were rated at Ihe time of the Survey, 
UilMrtii — 

Terra Arrhiep. Cant. 
<\ Lond. . 
EcchS. Pet V. 
Eccl Trin. Rouen 
Geoff do Man devil lc 
Ernald de Heading . 
Walter de St. Water] 
Terr, alior, Ten en t . 

T. R.« 



£ t. 





ion 14 


J 2 





25 10 



121 13 









932 S 10 746 U 



D M 

M» 1 

•\ are 

now say a few words on the vises and conse- 
quences of the Surrey. By its completion the king acquired 
m exact knowledge of the pot f the crown. It 

afforded him the names of the landholders. It furnished 
htm with the means of ascertaining the military strength of 
tne country; and it pointed out the possibility of increasing 
the revenue in some cases, and of lessening the demands of 
the tax-collectors in others. It was moreover a register of 
appeal for those whose titles to their property might be dis- 
f ittA, 

Appeals to the decision of this Survey occur at a very 
early period. Peter of Blois notices an appeal of the monks 
and to it in the reign of Henry L Others occur in 
hbbrcviatiit Plaeitnrum from the time of John down- 
In later reigns the pleadings upon antient de- 
umerons: and the proof of antient 
s still rests with the Domesday Survey. Other 
h its evidence is yet appealed tu in our courts 
proving the mtiquity of mills, and in setting 
prescriptions in non dectmando. By stat. 9 Edw. 11.. 
tailed Articuli Cleri, it was determined that prohibition 
not In- upon demand of tithe for a new mill. 
The mill, therefore, which is found in Domesday must he 
eresassed older than the 9 th Edw, II., and is, of course, 
discharged, by its evidence, from tithe. 

On the discharge of abbey-lands from tithes, as proved 
rr Domesday, it may he proper to state that pope Paschal 
It. it an early period, exempted generally all tbe religious 
JHcn paying tithes of lands in their own hands. This pri- 
vilege was afterwards restrained to the four favoured Orders, 
(i* Cistercians, the Templars, the Hospitallers, and the 
ins. So it continued till the fourth Council 
n 1 2 15, when the privilege was again restrained 
n> such lands a* the abbeys had at that tune, and was de- 
dared not to extend to any after-purchased lands. And it 
mentis lands awn propriis manibm cofuntur. 

Frees the paucity of dates in early documents, the Domes- 
ry frequently the only evidence which can 
br tdduccd that the lands claiming a discharge were vested 
v previous to the year expressed in the La- 

Although in early times, Domesday, precious as it was 
deemed, occasionally travelled, like other records, to 
ts, till 1696 it was usually kept with the king's 
Westminster, by the side of the Tally Court in the 
en under three locks and keys, in tire charge of the 
tbe chamberlains, and deputy chamberlains of the 
In the last -mentioned year it was deposited 
valuable records in lite Chapter House, where 

Tb» two most important works for the student of the 
DkflBMSsWy Survey are Kelharn*s Domesday Book ifitts- 
tnM, Bvtx, Lonu\, 1788* and the General Introduction 
to the survey, reprinted by command of His Majesty under 
tbe direction of the commissioners on the Public Records* 
: iota, 9vo.« 1833, accompanied by fresh indices. A trans* 
of the whole, under the title of ' Dom-Boc,' was 
ken early in the present century by the Rev. William 
tr of Hooton Pagnell, in Yorkshire, who 
Yorkshire, with the counties of Derby, Nutting- 
jUand, and Lincoln, in 4 to,, Don easier, 1809, fol- 
>f Middlesex, Hertford, Buckingham, 
r. 4to,, Doncaster, 1812; but the 
wrnt no further. County portions of thin record will 
pe sound translated in most of our provincial histories; the 
I are in Dugd ale's Warwickshire, 

ershire, Hutch ins'?. Dorsetshire, Nash's 
rid Mannings Survey* and Clutter- 
lire. Mr. Henry Penruddockc Wyndham 
•bed Wiltshire, extracted from Domesday Book, 8vo. 
1783, and the Rev. Richard Warner, Hampshire, 
Warwickshire has ben published re- 
Reader* There are numerous other pub- 
ivntally illustrative of Domesday topography, 
reader roust seek for according to the county 
desire information, 
Liuiic, the fifth of the key. Thus, if 
be c nant is g. 

1'. [Hispaniola-] 

one of the Antilles, belonging to the Enq- 

:en the French islands of Martinique 

parallel of 15"* 18' N. lat. and the 

W, long, pass through the island. Do- 

a, No. &4Q t 

minica was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and received 
its name in consequence of its being urst seen on a Sunday, 
The tight of occupancy was long claimed equally by Eng- 
land, Spain, and France, without any active measures being 
taken on the part of any of those powers for its exclusive 
possession; so that it became virtually a kind of neulral 
ground until tbe year 1759, when its possession Was 
sinned by the English, and their right to hold it was for- 
mally recognized, m 1763, by the treaty of Paris, On this 
occasion commissioners were sent out by the English 
rnmeut, who sold the unsettled lands by suction to 
the highest bidders. In this way nearly half the island 
was disposed of in small lots, at prices amounting on I lie 
average to 65*. per acre. The occupiers of lauds already 
settled were confirmed in their possession by leases granted 
for forty years, and renewable, at the annual rent of 2^ per 
acre. In 1778 Dominica was taken by a French squadron 
under the Marquis de BouiUe, but was restored to England 
at the peaoS in 17*3. In 1M)5 the island was again nMackcd 
by the French fleet under Admiral Villeneuve, but was 
successfully defended by the garrison undi- <rge 


Dominies is 28 miles long and 16 miles broad in the 
broadest part; but its mean breadth is not more than 9 
miles. No regular survey has ever been made; but tbe 
area is computed at 2fi0 square miles. The origin of the 
island is volcanic. Pumice stone, sulphur, and other vol- 
canic productions are found. An attempt was recently 
made to trade in sulphur with tbe United States, but the 
speculation proved unsuccessful. There are numerous 
quarries of a volcanic lava, sufficiently durable for (he 
purpose of ordinary buildings, which are worked for the 
use of the colony. The surface of the island is rugged, 
and its mountains are amon^ the highest in the Antilles. 
Morne Diahlotin is 5300 feet above the sea. The valleys 
are very fertile, and watered by numerous streams, of which 
there are thirty in different parts. About the centre of 
the island, and about six miles from the town of Roseau* 
on the top of a high mountain, is a fresh-water lake, with 
an area of several acres, and in some parts unfathomable. 
The soil in the valleys having been mined down from the 
hills by the periodical rains and mixed with decayed vege- 
table matter, has formed a light brown coloured mould, which 
is highly productive ; towards the coast the sod is a fine 
deep black mould on a subsoil of yellow brick clay. The 
island contains an abundance of large limber-trees of tbe 
kinds commonly found in the West India Islands; among 
these the trunks of the gum-trees are hollowed out to form 
canoes. The streams abound with excellent fish, among 
which are mullets, pike, eels, and crayfish ; I he fishery 
on the coast also yields abundantly for the supply of the 

The principal produce of Dominica consists of sugar (and 
of course rum) and coffee; the quality of the latter has n 
higher repute than that of any other of the West India 
Islands. Tbe island is unequally divided into ten pans Iks, 
The town Roseau is in St. George's perish, on the South- 
west side of the island, and on a tongue of land, ha 
Woodbridge Bay on tbe north and Chariot tevUls Be] 
the south. The town is regularly built, with long and 
wide paved streets, which intersect each other at right 
angles. The roadstead is safe, although tbe anchora^t 
fur from good, from October to August; hut during the 
hurricane months a heavy sea frequently rolls in from 
south. Prince Rupert's Bay, on the north-west side of the 
island, is at all times safe and commodious. 

The population, according to a census taken in 1833, con- 
sisted of — 

M*Vt. F*m*l<r»> Total. 

Whites . . , . 362 338 720 

Free coloured people 1 ,67 3 2, HI 3,8 1 4 

Slaves .... |%6H 7,3*24 14,126 

Total, 8,857 9,803 18,660 

The population of the town consisted of 244 whites* 1289 
free coloured people, and 739 slaves; altogether, 2-72 i 
sons. There were in 1835, in Roseau, 3 school*, in which 
there were 245 children, taught according to the Madras 
i ; there was one other school, in the parish of St, 
Joseph, wherein 40 children were instructed. The greater 
part i»f the inhabitants profess the Roman Catholic filth, 

The shipping that arrived and sailed from ll\fc i\\wA'\\\ 
1835 were as follows •— 







Great Britain 7 


British colonies 100 


United States 36 


Foreign parts 79 


Total, 222 











1,154 223 12,921 1,172 

The imports consist principally of plantation stores, cot- 
ton, linen, and woollen manufactures from England; corn, 
fish, and lumber from the British North American colonies 
and the United States, and live stock from the neighbour- 
ing continent of America. The exports are principally 
coffee, sugar, and rum. The quantities shipped in 1832, 
1833, and 1834, were as follows:— 


Coffee 1,3653211*. 45.1467. 
StiKar 6,256,992 84.799 
Rum 51.100 guls. 4.607 


897.555 lb*. 30.701J. 
5356,512 7M.953. 
44,097 3,238 



898,891 lbs. 26.27*/. 

5,996.928 77.228 

46,090 2,375 

DOMINICAL LETTER {dies domi'nica, Sunday). To 
every day in the year is attached one of the first seven 
letters, A, B, C, D, E, F, G; namely, A to the first of 
January, B to the second, &c. ; A again to the eighth of 
January, and so on. The consequence is, that all days 
which have the same letter fall on the same day of the 

week. The dominical letter for any year is the lett< 
which all the Sundays fall. Thus, the first of Jan 
1837, being Sunday, the dominical letter for 1837 
In a common year, the first and last days have the 
letters, whence the dominical letter of the succeeding 
is one earlier in the list : that is, the dominical letfc 
1838 is G. But in leap-year, it is to be remembered 
the 29th of February has no letter attached to it: wl 
every leap-year has two dominical letters, the firs 
January and February, the second for all the rest of 
year, the second being one earlier than the first, 
following will now be easily understood; each ye 
followed by its dominical letter ; 1837, A; 1838, G; 
F; 1840, E,D; 1841.C; 1842, B; 1843, A; 1844, < 

As it is convenient in historical reading to be able U 
the day of the week on which a given day in a distant 
fell, we subjoin the following tables. The middle col 
of figures contains the tens and units of the year in qua 
while the figures at the head contain the hundreds and 
of hundreds. Thus for the years 536 and 1772, loo 
36 and 72 in the middle column, and for 5 and 17 ai 
head. On the right of the middle column is all t\u 
lates to the old style; on the left all that relates to the 
style. The large letters on the left refer to years 
Christ, the small letters to years before Christ. 

OLD 81 


?YLB. The large letters refer to years after the Christian Bra. and 
the small letters to years before it. 












































































































GF ag 




























































FE ba 











































c 4 











GF ag 


















































K I) cb 




















































































































































. 55 





















QF ag 




Years ending with 00. 



Example 1. What was the dominical letter of the year 
763, before CkruU old style? Look on the left, opposite to 
63, in the column which has 7 among the headings, and 
the small letter there found is e. Hence E was the domi- 
nical letter of 763 B.C., or the fifth of January was a Sunday. 

Example 2. What is the dominical letter of 1819, after 
Christ, old style ? Look on the left, opposite to 1 9, in the 
column which has 18 amoug its headings, and the large 
letter there found is E. Hence E is the dominical letter of 
1819 (old style), or the fifth of January was a Sunday. 

Example 3. What will be the dominieal letters of the 
year 1896, new style? Look on the right, opposite to 96, 
in the column which has 18 among the headings, and E D 
is found. Hence in this leap-year E is the dominical letter 
at the opening of the year, or the fifth of January will be a 

. Having found the dominical letter for a given year, the 
fdftomng table will assist in finding the day of the week 

upon which a given day of the month falls. It is the 

of days which have A for their letter. 

January ... 1 8 15 22 29 

February. . . 5 12 19 26 
March. . . . 5 T2 19 26 
April .... 2 9 16 23 30 

May 7 14 21 28 

June .... 4 II 18 25 

July 2 9 16 23 30 

August ... 6 13 20 27 
September . . 3 10 17 24 31 
October ... 1 8 15 22 29 

November . . 5 12 19 26 
December . . 3 10 17 24 31 
Thus the dominical letter being E, we ask on what 

the 20th of July falls. The E being Sunday, the 

Wednesday, and July 16 is Weduesday, whence July 2 





DOMINICANS. [Black Friars.] 

the Emperor Vespasianus, succeeded his brother Titus as 
emperor, A.D. 81. Tacitus {Histor., iv., 51, 68) gives an 
unfavourable account of his previous youth. The begin- 
ning of his reign was marked by moderation and a display 
of justice bordering upon severity. He affected great zeal 
for the reformation of public morals, and punished with 
death several persons guilty of adultery, as well as some 
vestals who had broken their vows. He also forbade under 
severe penalties the practice of emasculation. He completed 
several splendid buildings begun by Titus ; among others, 
en Odeum, or theatre for musical performances. Tne most 
important event of his reign was the conquest of Britain 
by Agricola ; but Domitian grew jealous of that great com- 
mander's reputation, and recalled him to Rome. His 
suspicious temper and his pusillanimity made him afraid of 
every man who was distinguished either by birth and con- 
nexions or by merit and popularity, and he mercilessly 
sacrificed many to his fears, while his avarice led him to put 
to death a number of wealthy persons for the sake of their 
pro perty. The usual pretext for these murders was the 
charge of conspiracy or treason ; and thus a numerous race 
of informers was created and maintained by this system of 
spoliation. His cruelty was united to a deep dissimulation, 
end in this particular he resembled Tiberius rather than 
Caligula or Nero. He either put to death or drove away 
from Rome the philosophers and men of letters ; Epictetus 
was one of the exiled. He found, however, some flatterers 
among the poets, such as Martial, Silius Italicus, and 
8tatius. The latter dedicated to him his Thebais and 
AckiUei*, and commemorated the events of his reign in his 
StftH*. But in reality the reign of Domitian was anything 
•at favourable to the Roman arms, except in Britain. In 
Mmsia and Dacia, in Germany and Pannonia, the armies 
were defeated, and whole provinces lost (Tacitus, Agricola, 
41.) Domitian himself went twice into Mapsia to oppose 
the Dacians, but after several defeats he concluded a dis- 
Craeeful peace with their chief Decebalus, whom he acknow- 
ledged as king, and agreed to pay him a tribute, which was 
afterwards discontinued by Trajan ; and yet Domitian made 
a pompous report of his victories to the senate, and assumed 
tee honour of a triumph. In the same manner he triumphed 
ever the Catti and the Sarmatians, which made Pliny the 
Younger say that the triumphs of Domitian were always 
evidence of some advantages gained by the enemies of 
Rome. In 95 a.d. Domitian assumed the consulship for 
the seventeenth time, together with Flavius Clemens, who 
had married Domitilla, a relative of the emperor. In that 
year a persecution of the Christians is recorded in the his- 
tory of the church, but it seems that it was not directed 
particularly against them, but against the Jews, with whom 
the Christians were then confounded by the Romans. 
Suetonius ascribes the proscriptions of the Jews, or those 
who lived after the manner of the Jews, and whom he 
stvtes as ' improfessi,' to the rapacity of Domitian. Flavius 
Clemens and his wife were among the victims. [Clemens 
RoMAJfUS.] In the following year, a. d. 96, under the 
consulship of Fabius Valens and C. Antistius Vetus, a 
conspiracy was formed against Domitian among the officers 
of his guards and several of his intimate friends, and his 
wife herself is said to have participated in it. The im- 
Bsediate cause of it was his increasing suspicions, which 
threatened the life of ever}* one around him, and which are 
said to have been stimulated by the predictions of astro- 
logers and soothsayers, whom he was very ready to consult. 
He was killed in his apartments by several of the conspi- 
rators, after struggling with them for some time, in his 

Coin of DomfcUa. 
AsUalriat. Ouppw. WrtgH 43*4 gttlsi. 

forty-fifth year, after a reign of fifteen years. On the news 
of his death, the senate assembled and elected M. G>cceius 
Nerva emperor. 

The character of Domitian is represented by all antient 
historians in the darkest colours, as being a compound of 
timidity and cruelty, of dissimulation and arrogance, of 
self-indulgence and stern severity towards others. He 
punished satirists, but encouraged secret informers. He 
took a delight in inspiring others with tenor, and Dion 
relates a singular banquet, to which he invited the senators, 
with all the apparatus of a funeral and an execution. Ho 
is also said to have spent whole hours in hunting after and 
killing flies. At one time, before his becoming emperor, 
he had applied himself to literature and poetry, and he is 
said to have composed several poems and other works. 
(Tacitus, Suetonius, Dion, and Puny the Youuijer.) 

DON, the (Douna or Tuna in Tartar, and Tongoul in 
Calmuck), a considerable river of European Russia, and in 
the latter part of its course the boundary between Europe 
and Asia. It rises about 54° N. lat. in the small lake 
Ivanofskoe, in the government of Tula, close to the borders 
of the government of Ryazan, and thence flows in a general 
S. S. E. direction until it has passed Paulofsk, after skirting 
the southern extremity of the government of Ryazan and 
north-western parts of that of Tarabof, and traversing the 
greater part of the government of Voronesh. Within these 
Omits tne Don receives the Sosva, Voronesh near Tavtof, 
and Sosna near Korotoszak. From Paulofsk it inclines 
more to the east, and quitting the government of Voronesh, 
enters the western districts of the territory of the Don 
Cossacks: soon afterwards it turns due east, and after 
having been joined by the Khoper at Khopeiskaya, the 
Medveditsa near Ostrofskaya, and the Ilawla above Katcho- 
kinskaya, flows with numerous bendings until it approaches 
the mountains of the Volga, through which it forces a 
passage about forty-five miles from that river. The Don 
now proceeds in a south-western and then a W. S. W. di- 
rection towards its mouth, near which it receives on it-* 
right bank, above New Tsherkask, the Donecz, or Little 
Don, the most considerable of its tributaries, which rises 
above Belgorod, in the government of Kursk, and is upwa. tU 
of four hundred miles in length. On its left bank the Don 
is joined by the Manitsh, which rises on the southern ter- 
mination of the Irgeni mountains, crosses the great Cau- 
casian steppe, flows through lake Bolshoii, and falls into the 
Don at Tsherkask. The Don discharges its wateis by three 
branches into the sea of Azof, not far from Nachikircfon, 
Asof, and Tsherkask, about 46° 40' N. lat. The length 
of its course is estimated at about 900 miles, but the dis- 
tance from its source to its mouth would not exceed 4!H». 
It has a very slow current, and abounds in shallows and 
sand-banks, but has neither falls nor whirlpools. In 
spring it overflows its banks, and forms broad and un- 
wholesome swamps ; it is navigable as high as Zadon^k, and 
has depth of water enough from the middle of April to the 
end of June for the larger description of vessels, but is so 
shallow during the remainder of the year, that there is 
scarcely two feet of water above the sand-banks. Its mouths 
are so much choked with sand as to be unnavigable for 
any but fiat boats. The current of its tributaries is also 
sluggish, and none but the Donecz are navigable. As far 
as Voronesh, near the junction of the Voronesh and Don, 
the river flows between fertile hills ; but from that point 
until its passage through the chain of the Volga, its left 
bank is skirted by lowlands, and its right by a range of 
uplands ; thence to its confluence with the Donecz, its high 
bank is skirted by chalk hills, and its left is bounded by a 
continued steppe. The waters of the Don are impregnated 
with chalk, and are muddy, and prejudicial to the heal in of 
those who are unused to them : they however abound in 
fish, though in this respect the Don is much inferior to 
the Volga, The Don is the Tanais of Herodotus (iv., 57) 
and other Greek and Roman writers. Herodotus states 
that the river rises in a large lake and flows into one 
still larger, the Maietis, or sea of Azof. The Hyrgis, which 
he mentions as a tributary of the Don, appears to be the 

DON-COSSACKS, the Territory of the (or, in Russian, 
DonskichKosak of Zembla), so called from the river Don, 
is a free country which acknowledges the Russian sovereign 
as its chief, but is not reduced to the condition of a pro- 
vince, or organized as a government, like other parts of the 
empire. It lies between 47° and 54° N. lat., and 55° wi<! 

67° E. lone.; and is bounded on the north by the govern- 
ments of Voronesh and Saralof, on the east by Astrachan, 
on tbe sou lb-east by the government of Caucasia, on the 
soutu-west by the sea of Azof and the Nogay Steppes in 
Taurida, and on tbe west by the governments of Ekateri- 
rmslaf and tbe Ukraine, It occupies an area of about 
76,000 square miles. 

The general character of tbe country is that of a plain, in 
many parts consisting entirely of steppe*, especially in the 
smith -eastern districts bordering on the Sal and BJanitah. 
T|ie interior i* a complete ilut, but in the north and along 
the banks of tbe Don there are slight elevations, and the 
south-eastern parts bordering on lake Bolskui are traversed 
by low offsets of tbe Caucasia] una. Tbe rest of the 

country, with the exception of tbe parts immediately adja- 
cent, lo the banksof the larger rivers* is a broad steppe, which 
contains abundance of luxuriant pasturage intermixed with 
tracts of sand and sluggish streams. Xbe whole territory 
does not contain a single forest, and even brushwood is unh 
occasionally found. The northern districts are far the best 
adapted fur agriculture; the southern, where the suil is 
siluie and bandy, for grazing. The steppes are full of low 
artificial mounds and antient tumuli, which are so nume- 
rous in some places as to give rise to the conjecture that 
they are the vestiges of some great and extinct race, pro- [ 

ly of Mongolian origin, as the rude images in stone 

erected over some of them bear, in their features and peeu- 

ifyle of head-dress, traces of that origin. Many of these 

tombs have been opened, and found to contain gold and 

er urns, rings, buckles, Sec. 

The chief liver is the Don, which enters the territory in 

the west, winds across it to the east, and then turning Slid* 

:k round, Hows through the eastern and southern dis- 

5 to the sea of AxoC In its course through this country 

led by tbe Khoper, Midwcdicsa, 11a wlu, Sal, Donecz, 

and several minor stream*. Besides these there are several 

o ilicr rivers which discharge their waters into the sea of 

Azof, such as the Krinka, Kagulnik, Yoga, &c. ; and there 

are numerous streams in the steppe*, id which the greater 

pa it terminate in marshes, and are dry in summer* The 

principal lake is the Bolskoj, an enlarged bed of the 

Mamuh, about 70 miles long and 9 broad, the length of 

which forms for that distance the boundary between the 

territory of the Don-Cossacks and Caucatia, Next to tins 

the most considerable lakes are those ofNowoe and Staroe- 

OaefO, which are covered in summer with an incrustation 

of salt from one to two inches in thickness, of which they 

furnish an abundant supply. No mineral springs 

yet been discovered. 

The country enjoys a mild and not unhealthy climate. 
The spring seta in early, and in the summer, which is 
of long continuance, the land is refreshed by frcnuent 
showers; the autumn is at timed damp ami foggy, and the 
iter, though clear and not accompanied unh much snow, 
verc and attended by much stormy weather. The rivers 
me closed by ice from the end of November to the month of 
February. Failures of the harvest are rare, but the inha- 
bitants often suffer severely from the ravages of the locust, 
which is the scourge of the country. 

Agriculture, cattle-breeding tbe fisheries, and the culti- 
I the vine, constitute the principal occupations of 
the Don-Cossacks ; but, according to the must recent % 
On this country, Schnitzler, agriculture, not the rearing of 
cuttle, as most authors have affirmed, forms the chief em- 
ployment of the people. In the low-lands of the north, 
winch lie along the banks of rivers, the soil is very fertile, 
and produces grain of various kinds, such as rye, barley, 
wheat, oats, maize, and buckwheat; also pea*, iLix, and 
hemp. But even in the BOUth, fields are found m the heart 
oT I he step pi- nice of thirty and even forty miles 

Dun, With rich crops of grain upon them; these 
fields arc cultivated by the richer class of proprietors* In 
tenetwertl of winter-corn (about 69,370 quar- 
U and 359,ti43{Qb^i [uing-eorn WW 

nner yielded two, and the latter three grains 
without the use of manure or much cost of la- 
bour. The average crops of wheat are estimated at about 
t\v . i 1,4 17, 1 H0 cmarters) annually, 

lie of the Cossack families aivwilln , in which 

raise vegetable- of the ordil ptions, melons, 

and fruit: the hist is net however .in object 
tnueh attention. The Culture of the tine Was intro- 
duced by Peter the Great, and has been followed up with 

spirit, especially along the bank* of the Don, where a very 
pleasant wine, not unlike Champaign, is made, and has 
become a favourite beverage in Russia. There are superior 
kinds, the Stanitze and Zimlyanakoye, which resemble 
Burgundy in colour and tlavour ; but the favourite species 
is the Vinoinarozka, or frozen wine, which is made from a 
mixture of wine with brandy and the juice of various 
berries. In what is called the * First Natshalstoe (dii- 
tn. -i | of the Don.' which lies east of Taherkask, there are 
at present 97 1 u vineyards, and in the * Second/ north- 
east of Taheffkaakj 25 l Ju ; these vineyards contain from 200 
to 8QU, and even as many as lutHI vines, and about fifteen 
different kinds of grasses. Tbe inferior descriptions of wwe 
are red one> t of which about 70*0110 vedros (about 225,800 
gallons) aie annually sent to Moscow, and 30,000 (about 
Ho, 7 70 gallons) to Khnrkof, beside considerable quantities 
to Kursk and other parts. The yearly sale of I 

oea about two millions of roubles, or 92,000/. sterhag, 
Tbe vines also yield about 10,000 vedros (32,250 gallons) 
of brandy spirit annually. 

The rearing of cattle is pursued with p-eat industry both 
by the Cossacks and Calmucks; the wealth of the mere 
at 11 uen t among them consists, in fact, of their numerous 
herds and ilocks, and they have large Khutors, or 
farms. For breeding them in the steppes. The natr. 
sack horse is small and spare in flesh, with a thin neck and 
narrow croup; he is, on the whole, an ill-looking animil, 
but strong, fleet, and hardy. The common Cossack is rarely 
owner of less than three or four horses, but many of the 
Tabunes or herds, of the wealthier breeders, contain 1GU0 
or mure. All, with the exception of the saddle-hoi> 
kept on the pasture-grounds throughout the year, and in 
winter are forced to seek for their food either beneath the 
snow or from the high reeds on the banks of rivers. The 
Cossack himself does not keep either camels or dromedaries, 
but they are reared by their Calmuck fellow -countrymen 
and thrive well on the saline plants of the steppes. Neat 
to the horse the sheep is the most common domestic animal; 
the ox is used for draught ; goats are bred principally by 
the Kalmucks; but swine and buffaloes are rare. The 
stock of the Cossack population in 1 332 was composed of 
257,211 h arses, of which 123,328 were mares, 2,110,549 
sheep, from which 217,775 poods (about 7, 8351,900 poundsj 
of wool wen obtained; and 840,683 heads of horned cattle. 
The Calmucks at that time possessed 33,747 horses, 

of cattle, 28,574 sheep, and 1365 camels and drome* 

Tbe chase is unproductive, as the steppes are not the 
usual resort oi" wild annuals or of much game ; 
foxes, marsh -cats, dwarf otters, martens, marmots, jer- 
species of gazelle, and hares are occasionally met 
with. Ol wildfowl there are the steppic-fowl (Otis tetrax), 
water-starling, Muscovy duck, swan, snipe, pelican, and 
falcon. The principal amphibious animals are tortoises. 
The steppes also breed the Palish cochineal insect, of 
which however no use is made, the silkworm, and the «an- 

Next to agriculture the people derive their chief sub- 
sistence from their fisheries. Fish indeed is their ordinary 
food, and consists of the sturgeon, trout, pike, tench, 
salmon, carp, &c, for which the richest fishing ground* 
are the Don and the shores of the sea of Azof. The pro- 
duce of 1S32 was 1,033,935 poods (about 37,221,660 pound* 
weight), of which 496,512 poods were appropriated to ill- 
tenud consumption, and the remainder was e\ 
Caviar ami iflingUlffti are sent abroad in large quantities 
Turtles and crabs in immense numbers, and of large %at t 
are taken in the Don and its tributary streams. 

The Cossacks rear little poultry, but they keei 
stocks of bees; the number of apiaries a few years ago was 
104 ^ which • in ind produced annually 

b'299 poods (about 298,764 pounds weight) of honey and 

Trades and mechanical pursuits are carried on only in the 
lid towns, New and Old Tsberkask, and the 
stanitzes, or villages; for as the Cossack depends upon 
If for the supply of his daily wan conse- 

quently little encouragement for the manufacturer aud 
mechanic. The only large manufacture* are ca\iar, wax, 
and i^in^lass. The exports are inconsiderable, and consist 
principally I, cattle, tullow, skins, glue, fish, and 

their products, wine, and a little grain ; the greater part of 
these exports are sent to Taganrog, which is the chief mart 

D O N 



r the sale of what the country produces, or find a vent at 
of Tsherkask, &c* They amounted in 
out 226,600/.), while the im- 
\ear wets to the extent of 13,886,133 rubles 

territory of the Cossacks is divided into seven Not- 

namely, 1* Aksai, on the Don, in 

i Tsherkask, and New Tsherkask (14*000 in- 

itants), the only towns in the country; 2. The First 

of the Don, containing the large villages of Troi- 

BSttrianskava, Tsiemiianskaya, &c. ; 3. The 

District of the Don, with the lar^e villages of 

T^hernkaya, and GetabiRskaya ; A. Medwediesza, witti the 

Itrie villages of Ust-Mi a, Beresofeka, and O 

fUri: 5. Koperskyo, with the large village* of Unrptna- 

k tskaya and Dobrinskaya ; 6. Donecszkaya, 

with • villages of Kasaiiskuya, Luganskaya, and 

a; and 7. Minsk, with the large village! of 

Gmbova and Alexief kaya. 

The great mass of the population are Cossacks and Little 

tngwhom a number of Great Russians, Nogay- 

Ten Vrmenians, and Greeks are intermixed. 

H»e Caltn u < • k part of the population are a nomadic people: in 

if numbers were 10,413, of whom 7889 were males 

and g£2 \ The following is given as the official 

tetum of the remaining inhabitants of ihe territory : — 

BmlMnen in the service of Cossack proprietors . 389,371 

Free labourers, fee 123/299 

« return does not comprise the chiefs or great land- 
robably the principal star- 
it may be concluded, therefore, that 
>fSi calculation, that the population amounts to 
•oo of all classes, is not above the mark. The census of 
I, but there are reasonable grounds for 
*jn»- rreetness. 

The i f the Don Cossacks, which is more exteti- 

than the whole area of the Austrian States in Ger- 
but two towns, and 120 stamlzes. The 
many of winch have markets, are always placed 
■ • inks of rivers and composed of from fifty to three 
he oil red ell built, clean, and conveniently arranged, 

b one or more churches of stone or wood. Some of these, 
ruble towns, and arc surrounded 

• 1! and narrow ditch : the khutors, or stables, stalls, 
, le of them. The Cossacks, who have been 
'he country since 1 J69, are genuine Little Russians, 
*£<?ak pure Russian mixed with occasional provincial- 
Thcy are proverbially hospitable and cheerful, but 
it when excited; and although they consider the plun- 
1 their enemy lawful in war, theft is almost unknown 
them* Their mode of life is in general very simple 
id the enjoyment of civil freedom has given 
an independence of mind, which places them far 
• live social scale than the abject Russian. Their 
Deles, are in general well educated. With 
instruction, their establishments are within 
if the University of Kharkof. The state of 
ents was in I B2d, 1 2 schools with 4G teachers 
in 1832, the same number .. 
il 1031 pupils, all males. Besides these, there 
, -:.-.;! rininaries in the Eparchy of New 
;, with lu teachers and 274 students. The entire 
uvatier of scholars, therefore, was 1035, which averages 
nearly 1 scholar in every 580 inhabitants. But, as the 
Resltolniks, a sect of the Grautj-Russian church, have 
doubtless schools of their own, this proportion can be ap- 
proximative only. 

Ii matters, this territory was formerly 
of Voronesh, but the eparchate 
&k luh (3d expressly for it b) tne 

ktained in 1830 369 churches, of 
L-fl le three monasteries and one 

he people are of the R 
nicks are Lamaists, and the 
tempt from taxes, but arc liable to do 
dresi, arm, and equip them* 
in return for which the 
iheir maintenance while in the 
and supplies them with field equipage. 
I in the use of the bow and 


arrow, although they do not use them in war. Their prin- 
cipal weapon in battle is the lance* They live under a 
military government wholly distinct from the government 
of every other Russian province, at the head of which is a 
Voiskovoi-Atlaman, or Captain-general ; but as the present 
emperor has vested this office in the heir-apparent, his 
powers are delegated to a Nakazmi or Viec-Atlaman; and 
on this model every stanilze has its local attaman. who is 
elected by the inhabitants. The Cossacks have a supreme 
council of state, called the Chancery of the Voiskofnya, or 
Captaincy, which controls both the civil as well as the 
military affairs of the territory. The attaman or his de- 
puty is its president, and he a assisted by two perpetual 
members and four other members, who are elected by the 
people every three years. The expenses of the administra- 
tion, including the allowances to the viee-atlaman, the at- 
torney-ireneral,. aud the office** attached to the attaman, 
amounted in 1832 to upwards of 150,000 silver rubles 
(about 26,000/.) 

The Cossacks are divided into Polks, or regiments, and 
Sotnyes, or companies ; which last are again divided into 
■81 i iona each polk has a standard-bearer and a major. In 
return for the exemption from faxes, crown monopolies, and 
other privileges, they are bound to keep in a constant state 
of readiness fur the Imperial service about '25,uou cavalry, 
who are reckoned among the regular Cossacks. From the 
age of 1 j to 60 every Cossack is a soldier, and in case of 
ling emergency, all males capable of service are bound 
to take up anus. The Calmueks are governed by the same 
laws, and subject to the authority of the Voiskovoi-Aitaman. 
They are equally hound to serve with their Cossack fellow- 
countrymen, by whom, however, they are held in great eon- 
tempt. They dwell in tents of skin, lead a wandering life, 
and are exclusively occupied in rearing cattle, sheep, camels, 
and especially horses, with which they supply ihe Russian 
light euval ry. 

1 lie Cossacks pay much attention to their dress; which 
consists of a blue' jacket, frequently laced with gold and 
lined with silk, a silk vest and girdle, full white trowsers, 
and black woollen cap, with a large red bag dangling be- 
hind. The females, who are inferior in symmetry of form 
to the males, have agreeable features, a florid complexion, 
and fine black eyes. They wear a long falling tunic of 
cotton or silk, partly open in front andcutifmcd by an orna- 
mental waistband. Beneath this upper garment appear 
broad trowsers, with which yellow boots are usually worn. 
The hair of the unmarried female Qoatfl to long braided 
treses over the shoulder, but when married she conceals 
it under a cap richly embroidered with gold and pearls. 
Their dances resemble those of the Russian gipsies*, and 
are performed by two persons only, who accompany their 
movements with loud cries* 

DQNAGHADEE, a mail-packet station, in the barony 

of Ards and county of Down, in Ireland: distant 94 Irish 

or 119 English miles from Dublin, seventeen English miles 

Battel ; and twenty-one English miles from Port- 

patriek, on the opposite coast of Great Britain. 

Donaghadee owes its rise to being the most convenient 
point of communication between the latest colonists of Aros, 
and their countrymen in Scotland, with whom they carried 
on a sufficient traffic to induce the proprietor, the Loid 
Montgomery* about a. d. 1(350, to erect a quay ] 28 >ards in 
length, and from 21 to 22 feet broad, which continued 
during the last centurv to afford pretty good sheltei to all 
the craft employed, llie Scottish mails have landed here 
since before 1744, at which tune Dnaghadee enjoyed a 
large share of the imports and exports of this part of the 
e uiiiiy. The accommodation of the old quay being latterly 
found insufficient fjr the belter cl tm-packeta, as 

\w\\ as for merchantmen, winch frequently experienced the 
want of an asylum harbour on this coast, a new pier was 
commenced at the expense of government, which is now 
completed, enclosing a basin of seven acres, and cal- 
culated to hold sixty vessels of the larger ela^s. The ex- 
pense has been upwards of 160,000/.,' and the work is 
executed in the best manner ; but the benefits so far derived 
from it are not considered commensurate with so great a 
cost. The town, which consists of two principal streets i-, 
ml II built and airy; it has at present a considerable export 
trade in cattle and grain, and a large import of coal. There 
are a handsome church, two Presbyterian meeting-boo 
two Beoeders' meetinghouses, and one \Vesle\au Metho- 
dist meeting- house. 

D N 



On the north-east side of the town stands a remarkable 
artineml mount or rath, surrounded by a dry fosse from 27 
J feet broad. The circumference of the mount at the 
hot lorn l- i. at the tup 2 H> feet, and its greatest 

conical height 140 feet. A powder magazine has been built 
on the summit, from which Scotland and the Me of Man 
iihle in lair weather, 
In I .834 there were in the parish 15 schools, educating 
70S young persOltf : uf these ehools threw wore in connexion 
with the Board of National Education. Population of town 
in I $21, 186. (Harries History of the 

i Dntm : HeporiSityc.) 

DONATELLO. Donate di BeltO di Bardo, called Do- 
nalelhi, was bom at Florence in the year 1383. He was 
brought up in the house of a Florentine gentleman named 
Roberto Martclli, a liberal pit run of the arls, and received 
his first instructions from Lorenzo Bicct, from whom he 
learned paint in % in fresco; but he afterwards became more 
famous as a sculptor, Healsc practised archilecturo. In the 
course of I i^iu-d many towns of Iiah , among which 

were Venice and Padua, where the people wanted to detain 
and naturalize him, and Rome. Donatella was much es- 
teemed by hi> r^HiteniiiovarieSt anil executed a greai num- 
ber of works buth in private and public building, ami for 
the grand-duke Cosmo I. He was the first to employ bas- 
relief in telling stories, according to the more elaborate 
of 1 Lilian sculpture. He died paralytic, December 
I.i. I 166. 

When be first became so infirm as to be unable to work, 

the qrand-duke Piero I, gave him a small estate : but he was 

so much annoyed by the troublesome references of his la- 

buurers, that be insisted on relinquishing it; and Pieru 

- him a pension instead, in daily payments, which per- 

i tented him. Some relations visited him one day, 

iiim to leave them at his death 

a vineyard which he owned; but lie answered, that it 

reasonable 1o leave it to the jpewe.n1 who 

had always worke<l upon it ihau to those who had done 

no labuirs fur him, except paying him that visit : and he 

did so. 

His principal works are at Florence; but some have de- 
cayed, or been removed from their original s latum. One, 
a figure of St. Mark, which was nicknamed (according to 
the common propensity of the Florentines) Lo Zuecono 
(the Gourd) on account of its bald head, is Enoch ooni- 
idedi A St George is also much esteemed; and Va- 
, speaking of a Judith bearing the head of Holofi 
in bronze, calU it, with all the strength lie gathered 

m his intense love of his art. ' A work of grea> 
cellence and mastery, which, to him who considers the 
simplicity uf the outside, in the drapery and in the aspect 
of Judith, sees manifested from within it the great heart 
(animo) of that woman and the aid of God; as in tli- 
of that Hulofernes, wine and sleep, and death in his metn- 
, winch, having lost their spirit, show LheinsGlves cold 
and falling/ 

Jelluleft several pupil>. to whom he bequeathed his 

Is, The most noted are Bertoldo, Nanni d* Anton di 

Bianco, Rossellino, Disederio, and Vellano di Padova. To 

in- left all the works which he retained at his death, 

( \ asari : tialdinuo- 

DONATIO MORTIS CAUSA (Law), a gift made in 
tpect of death. The doctrine is derived from the civil 
nW| and a donation of this kind is defined in the i 
Bfl (lib. Ii*i tit. 7) as * a gift which is made under 
apprehension of death, as when a thing is given upon 
condition that, if the donor die, the donee shall have it, 
or that the thing given shall be returned if the donor 
the danger which he apprehends, or shall 
repent il made the gift; or if the donee shall 

die hefore the donor,* In the English law it is nee 
to the validity of this gift that it be made by the donor 
lation to his dying by the illness which affects him at 
lie of the l 1 takes effect only in case he die 

of that illness. There must be a deliver) uf the thing 

lonee: hut in cases where acl is ini- 

■oiLs of bulk deposited in a 
warehouse, the delivery uf the key of the wart house is 
effectual, A donatio tnorti^ 

HI to be liable to Die 
and v ; but as 

it takes effect from the mieniai \ 

net, it ii not within the jurisdiction of thi i itical 

court, and neither probate or administration is necessary, 
nor the assent of the executors, as in the case of a legacy. 
On the Roman donatio tnsl the reader may 

consult Heincccius, Qp. f torn. vL, p. 581, and the ret- 
there given; and the Pandect, xxxix., tit. 6, The' 
tut ion of Justinian put don nearly 

on the footing of legacies in the Roman law. 

As i ee Roper on I ?ol. L 

DONAT1STS, Clinstian schismatics of Africa, of tli« 
fourth century, originally partisans of Donates, bishop of 
Casa Nigra in Numidia, the great opponent to the • 
of Cecinanus into the bishopric uf Carthage, J> 
accused Ceeilianus of having delivered up the sacred books 
to the Pagans, and pretended that his election was thereby 
void, and nil those who adhered to him heretics. Under 
thil false prelext of zeal he set up tor the head of a party, 
and, about the year 312, taught that baptism administered 
by heretics was ineffectual; that the church was n 
fallihle; that it had erred in his time ; and that he was to 
be the restorer of it. But a council hold at Aries, in SI 4, 
acquitted Cecilianus, and declared his election valid, The 
schismatics, irritated at the decision, refused toacqui 
the sentence uf the council ; and the belter to support their 
cause, they thought it proper to subscribe to the opin 
Donatus, and openly to declaim against the Co 
They gave out that the church was become prostituted; 
they re baptized the Catholics; trod under foot the 
consecrated by priests attached to the Holy See ; I 
their churches ; and committed various other act 
They had ohoset) into the place of Cecilianus one Mujori* 
nus, but he dying soon after, they brought in another Do- 
natus, different from him of Casa Nigra, as bishop of Car- 

It was from this new head of the cabal, who used lo 
much violence against the Catholics, that the Donati 
believed lo have received their name. As they could Ntf 
prove, however, that they composed a I rue cl 
bethought themselves of 'sending one of iheir bishops in 
Rome, They attempted likewise to send some bislu 
Spain, that they might say their church began to 
itself everywhere. 

After many ineffectual efforts to crush this 
emperor Honorius ordered a council of bishops to a — 
at Carthage in the year 410, where a disputation \\\ 
between seven of each party, when it was decided ti 
laws enacted against heretics had force against ihe Dona 
lists. The glory of their defeat was due I 
bishop of Hippo, who bore the principal part in this 

The Dunatists, however, continued as a separate 
bodj p and attempted to multiply iheir sect even in tl 
century; but the Catholic bishops osed so much v. 
and prudence that they insensibly broutrj 
those who had strayed from the bosom of ihe ch 
church of the Donatista graduaih dwu 
becamu [net in the seventh century, f Hi 

Dirt, u ;/oii#, fol.Lond., 1756, pp" 340, 

lit start/, 4to. Lond., 170 
259, 3U5 ; Moreri, Did. Hi&torique, foL, Paris, 1 759, torn, it. 
p. 214.) 

DONATIVE. [BtireTtCB, vol. iv„ p. B«0.] 

DONATUS, j^LIUS, a celebrated grammarian, who 
lived in ihe middle of the fourth century. He wrote s 
Grammar, which long continued in the schools ; and also 

upon Terence and Virgil. He was mosi 
the time of Constantms, and taught rhetoric and pohie lite- 
rature at Rome in the year 356, about which time St 
studied grammar under him, Donatus has give r i 
employment to the bibliographers, who all speaa of an 
* Editio Tabellai is sine ulla nota * of his Grammar, d^ 
the first efforts at printing by means of let ters cut on ■ 
blocks. (See MeernuuC Originett 7\ 
other editions, 4to., Hag. Com. 1 765, torn. i. pp. I 
pp. 107, 'J I J, 2180 This Grammar has been print* 
several titles, as * Donatus/ 'Donatus Minor/ *D 
EthuuolvzatuV ■ Donatus pro pui , but the work is 

the same, namely, 'Elements of the Lalin L 
use of Children. 1 In the volume of the Grammatiei \ 
I by Nic. Jenson, without date, it is entitled k D 
de Barharismo el partibua Oratiouis.' Dr. Clarke, 

in his 4 Bilil Dictionary,' vol. ill p. 144- U8. ha* 

h ■ 
inquisitive readet d. Donatus s 

quinque Comoedias Tore niii/ were first pric t d»te, 




dy before 1460, and reprinted in 1471 and 1476. The 

neniarius in Virgilium,' foL, Ven., 1599, though as 

thought by many not to be his, 

ihe middle ages, both m English and French, 

n for any system of grammar: as in Piers 

♦ Thro AttLvt I me among drmpen mj Don*! to lurae.' 

sterCollego, written about 1386t 

pasnuur w called * Antiquum Donatus/ the oldDonat, Cot- 

pa* ■- neb proverb, * Les Diablcs esh > ieut 

cftforca en leur Donat/ the devils were but yet in their 

grammar, (See Harles, IntrocL in Hut. Ling. Latince, 

L, Brcma\ 1773, pp. 202, 203; Clarke, Bibliogr. Dirt., ut 

on T s Hist. Eng. Poet., 4 to., vol. i. p. 281 ; 

'iogr.Dicl^ vol. xii. p. 2 41.) 

[Conchacea, vol. viii. t p. 428.] 

fER, a market-town, borough, and parish in 

tine of thy county of York, in the wapentake 

^i and TickhilL It is situated on the river Don, 

north road, which passes through the whole 

n : it is 162 miles noiih-iiorlh-west of 

o, and 37 miles soutb-by~west of York. Dour 

! the Panwn of Antoninus, and was called Dona Ceastre 

J the Saxons, from which ils present name is derived, 

Lftoatastcr is one of the cleanest, most airy, and most beau- 

Arts in the kingdom. The approach from London, 

a wide and nearly level road, ornamented with ant ion t 

eUB-Uvas, is magnificent The town stands on the Wat- 

r-a«M!t of the Romans. Coins, urns, and other Roman 

are occasionally dug up in various parts of the 

I neighbourhood. 

! Reform Act the borough is divided 
i wards* with six aldermen and eighteen con mi l- 
iias also a commission of the peace. The dear 
lie corporation is about 8000/. per annum, of 
rg*> sums are expended in lighting, paving, dean- 
watching the town, in repair of roads, iniprove- 
i, police expenses, and in contributions 
in ties. The air is considered remarkably pore 
is, and this ciivuin fttana \ combined with its 
imparative freedom from 
sment.*, renders it a desirable residence for per- 
-1 income. The population of the borough 
: in 181 j, fi935; in 1821, 8544; in 1831, 
Tn* population of the townships in the soke of 
Daofostcr, including Hexthorpe-with-Balby, Lorersal, Ros- 
, Aukh-y, Blaxton, and V nh -Sandall, was, 

Dboeastcr has a few iron foundries, a sacking and a 
\mm manufactory on a small scale. In 1787, Dr. Car 
Utaodored 1 1 . : i s by power-lo* ■ i 

vhkh be was the inventor, into the town; but the attempt 
y» Bake tkmn manufacturing town was unsuccessful. 

centre of a large agricultural district, the markets 
arc attended by a large rural population, who 
ally to its support. Although it is one of 
markets in the kingdom, there is no corn- 
a spacious area between the shambles and the 
iarket is used for the sale of corn. The town also 
sup; the numerous opulent families re- 

in the continual intercourse on 
the north road navigation of the Don renders 

rieral traffic between themanu- 
fvturiiic district* and the eastern coast, no advantage has 
'»wi taken of the facilities thus afforded for making 
it a pUcc of trade. 

Tie public buddings in Doncaster are the mansion-house, 

i huid-ocnc structure, which about 10,000/., and 

uch U ostfd for the meetings of the corporation, for con- 

lally for public meetings; the 

sessions for the wapentake are held ; the 

red principle for the i 
aero, a betting- mom, and a theatre. The 

i ed as one 
\ at the expense of 
both elegant and commodious. The 
week produce an in 
churches of Doncaster are. 

and Christ Church. 
zant cruciform structure, 
b. The voi 
r are particularly fine, ami welt 

deserving of tho attention of the antiquary. Christ Church 
was erected a few years ago, from a fund left for that pur- 
pose by the late John Jarratt, Esq. The spire was 160 feet 
high ; in November, 1836, it was struck by lightning, the 
tower was much injured, and that part ot .q is at 

present (May, 1837) a CDMA of rums. The interior is unin- 
jured, and the service has not been interrupted 
■ ii mt The living of the parish church is a vicarage, in the 
archdeaconry and diocese Of York, and in the patronage of 
the archbishop of York, Christ Church is a perpetual 
in the gift of the trustees of the late Mr! Jarratt. 
The dissenting places of worship are for Friends, Method- 
ists, Independents, Catholics, anil Presbyterians. 

The educational establishments are numerous. There 
are many boarding-schools for both sexes, a grammar- 
school, a national -school, a British-school, and six Sunday- 
schools. All these schools are well supported. The num- 
ber of pupils instructed in Sunday-schools exceeds 1 000 ; 
they are taught by 15o teachers and superintendents. The 
Yorkshire institution for the Deaf and Dumb is situated 
near the race-course: it is a school of instruction and in- 
dustry, (Deaf and Dumb.) Other institutions are the 
Subscription Library, the Mechanics 1 and Apprentices* 
Library, and the Lyceum Literary and Scion 
A valuable library also belongs to the church, whi 
< essible to all the inhabitants. The public charities which 
belong to the town are numerous. St. Thomas's Hospital, 
endowed in 1588 by Thomas Ellis, is on asylum for six 
" poore and decayed housekeepers of good name and fame/ 1 
Its present income is 335/. 3*. 6<£ a year. Quintin Kay's 
charity of 300/. per annum, is chiefly devoted to the relief 
of poor and reduced persons, and to the apprenticing of six 
poor children to mecnauieal or handicraft trades. Jarrati's 
chanty is for the relief of six reduced housekeepers. Th- 
are .several other bequests fur purposes similar to those enu- 
merated. The other charities in Doncaster are the dispen- 
sary, the lying-in, clothing, sick* and soup charities. The 
total number of accounts kept at the Doncaster savings 1 bank 
uvember 1836 was 2050, amounting to 81,711/. 9*. 6d 
The races at Doncaster are held in the third 
ber, and continue for five days. It is said that ihev are 
a source of great emolument to the town, hut this is \ 
doubtful It is certain that they are productive of great 
immorality, not only among the < ers, but also 

among the permanent residents. The race-ground, which 
is about a mile from the town, is perhaps unrivalled. Tb<» 
St Legal stakes excite great interest not only throughout 
tho kingdom, but in all parts of the world. r J apt) 

body subscribes largely to the maintenance of Ihe rai 
under the idea that they tend to the prosperity of the town. 
Polteric Car, on the south of Doncaster, was a morass of 
many miles in extent, till the year 1760, It is now cum- 
ly drained, and yields luxuriant crops. 
I N fS EGAI* a maritime county of the province of Ulster 
in Ireland ; bounder! east and south on the inland side by 
p&TtB of the counties of Londonderry, Tyrone, Fermanagh, 
and Leitrini ; and on the south ;, and north, by Eke 

tooOn, Greatest length from Inishovven head 
the north-east, to Mai in Beg head (sometimes called Te 
head,) on the south-west, 85 statute miles; grea 
from Fearn-hill on the south-east to U 
north-west, 41 statute miles. Area according to Ordnui 
survey of Ireland, consists of— 

•. r. a 

1,170,335 2 31 

JJ, 1 07 II 


Total LI 93.44 ii 3 2 Statute measure. 

Or. whom ire miles. 

II population in 1831, 28t,l49. 
Donegal forms the north-western extremih of Ireland. 
The inland boundary l reserves a general direct ion 
b-wesf by north-east, and from Lifford northward is 
led by the navigable river and harbour of Loeh Ftoyfa 
maritime bound. roroely irregular, 1 eply 

nted on the north by the actuaries of Loch Svullv, 
Mulroy, and Bheephavan, and on tho south by Dow 
bay. The whole county is uneven and mountain: 
I ihe midland (tending I 

adonderry westward to Lett< and 

Kathmeliou, on L<> . and southward along the 

to Lifford and Castle Fitifk * ai\i %oxcv^ t^Ckftx Sxw?«Xi* 

bio tracts around Ballyshannon and Donegal on the 
south, and Dunfhnaghy and Buncmna on the north. The 
mountain groups of Donegal together with the highlands 
of Tyrone and Derry present n deeply withdrawn amphi- 
theatre to the north-east, enclosing the basin of the I ■ 
That portion of the mountainous circuit Which lies within 
this county is broken only in the north by the openings of 
Loch Swilly and Mulroy Bay ; and on the smith (where the 
connecting highlands of Donegal and Tyrone are narrowed 
between the valley of the Finn and the Say of Donegal* by 
the gap of Barnesmore. SI i eve Snaght, which rises to a 
height of 2011) feet in the centre of the peninsula of Inish- 
owen, forms the extremity of this chain on the north, W 
ward from SHeve Siiaght ami similarly situated in the cen- 
tre of the peninsula of Fanad between Loch Swilly and 
Mulrov Hay, is KnocknllaU196 feet); backed in like man- 
ner by Loch Salt mountain < 1541 feet), between the bend 
of Mulroy Bay and the low country stretching inland fimi 
Sheep Haven. Westward a^ain from the Sheep Hivi 
Muekish, 1190 feet in height, which slopes down on the 
north to the promontory of Horn Head; and Carntroena, 
(1396 feet), which extends to the sea at Bloody Foreland. 
Southward from Muekish stretches a vast region of high- 
lands, which expands toward* the west in wide extei 
tracts of bo£, interspersed with small lakes and covered 
with black heaths down to the sandy beach of the Atlantic : 
on ihe east it presents a series of bold continuous emi- 
nences overhanging the basin of the Foyle. The chief emi- 
nences of the chain are Engril and Dooish mi the north, 
the first 2462 feet, in height (the highest ground rn the 
county), the second 2143 feet; and Blueslaek and Silver- 
hill on the south, 2213 and 1967 feet respectively. From 
Bluestaek. extends a series of eonsiderahle elevations west- 
ward, along the northern boundary of the bay of Donegal, 
which terminate in the precipieesof SlieVe League, and the 
promontory of Mulin Beg; the Barnesmore mountains 
sweeping eastward continue the chain into Tyrone. This 
mountainous tract covers upwards of 700 sqU are miles, or 
more than twice the area of the county of Carlo It con- 
tains several spots of great interest to the tourist; such as 
Loch Salt, the prospect from Which over Horn Ilead and 
Tory Island has been justly celebrated, and Glen Yeairh, 
under I hi' Meters declivity of Doeish, where cliffs of HHMt 
feet hang for upwards of two miles over a glen and lake ; 
the opposite bank being clothed with a natural forest which 
IS still th r the red d( 

Prom the liberties of Londonderry northward, the coast 
of Loch Foyle between the mountains of Inishowcn and the 
*eu, is well inhabited and improved. Muff, close to the 
i\y boundary, and Moville, near the mouth of the Loch, 
are much frequented, the latter especially by the citizens 
of Derry faring the bathing season. From Inishowen Head 
at the entrance of Loch Foyle, the coast, which from this 
point is very rocky and precipitous, bends north-west to 
Mnlin Head, the mo>t northern point of this county and of 
ind, The cliffs at Inishowen Head are 315 IM in 
height: at Bin Head, about halfway between CuldalT and 
Malin, to- ihe altitude ef above the sea. 

Oil the Loth Swilly side of the peninsula the coast is low, 
and in many places covered wtih sand, which the north- 
erly glles heap up in imtnensc quantities on all the 
exposed beaches ofthis eoa-st Loch Swilly extends inland 
upwards of twenty miles, nnd forms a spacious and secure 
harbour: the average breadth is about one mile and a half, 
basin is completely land-locked; but Ihe 
vicinity of Loch Foyle, which floe* s Vessels of 9 U0 tons up to 
the I terry, renders Loch Swilly of less importance as 

a harbour. On the river Swilly, a little above its entrance 
into the Loch, stands Letterk«ouy, a thriving town, which 
supplies most *of the country to the westward with articles 
of import. Rathmelton, and Rathmullen are situated on 
the western shore of the Loch, the latter nearly Opposite 
ncrana, and all in the midst of well improved vicinities. 
The rise of apnmr tides opposite Buncmna is 16 feet. West- 
ward from Loch Swilly, the coast of Fanad, which is penin- 
sulated by the Bay of Mulroy, is very rugged, and in many 
part ad with sand blown in between the higher 

points of rock. The Bay of Mulroy is encumbered with sand- 
hanks and intricate windings: it extends inland upwards of 
innletely land-locked, being scarcely half 
a quarter of a mile Wide at the entrance. The small peninsula 
of Rosguill intercepted I bit hay and Sheep II 

lias been almost obliterated by the sands which have been 

blown in here within the last century, Rosa penna-ho use, 
built by Lord Boyne, on the neck of the isthmus, with ail 
its demesne, gardens, and offices, has been buried to such a 
depth, that the chimneys of the mansion-house some yean 
si nee were all that was visible. On the opposite shore of 
Sheep Haven stand Due Castle, and the house and de- 
mesne of Ardes, the most remote* and at the same time the 
most splendid seat in this quarter of Ulster. On a creek 
of Sheep Haven is the little port^town of Duufanaghy. im- 
mediately under Horn Head, which rises north of it 
height of 833 feet, with a cliff to the ocean of $26 fee 
the western side of Horn Head is a perforation of the rock, 
known as Me Swine's Gun: when the wind sets n 
the north-west, the sea is driven into this 

pe as to rise through an opening of the rock ahove iq 
lofty jets, with a report which, it is said, may be heard at 4 
distance of many miles. In the sound bet 
and Bloody Foreland are the islands of Innisbol 

ana Tory Island, which Kasl is ;ii a distance d! 
miles from the shore. Tory Island is three m 
half in length, by half a mile to three quarters in lo 
and is inhabited by perhaps the most primitive race of peo- 
ple in the Uniled Kingdom. In IS21 the island 
50 houses and 296 inhabitants, few of whom had 
on the main land. It is stated by the only too: 
given an account of his travels through this remote district, 
thai seven or eight of the inhabitants of Tory having been 
driven by stress of weather into Aides Bay about ll 
1 8ia, ' Mr. Stewart of Aides gave these poor people shelter 
in a large barn, and supplied tnein with plenty of fond and 
fresh straw to lie on ; — m>l one of these people was ercria 
Ireland before ; the trees of Ardes actually astonishes 
— they were seen putting leaves and small bram 
their pockets to show on their return. Mr. Stewart I 
good nature to procure a piper for their amusement, and 
all the time the wind was contrary those 
continued dancing, singing, eating, and sleeping — a 
of savage life in every age and clime. 1 > iji Ire 

land by the Rev. Caesar Otwar, p. 13.) The average 
lion of the western part of the island is no more than from 
5 (J to GO feet above the level of the sea, and the wan 
shelter is felt very severely in those north-westerly wales 
which set in with such violence on this coast* In I 
mer of 1S2G, it is said, a gale from this quarter di 
sea in immense waves over the whole flat part of tho island, 

Lug the corn and washing the potatoes out 

From Bloody Foreland south to Malin Beg Head, a dis- 
tance of 40 miles in a straight line, nothing can be more 
desolate than the aspect of the western coast of Done- 
gal. Vast moors studded with pools of bog water descend 
to the Atlantic between barren deltas of sand, » 
which each river and rivulet of the coast winds its way to 
the sea. \\[ winter when these sandy channels are o\ 
Bowed, it is impossible to proceed bv the coast line, as 
there are no bridges over miy of the larger streams ni 
of the village of Glanties, The wildest part ut tins < 
trict is called the Rosses, in which the village of Dunglo 
or Cloghanlea containing, in 1821, '253 inhabitants, 
principal place. A threat number of islands lie uff llui 
1 1 i separated from the main-land, and fi 
other by narrow 1 sand-banks. Of f, 

are inhabited ; of which the principal arc A or the 

north Island of Aran, containing in 18*21, 132 huusi 
188 Inhabitants ; Rutland or Innismacdurn t containing 44 
houses, and 173 inhabitants; InnislYce, contain 11 
houses, and in inhabitants; and Owi rung 12 

houses and 7C inhabitants. The cause of so 
lation in this desolate country is the success of the 
fishing here in 1784 and [785, when each 

Undated to have produced to the inhabit 
Rosses a sum of 40,000/,, who loaded with herrings 
of 300 veiseis in each of the 

1 the government, in conjunction with the M 
of Comn^ham the proprietor, to expend, it 
m the improvements necessary to erect a penna; 
station on the island of Ifmismardurn. A small town 
built and called Rutland, but it was scarcely 
when the herrings began to desert the coast; at t!- 
time the sands ben in to MoW, and ha- 
accumulate to such a decree thfl 
nearly half covered, and the fishing station 
rated. Below high-water mark on the coast 




grows a marine grass peculiarly sweet and nutritive for 
cattle, which watch the ebb of the tide and feed upon it at 
every low water. 

The district of the Rosses is separated from the more 
rer laimed country about Glanties and Ardara, on the south 
by the river Gweebarra, the sandy channel of which is from 
a mile and a half to a quarter of a mile in breadth through- 
rat ihe last eight miles of its course, and can only be 
passed by fording in dry weather. On the whole line of 
coast from Bloody Foreland to Malin Beg Head there is but 
m* gentleman's seat: this is at Ardara, a village at the 
head of Loughrosmore Bay, from which there is a pretty 
communication over the heights that stretch from 
k to Malin Beg, with Killybeggs and Donegal. 
Westward from Ardara, the coast again becomes precipitous, 
fcekg lined with cliffs from 500 to 600 feet in height on 
At northern side of the great promontory terminated, by 
Sslm Beg Head. The loftiest cliffs, however, on the whole 
Ik of coast are those of Slieve League immediately east of 
Matin Beg, where the height from the sea to the summit of 
tie shelving rock above is at one point 1964 feet. East- 
mi from Slieve League to the town ( of Donegal, the 
amfcern shore of Donegal Bay affords 'excellent shelter 
fim the north* west gales in the successive creeks of Teelin 
In; Flntragh Bay, Killybeggs Bay, Mc Swine's Bay, and 
lover Bar. Of these the harbour of Killybeggs is by much 
the most" sheltered and commodious, being the only one 
■cure from a gale from the west or south-west. The harbour 
sf Donegal itself at the head of the bay is sufficiently good 
fir a much more trading place ; and ten miles south from it 
■ the embouchure of the navigable river Erne, which flows 
foot Loch Erne through Ballyshannon. [Ballyshannon.] 
Ftwr miles from Ballyshannon on the coast, at the junction 
sf the counties of Donegal and Lcitrim, is Bundoran, a 
Miouable watering-place, much frequented bv the gentry 
st the neighbouring counties. Round the heaa of Donegal 
iMfrom Killybeggs to Bundoran, cultivation extends more 
rltess up &U the seaward declivities : the neighbourhood of 
^shannon is well improved; and north-cast from the 
of Donegal a good tract of arable land stretches in- 
the picturesque lake of Loch Eask, and the Gap of 
nore, vliere a mountain defile about seven miles in 
tgfli r^jinects tt with the south- western extremity of the 
p of die Foyle at Ballybofey and Siranorlar, two 
bifl# villages on the Finn. 

rlnn, which is the chief feeder of the Foyle on this 

i ft gin a lake 438 feet above the level of the sea, 

I in the centre of the mountain chaiu extending 

i Erigal, and after a course of about thirty miles 

L joins the Foyle at Lifford bridge, eight miles bo- 

fle&nn, where it is navigable for boats of 14 tons. 

r kiin of the Foyle, out of Donegal, are the Derg, 

fc mm from Loch Derg in the south-east extremity of 

aty of Donegal and joins the main stream in 

^ ; tbe Decle, which has a course nearly parallel to 

frFi&ft, and descends upwards of 800 feet m its course 

* Wh Deele to the Foyle, which it joins a mile below 
-"'nsnd toe SwiUy burn or brook, which passes by 

,%nd is navigable for a few miles above its junction. 
feg if about 24 miles wide each way, and sur- 
\ on aD aides except the south by steep and barren 
Mi: it i* 467 feet above the level of the sea, and its 
I depth j 75 feet. This lake is subject to violent 
fwwjud. It abounds in excellent trout. The Swilly 
I rfe"^ it has a course of little more than fifteen 
I Wngi down a good body of water through Letter- 
to Loch SwQly. The Leannan river, which likewise 
k*n Swilly by Rathmelton, is a considerable 
HI ilsothe Lackagh, which discharges the waters 
J tf Gartan, Loch Veagh, Loch Salt, and Glen 
i Sham Haven. The waters of Loch Salt, which 
epest pool in Ireland, descend 731 feet in a 
hrtte more than three miles to Glen Loch. Of 
I af the western coast the chief is the Gweebarra 
Mitkied: of a similar character is the Gweedore, 
■ the Rosses on the north from the district 
uj- The Owenea, which flows through 
K the only other considerable river on this coast ; 
jar streams issuing from small lakes, and the tor- 
ik h descend from the moors in winter, are almost 

* general direction of all the valleys which intersect 
I it jjgfaknds of Donegal is north-east and south-west, and 


■ ml* 

this natural disposition marks out the three chief lines of 
mountain road; viz., from Ballyshannon and Donegal to 
Lifford and Londonderry, through the gap of Barnesmore ; 
from Ardara to lifford and Letterkenny, by the head of the 
Finn ; and from Dunfanaghy and the cultivated country 
about Sheep Haven into the Rosses, by the passes betweon 
Dooish and Erigal. These latter roads are little frequented, 
so that west of Enniskillen the gap of Barnesmore is the 
only ordinary communication between Connaught and Ul- 
ster. The district along the Foyle and round the head of 
Loch Swilly is as well supplied with means of communica- 
tion by land and water as any other part of Ireland. 
Throughout the county the roads are good. 

The climate of Donegal is raw and boisterous, except in the 
sheltered country along the Foyle. The prevalent winds are 
from the west and north-west, and the violence with which 
they blow may be estimated from the effects of the storm 
of December 4, 181 1, in which His Majesty's ship Salhander 
was lost in Loch Swilly. The maws and gills of all the fish 
cast on shore — eels, cod, haddock, lobsters, &c. — were filled 
with sand; from which it would appear, that by the furious 
agitation of the sea, the sand became so blended with it, 
that the fish were suffocated. Eels are fished in fifteen 
fathoms, and cod in twenty to thirty ; hence making al- 
lowance for their approach nearer shore before the storm, 
we may judge of the depth to which the agitation of the 
water descended : the ordinary depth in a gale of wind is 
seven feet below the surface, and in a heavy storm twelve 
to fourteen feet. (Geological Transactions, iii. c. 13.) 
From the remains of natural forests in many situations 
where no timber will at present rise against the north-west 
blast, it has been inferred that the climate is now more 
severe than it formerly was, a conjecture which would 
seem to be corroborated by numerous ruins of churches 
and houses, overwhelmed by sand blown in on situations 
where, had such events been common at the time of their 
foundation, no one would have veutured on building. The 
deposit of sand at the bottom of the sea is daily increased 
by the detritus of loose primitive rojsk brought down by 
every river of the coast ; so that with each succeeding storm 
a greater quantity may be expected to be blown in, until 
the whole coast becomes one sandy desert, unless the danger 
be obviated by timely plantations of bent grass and the ex- 
tirpation of those multitudes of rabbits whose burrows now 
extend, in many places, for several miles along the shore, 
and prevent the natural grasses from binding down tho 
loose matter. 

The Floetz limestone-field, which occupies the central 
plain of Ireland, extends over the borders of this county 
from Bundoran, where tho limestone cliff rises to the height 
of 100- feet over the Atlantic, ten miles north-east to Bal- 
lintra, where the extreme edge of the stratum is perforated 
by a subterraneous river. Limestone gravel is also found 
along the flanks of the primitive district as far as some 
miles north of Donegal town, and to the presence of this 
valuable substance may be chiefly attributed the cultivation 
which distinguishes this part of the county from the steril 
tract that separates it from the basin of the Foyle. From 
the mountains of Barnesmore, north, the whole formation 
of this county, with the exception of the transition tract 
along the basin of the Foyle, is primitive. 

The prevalent rocks are granite and mica slate, passing 
into gneiss, quartz slate, and clay slate. The granite is a 
coarse granular syenite, the detritus of which gives a strong 
reddish tinge to the sands washed down by the streams 
that traverse it. It occurs supporting flanks of mica-slate 
along the whole line of mountains from Loch Salt to 
Barnesmore. On the eastern flanks of this range the mica 
slate passes into grcywacko, which forms the substratum 
of the valley of the Foyle : the same rock occurs over the 
lower parts of Inishow'en, and also appears on the southern 
side or tho range near Donegal town. Granular limestone 
is found in beds throughout the whole mountain district in 
great quantity and variety of colour, as among various other 
indications, grey at Malin Head; greyish-blue at Loch 
Salt ; fine granular, pearl-white, pearl-grey, flesh-red, and 
bright bluish-grey, at the marble hill near Muckiah ; yel- 
lowish-white, greyish-white, and rose-red, at Ballymore; 
pearl-white and pale rose colour at Dunlewy, under Erijtal : 
pearl-grey in extensive beds at the head of the river J 
and greyish fine blue at Killybeggs. Siliciferous, may 
and marly limestone also occur in various P**tr 
baronies of Inishowen and Raphoe, with a rei 

Vol 3%*- 



D O N 

steatite near Convoy, on the Deele, which cuts under the 
kmf\? like wood, and is mad by the country people for the 
bou : r>pijies. Beds of greenstone and greenstone 

porphyry are sometimes found resting on the deposits of 
granular limestone, and occasionally on the mica slate and 
granite* and the dikes from which these originate may be 
seen traversing the primitive rock at Horn Head and 
Bloody Foreland. Among the rarer minerals occurring in 
this remarkable region ure columnar idocrase, inalacolithe, 
enidoie, and essohite (cinnamon Stone), from a bed of mica 
slate in the Rosses, and firom the bar of the Gweebarra 
river; garnet in hornblende slale over the marble of 
and cherry-red garnet from Glanlies: also plum- 
from ihe shore of Aides: copper pyrites from Horn 
lead earth and iron oenre from Kildrum, in Clogh- 
irl-grey and yellowish- white porcelain clay from 
. I : potter's cl*] from Drum ardagh, on Loch 
S willy; iron pyrites from Barnesniore; lead or« from Fmn- 
luwu. Letlerkenuy, Glentogher, and various other places; 
in I pipe-cjaj from Drumboe, near Stranorlar. The white 
marble of Dunlewy, near the mountain Erigal, is stated to 
an excellent quality, and its bed very extensive ; it has 
been traced over a space of half a mile square, and is so 
finely (granular, that it may be employed in the nicest works 
Ipture. ' Its textu re a n d wh i te ness,* says M r. Grilfi t h, 
'approach more to those of the Parian than of the Carrara 
marble. It [a very well known that perfect blocks of the 
Carrara marble are procured with great difficulty, and 1 
firmly believe that the marble of Dunlewy is free from 
mica, quartz grains, and other substances interfering with 
the chisel, which so frequently disappoint the artists who 
work upon the marble from Carrara. A large supply of 
fine siliceous sand was formerly drawn from the mountain 
of Muckish by the glasshouses of Belfast, and considerable 
quantities have been of late exported to Dunbarton for the 
manufacture of plate and crown glass: the sand is rolled 
down the hill in canvas bags. 

The soil of the primitive district is generally cola, moory, 
and thin. The limestone tract from Ball y shannon to Donegal 

vated with a warm friable soil, varying from a deep rich 
mould to a light brown gravelly earth. The soil of the 
transition district, arising chiefly from the decomposition 

La :> rock, is a li^ht but manageable clay, which is very 

l adapted (be crops of potatoes, flax, Data, and barley, 
and utuaiionSj the rivers Finn and Fn\k\ 

b -ars wheat abundantly* The ordinary rotation of crops m 
the limestone district is potatoes, oats, or on the sea-c 
barley, and flax: on the cold lands of the western coast 
potatoes Mul barley, and among the mountains, potatoes 
Alternate green crops and house- feeding have 
been practised by some of the leading gentlemen farmers 
since before 1802, but the practice is not general. The by, 
or one-tided spade, and old wooden plough, are still in 
common use in the highland districts. Donegal is not a 
grazing country ; the good land is almost all under tillage; 
and the t em&inder are generally too sour for 

hog. Cattle grazing on the mountain districts ;»re 
liable to two ruffian or crippling, and ga/ar 

or blody urine, which are said to alternate as the cattle 
tire removed from the higher to the lower pastures: horses 
are not these diseases. The Raphoe and Tyr- 

hugh farming societies originated about \. v I have 

ice in the encouragement of green crops 
nurseries, Tlie principal plantations are at A rdes and 
Tyrcallan, a fine seat near Slrniturlar, where Mr. Stewart, the 
proprietor, has a nursery T wo thousand larch- 

trees, each measuring at nine feet from the butt, from two 

feet to two feet ten inches in girth, are at present ('April, 1837) 
for sate iu the latter neighbourhood Tins is the first home 
growth of timber offered for sale in Donegal, The trees 
have been grown on steep and poor land, and are good evi- 
donees of the capabilities of the waste lauds of this county. 

The 1 men manufacture is earned on to a very considerable 
extent, and is Still increasing in the cultivated eouutr) 
about Raphoe and Lilford, and also in the neighbor 
of BaUyan&nnon. Bleachgreans are numerous in the 
neighbourhood of Stranorkr, but spinning by ma« 

I yet heeti introduced, Strahane, in the county of 
Tyrone, within two miles of Lifford, is the principal linen 
market for the southern district: the sale here averacei 
oou pieces weekly. Londonderry and Letterkei 
markets for the district to ihe north * the weekly sale in the 
former place is about 400, and in the latter about \2\i piecei. 
The manufacture of stockings by hand formerly employed 
many females on the western coast, a pair of Boylagh knit 
woollen stockings selling for seven shillings, but lb 
mon wear of trousers has now taken away the dem: 
Burning kelp continues to be a profitable occupation atoi 
tin roast About the beginning of the present cent 
private distillation was carried on to an immense as 
over this county, particularly in the baronies of In i- 
and Kilm acre nan : repeated baronial fines and th 
lance of the authorities have latterly clunked the pi 
but it still exists to some extent in the mountain an 
Considerable numbers of whales have from time 
been taken off this coast ; but this, as well as the hei 
fishery, is now neglected, in 1802 there were but two flu 1 
mills in this county. There is an export of thn 
thousand tons of corn annually from Letterkenny, and 
remaining export of the count; Is from Londonderry. The 
condition of the peasantry in the south and west is 
much betler than that of the wretched inhabitants 
northern Counaught : land is let exorbitantly hi^li : 3/. 
per acre is paid in the neighbourhood of 1 l ui* i 

\L and IS*, on the dechvn oi mntam dish 

the butter and eggs of the poorer farmers gu n> ms 
make up the rent, and buttermilk and potatoes ct 
their diet The traveller is much struck with the in 
appearance of the peasantry nor lb of the i^ap of H 

'* ragged, rather than a whole coat/sa)s Mr In 
p. 109, * was now a rarity, and the clean and lid) 

. the women and girls was equally a novel as 
an agreeable sight. The farm-houses too were of a - 
order: most of the houses had in closures and cli 
sheltering trees, 1 The majority of the population in tla 
I is Protestant, 
Donegal is divided into six baronies; T\ rhugh on the 
south, Bannagh and Boylagh on the west, Kilma^renan on 
the north-west, Inishowen on the north east, and iUfhf 
on the east and centre. Bally shannon (pop. 3775), 
beggs (nop. 7 24), and Donepaf<pop. 
corporations In the reign vi" James L: these 
are now extinct Lifford, which is the assize town 
bounty, is governed by a charter of the 4 27th Febroa 
lOlh James 1. This corporation still po 
perty, and has a court of record with jurisdiction to 
amount of five marks, but no criminal juri&d 
vicinity of Strahane has prevented lifford from in 
the courthouse and county gaol constitute the greater 

oSrn: pop. 109(5. The other 
kenny, pop. 2168; Rathmelton, pop, 1763 ; Bi 
1059: Bullyhofey, pop. 874; and Stranorbi 
Donegal is represented in the imperial parha me i 
county members. 

Table of Population. 


How anxMlaiucI, 

No, of 


No. of 


ehi. lU cn 
ployed in 


chiefly f>m- 

iutt*. anil 

included w 



Female ft. 




EuimateU by I Jr. Beaufort. 
TJuder Act bb Geo. Jit. a 120. 
Under Actl Wm.lV.c. IS). 






141.845 ; 



The southern part of Douegal, down to the plantation of 
Ulster! was known asTyrconnetl, and was the patrim 
the O'DunnelU, whose chief tributaries were the OBoyles in 

Boylagh and the 1 

Battnagb, Rossguill, and 

Inithowac. Prior to the fifteenth ctrntury, hii 




been in the possession of the Mac Loughlins, a family of the 
Ijael Owen or O'Neills. The most distinguished of the chief- 
tuns of Tyrconncll wu Hugh O'Donnell, surnamed the 
Red, whose entrapment by Sir John Parrot, and subsequent 
imprisonment at Dublin us a hostage for the good conduct 
of his clan, caused much hostility against the government 
of Queen Elizabeth in this part of Ulster, O'Donnell, after 
more than three years' confinement, escaped, and with much 
n*k made his way through the English pale and reached 

ffected ear] of T\ rt me. 
the plan of the great rebellion, com- 
the attack on the fart of the Blackwutcr 
j mally formed. From Dungannon 
to Bally shannon, the residence of his ml her, 
• ly resigned the chieftain ship into his hands. 
lie tribe was then held on Barnesmore moun- 
result of which was a sanguinary irruption into 
ht, which they wasted as fur as Gal way and 
;. O'Donnell next turned his arms to the assistance 
e. who had risen in rebellion, and was present at 
the Dluek water. II is confederates, Maguirc 
• obtained an equally signal victory 
lllffbrd, the governor of Counaught, whom 



» of the Carlo w mountains on his way to 


*•> It, ■ 

tint (23 
•«r*w of 

no fruit le 


they met m 

uiiell next inraded Thomond, which he laid waste; 

after returned to oppose Sir Henry Dockwra, 

r of Loch Foyle [London derby], who bad seized 

Donegal in his absence, and hud set up his 

0M4n Neal Gurv O'Donnell, who was in the queen's Sn- 

i in his place. But the Spanish troop* 

n sent by Philip II* to the assistance of the 

landed at Kin sale [Kinsalk] in the mean 

September. 1601 ), he was obliged to raise the 

sgal and march into Munstcr. Here having 

with Tyrone (23rd of December), they 

f of Kinsale, in which the Spanish anX- 

\ the lord deputy, but owing, it is 

dispute about precedence, their armies did not 

concert, and a total defeat was the consequence. 

O'Douht'll then sailed for Spain, to solicit, in person new 

from Philip, After spending a year and a half 

i ion, he was seized with fever and died lit 

be was interred with royal honours in 

St. Francis. On the death of Hu^k, 

tv having proved refractory. Ins cousin Rory 

11 wa* promoted to the chieftainship, and ttfter- 

e earldom of Tyrconncll, which produced an 

.1 rebellion on the part of Neal and his allies the 

; but on the 7th of May, 1607, a letter accusing 

vd into a conspiracy with Tyrone, 

1 ahan, and other Irish lords, was dropped in 

i- at Dublin Castle, in consequence of 

[ was judged expedient for him to accompany the 

associates, who immediately went 

In the mean time a town hud been walled 

Henry Dockwra, who had also built a 

I L»lT>r»l for the control of Tyrcennell. The vicinity 

rrison proved so unsatisfactory to the pro- 

fMar Sir Cabir O'Doghcrty, that on some 

wise assurances of aid from Spain, communicated by the 

into open revolt May 1st, 1608, and 

iore and put the garrison to the 

ttrrsticrd on Deny next day, which he carried will 

m*stan?e and burned to the ground. He then fell back 

m Umacrenan, and took up a strong position on the rock 

held out for five months until he was 

killed br a 8 ler, who shot him as he leaned over the 


'Dogherty being thus slain in rebellion 

I of high treason, Donegal, along 

eated to the crown. On 

ibout Lifford was allotted to Eng- 

bief were Sir Ralph 1* 

i ill ; the vVholeofBoylagh and Bannagn 

y, Esq., and hia sub-] atei 
ugh t< mdertakers, of whom 

■I and Sir Janus Cn lining- 
in to servitors and natives, 
William Stewart, Sir John 
lain Henry II 
ic Swine Banagh, Mac 

In Inishowen Muff was 
II. Letterkenny owes its origin 

to Sir George Marburie, and Rathmelton to Sir AYilLam 

Stewart. At the time of the plantation the old Irish were 

in a very uncivilized slate: in many of the precincts Miose 

who were permitted to remain, si ill practised thi 

ha 1 1 jus method of ploughing by the tail at the time of 

Pynnar's survey. Dunne the wars th the 

rebellion of 1641, the British of the district along the P03 la, 

called theLaggan forces, did excellent service in tins and the 

adjoining counties. There 1 

the proprietors oi [riah descent at the time of the 

i inent. The forfeitures consequent on the war nf I lie 
revolution of 1G8* did not extend into Donegal. The la t 
historical event connected with this county was the capture 
of the French fleet off Tory Island by Sir John B. Wan 
in 1798. 

The most remarkable piece of antiquity in Donegal is 
the Grianan of Aileach, the palace of the northern Irish 
kings from the most remote antiquity down to the twelfth 
century, It stands on a small mountain 802 feet m height, 
near the head of Loch Swilly. The summit of the mountain, 
which commands a noble prospect, is surrounded by th> 
concentric ramparts of earth intermixed with unccmctited 
stones. The approach by an ant lent paved road It- 
through these by a hollow way to a dun er stone fortress in 
the centre. This part of the work consists of a circular 
wall of Cyclopean architecture varying in breadth from 15 
feet to 11 feet 6 inches, an I r (boul fi feet high, 

enclosing an area of 77 feet f- inches in diameter. The 
thickness of I his wall is diminished at about 5 feet from the 
base by a terrace extending round the interior, from which 
there are flights of step al similar to those at 

S league Fort, another remarkable Cyclopean erection in 
the county of Kerry. There was probably a succession of 
several such terraces before the upper part of the wall was 
demolished* Within the thickness of this wall, opening off 
the interior, are two galleries, 2 feet 2 inches wide at bottom 
and I foot 11 inches at lop by 5 feet in height, which ex- 
tend round one-half of the circumference on each side of 
the entrance doorway, with which however they do 
communicate: their use has not been determined. The 
remains of a small oblong building of mere recent date but 
of uncertain origin, occupy the centre. The pare contained 
Within the outer enclosure is about 5\ acres, within 
the second, aboil! 4: within the third, about I ; and within 
the central building, of Cash el, |. The stones of the wall 
are generally of about 2 feel in length, polygonal, not laid 

lines, not chiselled, and without cement of any kind. 
The description is thus minute, as, from an antient la 
poem published in the first part of the 'Memoir of I 
Ordnance Survey of Ireland, 1 and which bears conclusive 
internal evidence of having been written before a.d. 1 I 
the building of Aileach ('the stone fortress 1 ) is attributed, 
with every appearance of accuracy, to Eoeby Ollahir, whose 
reign is one of the very earliest historical epochs in Irish 
history. In this poem are preserved the names of the ar- 
chitects, the number of the ramparts, and the occasion of 
the undertaking. Umil the publication of the Memoir, ih<* 
uses and history of this remarkable edifice were totally 
unknown. It was reduced to ita present state of ruin a 
11 ni, by Murtagh O'Brien, kiny of Minister, who. in 
venge of the destruction of Kincorn [Clark] by Donnell 
Mac Loughlin,. king of Ulster, ad. H^h, invaded this dis- 
trict and caused a stone of the demolished fortress of 
Aileach to be brought to Limerick fi k oi plunder 

carried home by his soldiery; This event was remembered 
as late as 159'J, when the plunder of Thomond by Hugh 
0*Donuell was looked on as a just retaliation. On Tory 
Island also are Lopean remains, not improbably 

looted With the very antient tradition of the glass to 
mentioned hi Nennius, Tory signifies the island of the 
tower. On the the 

<:ns of seven chllTCltei ami iw 
out the county are numerous mem 
OS he u more usually known in Ii 

Tins' lied saint, the apostle of lie. indw 

of the church of Ioua, was born at Car; 11 village 

south oi KDmacre nan, where he founded an abb. 
was afterwards richly endowed by the O'Donnells." Near 
Kiln - I'DonneR 

always inaugurated. The remains of the abbey of 
Done a, and on 

the north of Glen Veagb err put remains of 

churches. Hut by much the d uecUs\a&V\va\ 

D O N 

locality in this county is llie Purgatory of St. Patrick, situ- 
ated o it at i island in Loch Derg. The autient purgatory was 
in high repute during the middle ages; the penitent was 
1 to pass thruiit^li ordeals and undergo tempi a i 

i lar to those ascribed to the Egyptian mysteries. (See 

Sullivan, Hist Caihol. Rib*) In Rymer's ' Fader*-* arc 
ml several safe conducts granted by the kings of Eng- 
land to foreigners desirous <>f visiting Loch Dorg during the 
fourteenth century. On Patrick's day, a- i-x 149 7, the rave 
buildings mi the island were demolished by -order of Pope 
Alexander VI., but were soon after repaired: they were 
again razed by Sir James Balfour and Sir William Stewart, 
i were commiu r that purpose by the Irish 

ieni a. .d. 1632. At this time the establishment 
consisted of an abbot and forty friars, and the daily resort 
of pilgrims averaged four hundred and fifty. The cave 
I opened in the time of James 1L, and again closed 
in ITso. At present the Purgatory, which has been a fourth 
Time set up. but on an island at a greater distance from the 
shore than the two former, draws an immense concourse of 
the lower orders of Roman Catholics from all parts of Ire- 
land, and many from Great Britain and America every 
year. The establishment consists, during the lime of the 
station from the 1st of June to the 13th of August, of 
twenty four priests: the pilgrims remain there six or nine 
days; the penances consist of prayer, maceration, fasting, 
and a vigil of twenty-four hours in a sort of vault called tbe 
•prison.' The fees are 1*. 4$d. each, of which G^rf. is paid 
for the ferry. During the time the pilgrims remain on the 
island ihey are not permitted to cat anything but oaten 
bread and water. Water warmed in a large boiler on tbe 
ad is given to those who are faint; this hot water is 
called * Wine,* and is supposed to possess many virtues. 
One of the pilgrims whom Mr. Inglis saw here, had her 
lips covered with blisters from I he heat of the * wine* she 
had drank. The number of pilgrims is variously estimated 
from 10,01)0 to 13,1)00 and 1 9, U0Q annually, and is at pre* 
sent on the increase, A station was advertised here In the 
year 1 830 by a Roman Catholic bishop. 

For the state of education in ibis county, see Raphok, 
with which diocese the county of Donegal is nearly co- 

The only newspaper published in this county i> the Baity- 
shannon Herald; number of stamps used in I 

The countv expenses are defrayed by Grand Jury pre- 
sentments, the amount of direct taxation bout 
*24,0O0/, per annum. Assizes are held twice a year at Li fiord, 
where there is a county gaol : there are bridewells as Done- 
gal and Letterkenny. The district lunatic asylum is at 
Londonderry. The share of the expense of electing this 
establishment, which falls on Donegal, is 9035& 10*. Id. 

r>f Donegal 1802; Sketches in Ire- 
land, by the Rev, C Otway; Northern Tourist; Iuglis's 
Ireland in 1 834; i r Ordnance Burvcy qf Ireland, 

Hodges and Smith, Dublin, 1S37; Parliamentary Papers , 

DO'NGOLA, a provinee of Upper Nubia, extending 
sou tli wards from the bor bouJ 19° 30* 

N. lat , along the banks of the Nile as far as Korti, about 
1^° N. lat.. where it borders on the country oflhe Shevgia 
The Nile coining from Sen naar flows in a northern 
direction through Halfav, Shendy, and theBarabra country 
10 about 19° N. lat. aiid 33° E. long., when it suddenly 
turns to the south or south -south -west, passing through the 
Shevgia country. [B aural.] After passing below the rock 
of fiarkal, as it reaches the town or village of Korr 

ourse assumes a direction nearly due west, which it con- 
tinues <br about 20 or 30 miles, and then resumes its north 
direction Bgvpt. The provinee called Dongola 

Stretches along the river from Korti first to 

the westward, and then north llowing the bend of 

l he stream to below the island of Argo, where it borders on 
Dir which la^t is province of Nt 

The whole length of Dongola is about 1 50 miles, and its 
breadth to further than 

the strip or cultivable lund on each bank, which \ 
one to three miles in breadth, beyond which IS the de -crt. 
The left or west bank i- fertile, the eastern h 

in most places barren, and th the desert stretch- 

ing close to the waters edge. (Ws and Hanburya 

Travel*,) The fine and fertile island of Argo is included 
vjthin the limits of Dongola. The principal place in Don- 
^ola is Maragga or Now Dongola, on tbe left or west bank, 


in 19° 0' N, lat,, whieh was in great measure built by the 
Mamelukes during their possession of I ho country from 
1812 to is id, when they were driven away by Ismail, son 
of the pasha of Egypt (Caillaud's Travel*.) Further south 
and on the right bank of the Nile, is Dongola Agnus or 
Old Dongola, formerly a considerable town, but now re- 
duced to about 300 inhabitants. At one end of it is a large 
square building, two stories high, whieh was formerly a 
convent of Coptic monks, and the chapel of which has been 
turned into a mosque. There are also other remains of 
Christian monuments, for Dongola was a Christian i 
till the fourteenth century, and Ihn Batuta speaks of it a* 
such. Makrki in the fifteenth century describes Don. 
a fertile and rich country with many towns; and Poncet, who 
in 1698 visited Old Dongola and its king and court, speaks 
of it as a considerable place. The king was hereditary, and 
paid tribute to the king of Sennaar. After Puncet's time, 
however, the Shevgia Arabs desolated Dongola, and reduced 
it to subjection during a great part of the last century, a 
circumstance which accounts for the present depopulated 
and poor state of the country. When the Mamelukes wh»* 
had escaped from Egypt came to Dongola in 1812, the coun- 
try was under several Meleks or petty native chiei 
jeet however to the Shevgia Arabs. It is now a 
dependent on the pusba of Kuypl; and the bey of Don; T 
who resides at Maragga, extends his jurisdiction also 
the country of the Sheygia Arabs. The natives of r 
resemble those of Lower Nubia in appearance, they tie 
black, but not negroes ; they produce dourxa, barley, 
and have sheep, goats, and some large cattle. 
horses which in Egypt are know n by the name of 
come chiefly from the Sheygia or Barabra countm. 
houses are built of unbaked bricks, made of clay sod 
chopped straw. The country of Dongola is tnon 
than Lower Nubia, but the people are few and indo 
dispirited by long calamities. Ruppel, in his *Ti 
Nubia and Kordofan,* gives particulars of the manners and 
habits of the people of Dongola. 

DONNE, JOHN, was born at London in tbe year \$U 
of respectable parents. At the early ago i, being 

esteemed a good Latin and French scholar, be was seut to 
the University of Oxford, and after remaining there a few 
years was removed to Cambridge. Although be 
distinguished himself in his studies he look n 

iniiy being Catholic had conscientious ob 
to In* milking the requisite oath. At lb 
Icen be went to Lincoln's Inn to study tbe 
while here, in order to satisfy certain religious doubts, he 
read the controversies between the Roman Cathol 

Itants, and decided in favour of the latter, Aflcr 
travelling for about a year in Spain and Italy, he 
his return secretary to Lord Elsinore, and iell in b 
that nobleman's niece, the daughter of Sir Geor^ 
The lady ret tuned his affection, and they were pri 
married. When this union was discovered by Sir George 
he was so indignant, that he induced Lord I 
dismiss Donne from his service. Tbe unfor tun;; 
was afterwards imprisoned by his father-in-law, and 
WHS taken from him ; but by an expensive law 
which consumed nearly all his property, he va> 
recover her. Sir George forgave him shortly afV, 
but absolutely refused to contribute anything I 
support, and he was forced to live with bis K 
Francis Whalh-v . Dr. Morton, aficrwai 
ter, advised Donne to enter into the Church, ami 
him ft benefice; hut although m 
fused the offer, thinking himself not holy enougli for lltf 
priesthood. Sir Francis Wta alley at In 
reconciliation between Donne and Sir Go 

1(1/., in quarterly sum 
whole sit u;ld be paid. Still he continued to be 

<d circumstances, and after residin 

r he had removed f«ir the 
wife's health, he lived in the house of Sir H 
at Drury Lane. He accompanied that gentleman I 
contrary to the solicitations of his wil Id not bear 

parted from bun, and who, as she said 
toe evil, While Donne was in Pa 
that hs saw (he apparition of his wifi 
apartment bearing a dead child, and shortly afl 
reived the Intelligence that his wife had actual! 
deliver d child at thai ven moment. The honest 

Isaac Walton, who writes Donne's Bio 

D O O 


D O O 

teems inclined to believe this story, On Donne's return 
L> England he was introduced to James I. , and delighted 
the unc treatise against Catholicism, entitled 

■P>i. James was so anxious t hould 

tat Donne at length complied, and became 
the I i p 3 a i rim - o rdi na ry . H is St) Fe o f p re ac hiug is 

tins described by Walton : ' always preaching as an angel 
fig>r; )mt not in a cloud.' The University of Cam- 

bridge made him doctor of divinity; and now, just as he 
tt» rising from his misfortunes, his happiness was em- 
biUr- ath of his beloved wife. The belli 

esented him with their lectureship ; and 

after ace* ; an embassy to the queen of Bohemia, 

he became dean of St. Paul's and vicar 

of Sl Dun stands, bein^ then in the fifty-fourth year of bus 

intu a consumption, he was unable to perform 

il duties; but some enemy having hinted that he 

merv 1 illness because he was too idle to preach, be 

mounted his pulpit, and almost in a dying state, preached 

ulut Walton has called his ' own funeral sermon.' This 

r wards printed under the quaint title of 

'Death*? Duel.* From Ibis time he abandoned ail thoughts 

en had a portrait painted of himself, enveloped 

hich he kept m his bed -room. Shortly afier- 

njnli having exalted himself (accord 

, almost to a state of angelic beatitude. 

duess and piety of Donne there can be no 
doubt. But while we admire these genuine qualities, we 
not be blind to the superstitions and puerilities which 
I whh Donne's religion, though these might be 
i partially (but not wholly) to the age. There was 
leal of simplicity about him, as well as 
. raphcr Walton, who, enthusiastic in his ad - 
i weakness as much as his hero's most 
However, to those who wish to see cha- 
racters Uke Donne treated in the spirit of their own time, 
commend a more delightful hook than Wal- 
poeC Donne was one of those writers whom Johnson 
bat * >rdsworth f s expression) * atrangely' designated 

poets : a more infelicitous expression could not 
been devised. 
ie biography of Cowley, Johnson has committed an 
uauntentiunai injustice towards Donne. By representing 
Cewlcy's faults as the faults of a school, he brings film 

. ;» usages from other authors containing like faults, 

LX>nn< one of them. He lias previc cribed 

tbe - a set of cold unfeeling pedants, and hence the 

Doni worst lines cited in illustration of 

that remark, may easily imagine thai he never did any- 

g better, and set him down as a mere pedantic 


Ttw I it ' quaint conceits' are only the deformities 

i oetical spirit: the man himself had a rich vein 

of poetry, winch Was rarely concealed oven when most la- 

borvou*ls lnie some of his pieces, both for 

thought and eveu melody, are absolute gems, His Fault, 

?<>o much erutie fervour : he 

iiion to run loose into the most prurient 

exp id iit Mine of his amatory piece-, the coti- 

ive to their excessive warmth. His 

gh written in a measure inconceivably harsh, 

igth an d tr n c rgy . The i r me rits were dis- 

I to use his own odd phrase) trans- 


seal works, besides sermons, are 
-Martyr,' and a treatise against suicide, i 


We beg leave to call the attention of those readers who 

*s of their own language to one fact, and 

lie pieces of Donne, written in 

», are absolute music, what he has composed 

Hi the heroi is painfully uncouth and barbarous. 

Thus, though the invention of heroic verse took place at an 

tarty per. inbuted to Chancer), we find that a 

ICto. e in a highly cultivated state before this kind 

1 1 be written in perfection. 

M ut DOUM, a remarkable palmlree exclusively 

specially the neighbourhood of 

, Cncitera Thebaic a. Its stem* 

uj%t without branches like other palms, forks 

two or three times, thus assuming the appearance of a 

Pari be fruit is 

abjut the ftile of an orange, angular, irregularly funned, of 

a reddish colour, and has a spongy, tasteless, but nutritious 
rind. The albumen of the seed is hard and semitrans- 
parent, and is turned into beads and other little 0; 
merits, Gretmer described it under the name of Hyphamc 

DOOMS, FALSING OF, a term of the old Scots law, 
somewhat similar in import with appeal of false doom in 
the law of Eugland. A doom or judgment thus falscd or 
charged with injustice, was of old taken from the bailies of 
burghs to the court of Four boroughs, and from the court 
baron or freeholder's court to the court of the sheriff, thence 
to Che justice ay re, and thence to the parliament. But on 
the institution of the court of session, in 1532, anew method 
of review was established, the proceedings of the inlet 
court* being thenceforward carried Into the court of session 
i by advocation, suspension* awl reduction, a form of process 
derived from the tribunals of modern Rome, and from the 
court of session to parliament by protest for renieid of law, 
and now to the House of Lords by appeal* 

The civil jurisdiction of the court of justiciary declined 
immediately on the institution of the court of session. By 
the Jurisdiction Act, however, it) Geo. II., a power of appeal 
to a limited extent was again bestowed on the circuit court 
of justiciary, and a process of appeal laid down entirely in 
the spirit of the antient falsing of dooms. This method of 
appeal has, with some slight alterations, been continued to 
the present time. 

For the old falsing of dooms, see Stat. Hill c, 10 ; 1420, 
C, 116; 1471, c II ; J50:j, c. 95, 99. 

DOONG URPORE, a small principality, situated in tho 
district of Bagur and province of Gujerat, in a hillv tract, as 
to which but few particulars are known, Tins principality 
was formerly united to Odeypore, in Rajpooiami. and the 
I rajah of Doongurpore still claims seniority over the reigning 
reign of Odeypore, but this distinction is merely nomi- 
nal, and there is in fact no political connexion between the 
two rajahs. The greater part of the inhabitants of Doougur 
pore are ttheels, who are considered to be the Aborigines of 
the country. Some years ago the rajah to preserve bis 
authority, which was threatened by the more powerful 
among his subjects, took sotne hands of Sindes into his nay, 
but they soon usurped all power, and were proving de- 
structive to the country, when the rajah sought and obtained 
the protection of the ftnglish under whose intervention the 
country has recovered fiuni the desolate condition to winch it 
had been reduced. The town of Doongurpore, the capital, 
mated in 23° 54' N. lat. and 7T 5u'E. long.: about 'j:> 
miles north-east from Ahmedabad. A lake Dear Ibis Lown 
La iaid to hate its mounds constructed with solid blocks of 

DOOR and DOORWAY, the entrance leading into a 
public or private ediiice, and the opening or entrance way into 
an apartment or from one apartment to another. This why 
is closed with the door, which is generally made 
and hung to one of the sides or jambs of the doorway, 3fhe 
name door is from the Saxon part of our language, but il is 
one of those roots which occur also in the cognate languages, 
as the Greek and Latin. The doorway i ' i ill, or 

horizontal piece laid on the ground, the perpendicular piet 
architraves or iambs, called also by Vitrmius th 
pagmenta, and the lintel, or piece laid on the top of i!r> 
jambs. Accord ing t o V it r u v i us (iy. «4), w h o gives g one ra 1 
rules for the proponing oftbs portals of temples, the hvpo- 
thyron, or aperture for doors, should be as follows :— Xhe 
height from the pavement to the ceiling of the temple 
being divided into three parts and a half, two of the whole 
parts were allowed for the height of the door. These | 
parts were subdivided into twelve smaller parts, of w hub 
five and a half were allowed as the width of the door at the 
base; and the upper part was contracted according to the 
following rule*: il not more than 1ft feet high, the contrac- 
tion was one-third of the width of the jamb on the face; if 
the height mi more than Hi, and not exceeding 9 
fourth part of the width of the jamb only was employed; 
and fruni beyond 2a feet, and not exceeding 30 i 
eighth onlj- Doors higher in proportion were made per- 

The Egyptian doorway is perpendicular, and consists; of 
two fbt architraves of stone, with a tlat Lintel surmounted 
ba an astragal moulding, above which is a frieze terminated 
with a buhl cavetto and fillet. The doorway inclosed be- 
lt the architraves and lintel is narrow in its nropoitie 
The form of the door itself (if there ever \wi* gu< 




1 1 

mouldings over the lintels are of rare occurrence, as wel 
1 as the inclination of the jambs or their contraction at th 
tops : they occur however in the temple of Vesta at Tivol 
and of Hercules at Cora. The bronze door of the Pai 
theon at Rome, of which we have given a cut, is not w 
believe altogether an antique model. The bronze door c 
the temple of Romulus at Rome is however an antiqu 
door. (Donaldson on Doors, plates.) Some notion of th 

Egyptian Door from Denderah. 

The Greek doorway is often inclined inwards, or con- 
tracted at the top ; it has also a peculiar lintel or top-stone, 
with mouldings running round it and meeting the ends of 
the architraves, and forming two elbows, thus : 

Greek lintel bead, showing the manner in which the architrave moulding is 
formed round it. 

The mouldings of the architraves are delicately formed, 
and decorated with ornaments, and a frieze and cornice sup- 
ported on consoles are sometimes added. The decorations 
of the Erectheiuin doorway are very rich, but the size of our 
cut precludes the possibility of giving them. We have no 
exami le of the form and construction of a Gieek door. 

4 ^ 6 

Scale of Feet. 
Greek Dooiu-oy of the Erectheium ; from Donaldson'* work on Doors. 

The Roman doorway is formed on the model of the Greek, 
except that the elbows or projections of the architrave 

so 30 

Scale of Feet. 

Pantheon Door and Doorway ; from Donaldson's work on Doors. 

construction and panelling of antient doors may be derive 
from the above work. Many beautiful models of model 
doorways exist at Rome, and in various cities of Italy. . 
careful study of them cannot fail to improve the taste of tt 
architect. The modern bronze doors of the Baptistery i 
Florence and St. Peter's at Rome are unrivalled for the 
size, design, and beauty of workmanship. 

Wooden-framed doors, either single or double, consist « 
styles or upright side pieces, rails or horizontal piece 
tenoned into the styles, and panels or thinner pieces < 

CY-mmou frnvnt'd Door. 1, 1, 1, 1, panels; 2.2, styles; 3, 3, architrave, 
iambs ) 4, Hotel ; 5, 5, rails; 6, 6, 6, munnions; 7, sill. 


D O R 

let into groove* in the compartments formed by the 
together. Munitions, a corrup- 
arc short upright piece* let into the rails, 
often a moulding running round their 
both sides. Fur the technical terms 
rs, the reader may consult Nicholson's Die- 
enenu information on doors, the 
rk of T. L. Donaldson on Doors. 

Gothic Architecture,] 
» It NIK. [Tournay.] 
V" IK > (constellation), the sword-fish, a constellation 
the southern hemisphere) and cut 
i by a line joining a Argus and a Eridant. The 
rmpal stars are as follows. 






No. in Catalogue of 









DORAT, CLAUDE JOSEPH, was horn at Paris in the 
Having a considerable fortune he devoted himself 
ud produced a number of tragedies, which, 
we're successful, drew on him torrents of ridi- 
■i temporary wits. He seems however to 
reputation as a writer of the lighter class of 
cms. He hod a great passion for bringing out splendid 
<1 the cost of vignettes and tail 
bjs fortune. lie died in the year 1780, 
- of Dorat fill twenty volumes, hut they are 
■5 1 minted. La Harpe will scarcely allow him 
m The dt rale, a work on the pro - 
considered his chef d'eruvre ; 
ih wholesome nd. ice to | 
thing that can be called poetry, 
i re told with naivete* und hu- 
ihe best reputation, hut 
His dramas arc entire] 

served that the edition of the works of 

adorned with engravings supe- 


Uing his fortune oil 

i refuse tli i orb is due 

loice engravings were 

i m. 

sTER, gh and market-town, having 

i the division of Dorchester and 

by west from Lot- 

railed by the Romans ' Durnovaria,' and 
Malory of Dorsetshire, says 
firht ine Dorchester is from Dur, or 

cms tin* best opinion. 
Domceasl whence wc 

• I so been called 
gilis h it from Dorchester in Ox- 

4 Villa Episcopalis. 1 
Loo tJ Ickiucl'l street), it must 

til a ; importance in the time of the 

ished here by King At hel- 
ved by lire" in 1613: 31)0 
i [uly Trinity and All S. tints, 
is estimated by Hutchins 

,; in the vicinit) o( Dor- 
;tiid the parliamentary fu 
isixea held here 

and four olher 
of being impli- 
es reuelh und guihy and 
The following day 292 personsple 
y, and 10 were ordered Lr execution. John lutchiu. 

who wrote the 'Observator' in Queen Anne's time, was 
sentenced to be whipped tn every town in I lie county once 
a year, but on his petitioning to be hanged as a mitigation 
of his punishment) he was reprieved, and subsequently Dar- 

The manor of Dorchester has passed through the bauds of 
l -real many families, and in the llth year of the reign of 
King Henry IT, appears to have been the king's demesne 
borough, In the 1st of Henry V. the profits of the borough 
were confirmed to the burgesses at a fee -farm rent of - 
The rent was subsequently granted, and is now paid, to the 
Hardwicke fa mil v. 

The corporation claim a prescriptive rtefct, but they have 
charters of Edward III., Charles I,, an ms: 

the governing charier is that of the oth Charles L The 
assites and courts of quarter-sessions for t lu- count) and for 
the borough are held here; as well as a court of record 
a court hd. A high steward is appointed for life. 

The borough has returned two members to parliament 
since the 23rd year of the reign of King Edward L, but, by 
the Boundary Act, the boundaries are considerably ex- 
tended, and include Fordington, Colleton Row, and part of 
Trinity parish, and include a population of 4940 inhabitant- 
The population of the town itself is 3033, of whom 1552 
are females. 

The town of Dorchester is pleasantly situated on a slight 
elevation near the river Frome, and consists principal I 
three spacious streets, which are well paved and Ugh! 
A delightful walk, well shaded, surrounds two-thirds of ihe 
town. Races arc annually held here in September; and a 
rectod iu 182k. The shire hall is a plain 
building of Portland stone, and is cbromodioualy Hi ten up. 
The gaol, built in 1793, contains the g LOI, the ho 

of correction, and the penitentiary: the interior is divided 
into four wings, communicating by cast iron bridgi 

The trade is now very trifling, but in the reigns of King 
Charles I. and Jame> I. the manufacturing of cloth 
carried on to some extent: the market-days arc Saturday 
and Wednesday. There are fairs on Trinity Monday, St, 
John the Baptist's, and on St. James's daya ; the three last 
are principally for sheep and lambs, for which Do relic- 
is celebrated. A tract of Land, called Fordington Field, 
partly meadow, partly arable, surrounds a portion of the 
town; Ua soil Is particularly adapted tor the reeding of cat- 
tle, and it extends over a sin; n miles in circum- 
■ I tout any Enclosures. 

The town is divided into three parishes, All Saints (com- 
monly called All Hallows), St Peters, and the Holy Triniiy, 
and is in the archdeaconry of Dorset and diocese of Bristol. 
St. Peter's church contains some curious monuments, is 
spacious, well built, and consists of D chancel, have, aisles, 
and au embattled tower, 90 feet in height. The living of 
Trinity is by far the best, being now worth 4M)L a year* 
There are also places p for Baptist . Independents, 

Wesleyan Methodisis. and UnitariaJ 

A free grammar-school was founded and endowed by 
Mr. Thomas Hard) in the year la7'J, the government of 
which is vested in trustees. It has two exhibitions, of 
It)/, per annum, to St. John's College, Cambridge, and one 
per annum to any college of either University. A 
second school, founded prior to the grammar-school, was 
refounded m 1623 bj >n, the master of which 

ucts live boys I) in reading, writing, and 

arithmetic There , founded by Sir Robert 

Napier in 1 1- 1 o, by Matthew Chubb in 1619; and the W 
stone almshouses, hi the support of four couples, or four 
single persons. 

The town was strongly fortified and entirely surround. 1 
by a wall, when in pC of the Romans: and the Mle 

where an aulient castle ill called Castle Gr- 

The building itself wu totally demolished, an for 

Franciscan monks was constructed out of the materials by 
Chidiock (family, in the reien of Edward III., 
near the site of the old castle. The church of lit 
was pulled down at the Reformation, and the housi 
the residence of Sir Fran d was subsequently 

converted into a Presbyterian meeting-boil 

elated pavements, Roman urns, and a quantity of 
coins of Antoninus Pius, \ and 

other Roman emperors, have been duo; up in the vicinity 
of D 

DORDOGNE, a river in the south of France, rke^uv 
the department of Puy da \ftm«t wv 'Oaa &<^k oV^kafcX 


Dor, the summit of which (Pay lie Sancy, 6224 feet high) 
i a t he h ighest po i at of c e n I r;j 1 V r q n c e . Th e Do rd otf 06 1 1 
past the towns of B"rt, Ar^entat, and Beaiilicu, all in the 
department of Corrczc, to the junction of the Cere, 

From the junction of the ( unwe of the Dordogoe 

is westward: at Mayronne, 14 mdes below t lie jutM 
the navigation commences ; and at Limcuil, about 40 tnilei 
below Mayronne, the Dordoppne re> Veilfe, a navi- 

gable tributary, which rise* in the department of Gorreze, 
and has a south-western course uf about 100 miles, [Cor- 
keze/) At Li bourne, 70 miles Mow the junction of the 
i re, the Dordogne receives the Isle, its largest tribu- 
tary, which rises in the department of Vienne, and has a 
souih-wesr roorie of nearly lifl mile*. About JJ miles 
below the junction of the Itde, the Dordogne unites wiih 
the Garonne, and forms the actuary of the Gironde. 
Its whole length is about 240 to 231) miles, for more than 
1 30 of which it is navigable. The tide Hows up to Castillon, 
nearlv 90 miles above its junction with the Garonne r and 
s mutinies at spring tides, when the water iu the river is 
low, sets in with a violence which overwhelms everything 
The anchors of the boats and vessels moored in the stn am 
arc carried away, the cables broken, and the vessels wrecked, 
unless the owners have taken the precaution to place them 
in the middle of the channel, where the depth of the water 
diminishes the violence of the stream. This violent Mow 
of the tide is called Le Ma&mret ; the noise which it makes 
may be heard as far off as seven or eight miles. [Bore-] 

The Dordogne is noticed in the writings of Ausonius 
and Sidonius ApolHnaris, in the 4th and ath centuries 
under the name of D uramus. Gregory of Tours, in the 
6th century, calls it Dorononia; and Eginhard (9th cen- 
tury) Dornonia. Dordonia, the Latinized form of Dordogne, 
first appears in the writings ofAymuin or Aimoin in the 
etld of I he 10th or beginning of the 1 1th century. 

DORDOGNE, a department in the south *of France, 
taking its name from the river just described. Its figure 
approximates to that of an equilateral triangle, having its 
dflM respectively facing the S., N.E. and N.W. It is 
bonded on the N. and N.E. by the department of Haute 
•nne; on the E /by that of Correze; onthe* I hat of 
1 : | on the S. by that of Lot and Garonne ; on the S.W. by 
that of Gironde; on the W« (for a very short d lit a nee > b) 
of Charente Inferieure ; and on the N.W. by that of Cha- 
rente. Its greatest length from N. to S. is about 90 
and its greatest breadth from E. to W. about 71 mile-. The 
area of the department, according to M. Malte Bruit, is 3640 
iqwi miles ; rather more than llie joint area of the English 
counties of Norfolk and Suffolk : the population in 1 832 was 
483;7ft0 fBOt more than 12-lTths of the population of the 
two English counties just mentioned), giving 133 inhabi- 
tants to a square mile, Perigueux, the capital, on the Isle, 
(population In 18.12, 8700 for the town, or 895f» for the 
me,) is about 2'">4 miles in a straight line 
YV\ of Paris, or 294 miles by the road through Orleans, 
Yiorzon, Chfiteauroux, and Limoges. 

There are no very lofty hills in this department. The 
hill*, which run N.W, from the mountains of Auvergne 

1 ofTa subordinate chain which just crosses the ivu r 
pari of the department near N outrun. Other hills of lower 
elevation traverse the department, and form, except in the 
of the two great rivers, the Dordogne and the Isle, 
nm •,. -, which are liable to be inundated and da- 

mn, floods. The department is watered by the Dor- 

. Ut«h pttSM through it from B. to \V. ; ami is 
throughout this part of its course. The Veritas 
tl s hi- department from that of Correze, and flows post 
Montignac. where it becomes navigable into the Dotdogne. 
Th jiartment of Haute Vienne, and en- 

tering that of Dordogne on the N.E., flows through it in a 
S.W, direction, until it enters the department of Gir i 

miles above its junction with the Dordogne. The 

rises in the department of Haute Vienne, and 

that of Dordogne, Hows through it or alon^ the 

ier until it enters the department of Gironde^ and 

unite! with the Isle. These are the principal rivers. Of 

!er ones, the Nizonne, which receives the Belte and 

the Pule, falls into the Dronne ; as dn also the Bouhni 

and the Colic : the Loue, the Haute ^ hich rises 

En the department of Coireze), the Veni, llie . and 

the I lurche, fill into the Lde : the Beune falls into 

the Vezere; and the Mtht, the Ceeo, the Oouie, the 

Coudou united with the Louire, into the Dordogne ' the 


Bandiat, in the northern part of the department, belongs to 
the basin of the Charente, and the Dropt and the Allemarec, 
in the southern part, to that of the Garonne. 

*The soil is far from productive: the calcareous rock often 
presents its bare suiface, or is coveted only with heath, 
broom, and chestnut-trees, which occupy immense 
Sometimes the continuity of these arid lands is broken 
only by the intervention of marshes, R:eh and 
occur, as it were, accidentally in the midst of this i 
The grain harvests would be insufficient for the 
the inhabitants, were they not eked out by the use of rhest* 
nuts as food : but of the produce of the vineyard- 
half is sold as wine or con vertex! into brandy for expt ; 
The mineral wealth of the department is eomiderv 
consists of pit coal, manganese, and several other m 
especially iron, But that which cut i lies this department 
to the consideration of epicures is the white* win 
rac, the delicacy * 1 the pork, the ahundance of red part r 
the excellent pike which are found in the ponds, the liqueurs, 
the fine confectionary of Perigueux* and,, above all, the 
truffles which the district round that town affords/ 

The department contains 635 communes, and is divirled 
into Jive arrondissements or sub-prefectures, viz., IVi 
central (101,527 inhabitants) ; Nontron, in the north i 
inhabitants) ; Bergerac, in the youth { 1 1 7 i 
Sarlat, in the east (109,430 inhabitants); and Rib« 
the west (72,774 inhabitants). Of the towns, Peri^ucux 
and Bergerac on the Dordogne (population, 596G for the 
town, 8557 for the whole commune,) are described in their 
respective articles. 

Sarlat is between the Dordogne and the Yez£re T on i 
brook which flows into the former and in a deep \ alley, 
The neighbourhood abounds with copper and iron rnmet 
coal-pits, and mill-stone quarries. The populati 

J was 3917 for the town, or 6056 for the whoh 
muiie. The inhabitants are engaged in paper. 

Though it is so small a place, Sarlat was 1 e Revo- 

lution a blab The bishop was a suffragan of the 

archbishop" of Bordeaux Snrlat wa^ one of the 
holds of the Huguenots, and was twice besieged in the 
religioui wars of the sixteenth century. 

Riberac is on the left or south bank of the Dronne in a 
fertile plain, iu which corn and hemp are grow 
to Bordeaux* There are at Ribcrac the re: 
strong castle, once belonjjin^ to the viscounts of 7*ui 
The population of the whole commune in 1832 w; 
that of the town is not distinguished Ribcrac is not on 
near any main road. 

Nontron is on the Bandiat, in the nortt irn part of 
department. The inhabitants amounted in I 
for the town, or 3'24n for the whole commune. They 
nufactu re leather and common cutlery, and carry on I 
in the iron produced by the mined and wrought in 
forges of the surrounding country. 

Beside the above, which 
menU, there arc in the north, St, Jea , on 

river Colle; Mareuil and Thhicrs, on the D< 
Roche -Beaueour* on the Nixonne. The la^t : 
from Paris to Perigucux, 20 or 2 1 miles from the la 
and consists of one crooked, steep and ill paved *i: 
ill-built house!?. The situation however is pleasai 
inhabitants are given by \ \ T il tiers (a. d. i 

lootl. Many sheep, whose flesh is in good * 
in the neighbourhood. In the eastern part there 
ckleuil, near the Loue, Terrasson and Monti] 

e t and St. Cvprien on the Dordogne, Monttgnae h 
in 1832 a population of *2ti*29 for the town, and 39*22 for the 
whole commune : the navigation of the Vczere begins liere. 
Terra>son is on the road from Perigueux to Briv< 
Tulle. St had in \s31 a population of 1 

(he town, or §3Ffi for the whole commune. 

In the western part are St. Aulaye and La Roeh 
: Chalais, on the Dronne, and La Tour Blanch 
the source of the Pude; and Villefninche-deLouehi 
tween the Isle and the Dordogne : these are all very- small 

uth are Eymet, on the Dropt; Beau 
on the Couze ; I^sigeac, Belves, Biron, Monpazier, and another 
V die tranche. Be Ives had, in 1832, a population ol 
for the town, or 2363 for the whole commune, A 
derahle quantity of nut-oil is made here, Biron was a 
barony held by the Mar6chal de Biron, one of the 
supporters of flenry IV., and was made a duchy in 




■ son of the Marechal, who was afterwards beheaded 
icy against Henri. 
centre of the department are Branloine and 
, on the Dronne; St. Astier, on the Isle; and La 
ha Dordo^ne. Bran tome has a population of 
According to the * Dictionnoirc Universelle 
■■' r \.i\ 1304>, the manufactures of Brantomc 
wry, and cotton and woollen yarn. There 
place a Benedictine abbey, founded by Charte- 
rer. This abbey was held in commendam by 
i de Bourdeillcs, author of the well-known * Mem or res 
Bl0oae.' Tbe town of Bourdeilles is snid hy ExpiBy 
ve an untient castle. The inhabitants of the town 
ling to the * Diclionnaire Universe! le, 1 engaged 
gea and other light woollens, and cotton hose, 
from the bourir or small town of Miremont, near 
H a cavern whose ramifications extend for 
-. Another cavern, that of Mussidan, in 
► partment, is remarkable for the fountain 
i^hes from it and forms a cascade. 

lie department forms the 

e of Perigueux, the bishop of which is a suffragan of 

op of Bordeaux: for the administration of 

tded in the jurisdiction of the Cour Royale 

military affairs it is comprehended 

if tiit» eUtenth division, of which the head- qua iters are at 

Ite&z*. seven members to the Chamber of 

Dtputte*. (Make Brun; Balbi; Vaysse de Villiers.) 

la respect of education, this department is rather behind 

'•lit average of France. M. Dupin assigns to it, in the 

fiart *\ to his ' Forces Produc lives, &c> de la 

Pri&ce 1827), one male child at school to 


IECHT. [Dort.] 

DRE'A, was born in 146G at Oneglia, in 
tat *esl ra of Genoa, of an antient noble family, 

a belonged as an imperial lief. Having 
^s at an early age, Doria embraced the pro- 
fit lion of arms, served under several princes in various parts 
vfltaii, and lastly entered the service of Francis I*» who 
of bis licet in the Mediterranean, 
Genoa Lad V I >ng time distracted by factions, which 

M br- rider J he dominion or protection, as it was 

tsconti and Sforxa, dukes of Milan. The 
g conquered the duchy of Milan, placed a 
i in tienoa, upon condition of respecting the liber- 
ris, a promise which they kept with the 
i conquerors* The citizens were oppressed hi 
■ 1 Doria having remonstrated with the 
*$ruu of Francis in behalf of his countrymen, a tecrat 
veercarnc for his arrest, just after his nephew and lieu- 
i Doria, had gained an important vie ton' 
ver the imperial fleet near the coast of 
Kink* The French were then besieging Naples 

bf had- Rarbezieux, a French naval ofticer, was sent to 
Genoa vith twelve galleys to seize on the person of Andrea 
Pro, who, having had intimation of this design, retired into 
ta? gulf of La Spezia, sent for his nephew to join him with 
tW galleys whirh he hadYittcd out at his own expense, and 
Afvd hi* aerrices to Charles V., who received him with 
aam arms. Doria stipulated with Charles that Genoa, as 
uq as 1 from the French, should be restored to its 

^dependence under the imperial protection, but no foreign 
prrj»on or government should be admitted into it. At the 
am* tine he engaged to serve the emperor with twelve 
alleys ntud out by himself, which number was afterwards 
naei to fifteen* for which Charles agreed to pay him 
*Mm»o dueata a year. Dona soon after appeared before 
Geaoa wills his 1> Iron, and being favoured by tbe 

aaUotant*. be obtained possession of the city, and drove the 
Fftorh away* It is said that Charles offered him the sove* 
: but Doria preferred a nobler course. He 
ft-erpuHsavd tbe government of the republic, and, in order 
lie named a certain number of 
nobles and citizens, out of which the legislative 
to be chosen annually. New families might be 
the number from time to time. A Siguoria, or 
\leen, with a Doge, renewed every two years, 
fwajp»te4 the executive, and five censors were appointed 
-t iv« year* as guardians of the laws. Doria was appointed 
era** iur hfe. with the title of ' Father and Liberator of his 
caaairv/ , He now resumed his naval career as admiral of 
Cbarie* V., and distinguished himself against the Turks 
P, C, No. $42, 

and the Barbavy pirates. He cseorted Charles V. to the 
expedition of Tunis in 1535, and contribu tfy to l ho 

taking of the place. In 1538 he joined the Venetian Jleet 
off Corfu, when he lost the opportunity Of attacking; with 
every chance of success, the Turkish armament cotnmrui 
by the famous Barbarossa. [RAitBAttOssA; Kiiuit BnoiwJ 
His conduct on the occasion was attributed to secret in- 
structions from the emperor. In I.>41 Doiia conmianded 
the Heel in the expedition of Charles \ en, 

fVom which he is said to have tried in vain to dtwmtfle 
emperor. It turned out as he had foreseen, and he could 
only save the emperor with a small part of the army. In 
his old age, Doria retired to Genoa, where he lived in gr 
splendour and reputation, the first among ail fellow-citizens, 
respected by all. and consulted upon all matters of import- 
ance. Charles V, created him Prince of Melfi and Tarsi 
the kingdom of Naples. At the beginning of 1547 his life 
was threatened by the conspiracy of Fieoehi: bis ncj.l? 
Giannettino was murdered, but Andrea escaped, and Ftescni 
perished in the attempt. A few months afer a fresh con- 
spiracy wan formed against him by Giuiio Cibo, a Genoese 
emigrant, who however was die<&f6ffed and executed. In 
154y some of the ministers of the emperor proposed to build 
a tui tress, and introduce a Spanish garrison, m Genoa, 
un der t h e pre t e n ce o f pre ve n I i D g an y n e w co 1 1 but 

the Genoese appealed lo Doria, who interposed and pre- 
virited the execution of the project In 1362 Dona, then 
»-i_'hty-five years old, went to sea again, to attack his old 
enemies the Turks, who, under Dra^nl Reis, were nftagiflf 
the coast of Naples. Dona last some of his galleys, which 
were surprised by the Turks, but Draizut sailed away for the 
Levant. In 1656 he resigned his command lo his nephew, 
Gian Andrea Doria, who was confirmed as admiral by Philip 
II. Andrea Doria died in his palace at Genoa in Non 
lav, 1560, being then ninety-four yearn of age. He left no 

. and no very large fortune, owing to his splendid v 
of living and generous disposition. The Genoese paid gri 
honours to his memory, and lamented his death as a public 
calamity. Doria was one of the greatest ch 
Italy produced during the middle ages, and one of the few 
thnt were fortunate to the last. Several 
family have distinguished themselves at various | 
the service of rhe republic of Genoa. A branch of the Doria 
family are settled at Rome, with the title of princes, (Casoni, 
Annul i di Genova ; Bolt a, Storm tT liaHtu) 

DORIANS, the most powerful of the Hellenic trii 
derive their origin from a mythical personage named Dorus, 
who is generally made the son of Hellen, though he is 
described as the son of Xtithus by Euripides (Ion., 169 
Herodotus mentions (I, 32) five aureussite migrations of 
this race. Their first settlement was in Phlhiotia, in the 
time of Deucalion; the next, under DtvtUj in Ilestia* 
at the foot of Ossa and Olympus; the third od Mount 
Pindus, after they had been ex|ielle<l by the Cidma'ans from 
Hestiiootis* In this settlement, gays Herodotus, the\ weio 
called the Macedonian people ; and he elsewhere (vim 43) 
attributes to the Dorians a Macedonian origin; but t'i: 
does not appear to have been any real connexion between 
the Dorians and the Macedonians (who, it has been shown, 
were of Illyrian extraction: Miiller, Dur., i., p 2t beyond 
this vicinity of abode. The fourth settlement of tin-- 
Dorians, according to Herodotus, was in Dryopis (aii 
wards calk?tl IheDorianTetrapulisi; and their last migratnr* 
was to the Peloponnese. An most remurkable 

expedition, not mentioned by Herodotus, was the vuyago 
of a Dorian colony lo Crete, which is stated to bai 
place while they were in their second lettlonwd at the fe 
of Olympus {Androm.apud Strabvn., p 47J> Dj j mid Do- 
rians are mentioned among the inhabitants of that tsland 
even by Homer {Od, xix., 174). The eastern coast was the 
first part which they occupied. (Staphyhw apud Stral 
p. 475 C.) This early settlement in Crete mufti nol be 
confused with tbe two subsequent expeditions of the Dm 
to that island, which took place after they were well settled 
in the Peloponnese, the one from Lnconia under ttfe 
guidance of Pollis and Delphus, the other from Atl; 
under Altlimmenes. The migration of the Dorians to the 
Peloponnese, which is generally colled "the return of 
descendants of Hercules,' is expressly stated to have oc- 
curred 80 years after the Trojan war, & c. in 1 1 04 n. c. 
I (Thucyd. u 120 Th e origin and nature of the roniu 

t which subsisted between the Heracleidie and llie Don 
are involved in much obscuritv. The Dorians mn \twva. 
1 ' NouA^-^ 




very early times divided into three tribes* and the epithet 
thrice-divided (rpigaiVff) is applied to them by Homer in 
the passage referred to above. These three tribes were called 
the Hv Hasans, the Dymanes, and the Pamphylians. Now 
I Jin two la Her tfiboe are said to have descended from Dymas 
and Pamphylus, the two sons of jEginiius, a mythical 
Doric king, and the first claimed a descent from Hyllus, the 
ten of Hercules, 

An attempt has been made to show that the HyHseans 
were of Doric origin as well as the other two tribes rMullor 
Dor. Li chap. 3, see. 2), but we arc inclined to infer from 
the traditions as well as fmtn the duplicate divinities of the 
Dorians, that the genuine Dorians were included in the two 
other tribes, and that the Heracleidse were a powerful 
Aehiean family united with them in a similar manner, but 
by a stronger tie than the jfituliana under Oxylus, who are 
also said to have taken part in this expedition. The Hera- 
cleidas then, with their /Etolian and Dorian allies, crossed 
the Corinthian gulf from Naupactus, invaded and subdued 
EIim, which was assigned to the M toll an chieftain, and 
bending their steps southward, conquered successively and 
with greater or less difficulty, Messenio, Lacontca, Argolis, 
Corinth, and M6garis. In Laconiathey were joined by the 
Cadmseaii clan of the M%v\vo, who assisted them in their 
tedious war with Amy cl as and afterwards took a part in the 
colonies to Tbera and Cyrene. [Bceotia and CyrenkJ 
This invasion, which so materially affected the destinies of 
Greece, was very similar in its character to the return of 
tho Israelites to Palestine, The invaders, who, like the 
descendants of Abraham, brought their wives and children 
with them, though they perhaps did not completely aban- 
don their last settlement, which was still called and con- 
sidered Dorian (Thucyd. i. 107), numbered about *20,u00 
fighting men on the highest estimate. (Miiller, Dor. i, 
chap. 4, sec. 8.) They were, therefore, very inferior in 
number to tho inhabitants of the countries which they con- 
quered ; but the superiority of their peculiar tactics ensured 
them fta easy victory in the field, and they appear to have 
taken all the strong places either by a long blockade or by 
some lucky surprise ; for they were altogether unskilled in 
the art of taking walled town a. 

The government* which the Dorians established in all the 
< amines which they thus invaded and conquered was, as 
might have been expected, very analogous to that which 
the Norman invasion introduced into England, namely, an 
:<»fracy of conquest; for while the successful invaders 
remained on a footing of equality among themselves, all the 
old inhabitants of the country were reduced to an inferior 
•■■"•nliiiou, like the Saxons in England. They were called 
irffiioiw, or * dwellers round about the city, 1 a name corro* 
spuudmg exactly to ihePfahlburger, or * citizens of the Ml* 
side,* at Augsburg, who dwelt in the city suburbs without 
the wall of the city ; to the 'pale* in Ireland before the time 
of James I.; to the people of the contada in Italy; and to 
the fnuxbourgeois in France, (Niebuhr, Hist, of Home, 
i, p, 398, Bog. tr. ; Arnold's Thttcydides, U p. 628 ; and 
BorghM Origin* delta Citta di Firenze, p. 280, ed. 1584.) 
All the members of the one class were gentle, all those of 
r class were eimple. The constitution of B porta in 
particular was an aristocracy of conquest as far as the rela- 
tion* between the Spartans and Lacedemonians were con- 
. d, while the Spartans themselves lived under a demo- 
v with l wo head magistrates, who were indeed called 
kings, but possessed very Hi tie kingly power The usual 
name for a constitution in a Dorian state was an order 
or regulative principle (oflepec), and this name appears 
t<> have arisen from the circumstance that the attention of 
the Dorian legislators was principally, if not solely, dim 
to the establishment of a system of military discipline and 
to the encouragement of that strict subordination whi. 
the result of it. To bring this about the Dorian population 
I continually engaged in public choral dances, in which 
the evolutions of an army were represented, and which 
served as a rehearsal for actual war. These dances were 
professedly in honour of the Dorian god, Apollo, who was re- 
presented as the inventor of the lyre, their original accom- 
paniment, and also as a god of war, and of civil government. 
as presiding over the Delphian Oracle, which regulated all 
the Dorian law systems ; but this is merely an expression 
of the fact that music was an important instrument in Mm 
civil and military organization of a Dorian state, Apollo 
had a duplicate in his sister Artemis, and this, as we have 

Two hinted, points to an anuent division of the Dorian race 

intc two distinct tribes, (See Niebuhr, Hi it. o/ Borne, k 

p. '117, comp. p. 224.) The necessity for such a religion, 
and such a system of worship depending upon it, is to be 
explained by the peculiar relation subsisting betw< 
Dorians and their ■wfaarc. It was by superior prow 
discipline that they had acquired their rank, and it w 
by a continuance of this superiority that they could 1 
maintain themselves in the same position. Accordii _ 
was important that while the bulk of the population wis 
occupied as much as possible in agricultural employments, 
the Dorian aristocracy should enjoy sufficient leisure sad 
have every inducement of religion and amusement to prsa* 
tise those martial exercises in which it was so needful for 
them to excel, The same occasion for strict discipline miy 
also account for the extraordinary austerity which prevailed 
in most Dorian communities. The Dorian women 
a degreo of consideration unusual among tile 
The Syssitia, or common tables, which were establ 
most Dorian states, were designed to admonish those 
privileged class that, living as they did in the ro " 
conquered but numerous population, they must not 
themselves to have any individual existence, but must 
only for the sake of their order (rlff/ioc t. 

In addition to the Dorian settlements which have 
already mentioned, this race sent out many colonic*: 
these the most important were established along the 
west coast of Asia Minor, Rhodes, Cyprus, ( 
Sicily also boasted a Dorian population ; Byrantiu 
Chalcedon were Megarean colonies; and the eel 
cities, Tarentum and Crotona, in Italy, were founded 
the authority of Sparta, 

The reader will find a full discussion of all questions 
lating to the history and peculiarities of the Dorian 
Miiller's/Jr/nVr, Breslau, 1824 (translated into Engli 
additions and improvements bv the author, O 
in the second chapter of K. 1*\ Hermann's £eY 
Griechischen StaaUalterthumer, Heidelberg, lb.3G, 
ieted, Oxford, 1836 ; and in Lachmann's 
Staataverfaesung* Breslau, 1836.) Dr. Lac hm ami 
the view which we have given of the original two-fol 
sion of the Dorians, but considers the two first tribes 
been tho Hylln?ans and Dy manes, the Pamphylian 
made up of volunteers who joined the expedition to 

DORIC DIALECT, a variety of the Greek la 
peculiar to the Dorion race. It was spoken in the 
Telrapolis; in the greater part of the Peloponnese ; 
numerous Dorian colonies in Italy, Sicily, and Asia 
in Crete, jEgina, Rhodes, Melos, Corcyra, anil 
a written language it i-^ divided by grammar) 
classes, the old und new Doric. In the former Knichi 
-Sophron, and Alcman wrote; in the latter Thi 
Bton and Moschus. The lyric poets in general wrote 
Doric dialect ; hut Pindar, perhaps the greatest o! i 
all events the best known to us* wrote a language " 
upon the epic or Ionic dialect, but witb a liberal use of 
and M otic forms. (Hermann^ LHalecto Pindari, Q\ 
L n. 247.) The choruses in the Attic plays are 
a kind of Doric ; which circumstance (as well as tho 
Doric words by Pindar, a Thoban) is to be HMoUM 
by the Dorian origin of lyric poetry; for as Ho 
although a Dorian, wrote his history, which is a 
epic; in the Ionic dialect, because that was the pre 
lan^uape for epic poetry, so all writers of odes adop 
Done more or less, because the oldest lyric 
written in that dialect. The existing monuments 
pure Doric, in addition to the fragments of the old 
which have been carefully collected* are the apeci 
the comedies of Aristophanes, the treaties and 
quoted by the Athenian historians and orators, and 
i ions collected by Chandler, Musioxidi, and 
The peculiarities by which the Dorian diui 

from the other varieties of th* 
are to be attributed to the mountain life of th#9| 
their earliest settlements, We always find a tendi 
the formation of broad vowel sounds in the la 
mountaineers, and this fondness for the a and 
Dorians generally used where i? and ov were 
dialects, and also their aversion to sibilants, is 
analogous to what we observe in other language! 
spoken both by highlanders and lowlanders. 
the article in the Greek language is attributable 
Dorians, the poetry of Alcman having first imrodu 




literature of Greece. The older language, 
•i th« Aolian or Pelagian, and tq wl ordiug 

^ pp. 333 and 6 "9. ibe Dune bora tli 3 atkra 

ro the Ionian, was entirely without the 
at we may see in the Latin branch of it On the 
dialect the reader may consult in addition to Mait- 
Od Gregory of Corinth, who have written on the 
ijaJecls in general, the excellent remarks of Muller, 
r, vol* It, Appendix viii, p. 484, &c, English trans- 
it DER. [Civil Arch iti-ctij jus ; Column.] 
us), a genu* of orach) urc 
:*gin£? to the subdivision which have the 
urlh and fifth pairs elevated on the back, and 
ti with paddles, and the eyes supported u; on 
iclM tfwtopoda). The genus U adopted by 
Lanusrck, Leach, Bosc, and Risso; it is tip 
us of Vosmaer* and was comprehended under the 
■ -icer b> Linmuus, Herbsl, Aldrovandu*, 

charai'ier, — External antenna rig, se- 

n which are 

ot enlirel) lodged in the cavities where 
n: third joint of the external jaw- 
res) straight, elongated, terminated in a 
stfcu** opening triangular ; claws (ehelaei small, 
ma I ; the other feet very long and compressed 
lit Wing the greatest; the two last pair elevated 
Wilt, and terminated by a small hooked nail, 
i folded back upon the next joint: carapace 
distressed (the sides wider posteriorly than they are 
truncated, and spinous before; truncated', si- 
bordered behind; the surface marked with 
le% which correspond exactly to tho 
•roper t» tlie soft parts beneath: two great oblique 
m Cabaiutt edges, communicating With the 

si •» -situated below the head, one at the 

the other at the left of the mouth: inferior and pot* 
part uf the body truncated into a kind of gutter to 
tb* reflected abdomen, the pieces of which are no- 
or tuberculous: eyes small, lateral, supported op 
ape peduncles, placed near the angles of the head, 
tad by its angular projections, which form the 
■rbits. (Desraarest.) 
tapKuxd Distribution.— Probably wide on the sea- 
af narm climates, where the water is deep. The 
1 Adriatic seas, and Manilla, are among 

veil known. The species haunt great depths 
tea, nor has it yet U I whether they make 

ited on thu back to cover them 
Orvmiit with foreign bodies, 1 1 is however very 
thai such is their 
d«\ Dortf/fi* I an* da, Latrcille, Lamarck; Dot 

>r lanatuS) Lin nee us; Cancer far 
I us. 
dentations in the front and a very 

and ihi Wider of the orbit. A abort 

the middle of each fide of the carapace, A uterior 

tbe thighs of the second and third pair of feel 

Kiifn. of the eh aprowri and 

in, having their internal rmed with a 

tlontdaiiono, which are rather strong, oblique, 
od white. Bod) often covered with reddish down. 

L'traitit/,— the Mediterranean and the Adriatic. The in* 
habitant* of Rimini call it Fucchitm* (DesmaresL) 
Fossil Doripps? 

Desmarest (Histoire Naturelle dos Crustacea Fossil es, 
1822), describes a species, Dorippe Bissoana, which baa 
resemblance to the species above figured and described, 
anrl still more to 'the crab figured by Herbst under tbe 
name of Cancer Frascone; and above all, to a specie* 
brought from New Holland by Per on, and named Dorippe 
nodosa. Deamarest observes that be is the more inclined 
to consider it as approaching very near to this last, » 
much aa he had thought that the specimen which he 
described might not be in reality fossil. In fact, he adds, 
that though brown and shining, like tho fossd crabs which 
come from the East Indies, it is much lighter, more friable, 
and not so much imbedded in the clay as they are. In his 
^derations Generates sur la Classe do* Crustacea,' 
OMtV) ho describes the Dorippe & quatr* deals with the 
synonyms Dorics quadriden$ t Fact, Latt. , Doftfftf 
daea* Coll. du Mus. ; Cancer Frascone, Herbst. * This 
Dorippe from tho East Indies' tie adds • has lately been 
brought from Manilla by M. Marion de Pro* e, li so much 
resembles a species which 1 have described with i] 
fossil, I hot I know not how precisely to point out the dif- 
ference. This species belongs to M. Detrain o, who has 
slated its characters in the article "Dorippe 1 (fossd) of the 
Diet, iles So. Nl 


DO HOG, a market town of eastern Hungary, in what 
is called the ' Haydn V arose k,' or privileged district of the 
Haydukes, lying north • torn 

q! that district, in 47° 30' N. 1st. and 21° W* E. long, (ac- 
cording to the Austrian quartermaster-general a map). It 
contains about 920 houses and 66 50 inhabitants. 

DORP AT, or DOERPT. a circle in the north-eastern part 
of the Russian government of Livonia, bounded on the 
north by Eatbonia, and lying in the large subdivision of 
the empire, called ' The Provinces of the Eastern Sea,' or 
Baltic. It has an area of about 4'J57 square miles, and 
contained, in 1792, 130.904 inhabitants; in 181*, 14U;6Wi; 
and in 1833, 1 79,819. There are 2 towns (Dbrpt, or Dot | 
and Yerroe), 20 parishes, 206 equestrian estates, and lfe&31 
small farms in the circle. Ridges of low hills and gentle 
eminences occur alternately with lakes, streams, marshes, 
forests, and cultivated plains: the largest lake, next to its 
eastern boundary, lake Peipus* the western side of which, 
tofrelhor with a portion of the bay of Pskow, belongs to 
this circle, is the Viiraycrva, which is navigable, and dis- 
charges its waters through the river Em bach into tbe 
Peipus. Independently of tho Little Embach, which enters 
lake Viirsyerva from tho south, and the Great EmUich, 
which flows out of that lake iftfti the Peipug, and is navi- 
gable from the town of Dorpet, the circle has no streams of 
any note ; one of them, the S eh var sheen, contains peurls. 
The forests are uf considerable extent, and in conjunction 
with the cultivation of buckwheat, tlax and hemp* and the 
fisheries, afford employment to the people. A considerable 
quantity of cattle are reared. The only meclumeal occu- 
pations are sawing timber, for which there are In mills, and 
making potashes, and a small quantity of paper. Vcrim, 
the second town, which lies on a lake in hV 4*V N\ lal. and 
B|° 3' E. long., has a Lutheran and a Greek church, and 
about 3500 inhahitm 

DOKPATtor DOERPT (in Esthonian.Tart Ling, and in 
Livoman, Tebrpata), the chief BUTole, is ssgirssi 

situated at the foot and on the declivity of an emintn 
part of a range of hills, about 200 feet high, which ri»c ab- 
ruptly from the spacious plain below, and is built on each 
bank of the Great Embach, in ,0s^ gff N. lat. and tfti J 42' 
E. long., 290 vcrsta (about 193 miles) north-east of Riga, 
The river is crossed by a handsome bridge of granite of three 
umpire arches, and the town, which is embellished with 
gardens, forms a semicircle, laid out in straight broad 
ts, which are kept vtry elean, and tidonied with some 
handsome public buildings of freestone, |artieularly tho 
rnment offices and university buildings. The hm 
: runted either of bricks or wood, the walls and roofs of 
which are painted in sln»wy colours, do not in general in 
one story in height The eminence, at tlte north-western 
extremity of the town, is approached from one of the prin- 
cipal squares, and laid out in avenues and walks t tho 
summit is called the ' Place of the Cathedral,' from its 
having been the site of a cathedral which was burned down 




in the great Are of 1775, and is at present (be site of an 
admirably supplied with instruments by the 
astronomer, Dr. 8 trim, as well as of the uni- 
versity library and medical school, In the middle of the 
sixteenth century Dorpat had a rathedral and seven 
churches within the walls, besides three outside of them, 
but at present it has only one Lutheran and one Greek 
churidt. In 1782 it had 546 houses and 36U3 inhabitants ; 
in Is 16 the population had increased to 7376; and at 

firesent the number of nouses is about 1200, and the popu- 
ts about 11,000. In 1833 it was 10,802; viz., SOU 
male* and 5791 females; and in 1835 the births were 772 
and the deaths 653. Internal trade, the navigation of the 
Ktnbach, and the wants of those who are connected with 
the university afford employment to the people of the town. 
1 hrv also hold a large annual fair in January for the sale 
of Russian and foreign manufacturer The university was 
founded in 1632 by Gustnvus Adolphus, at a time when 
Livonia, Esthonia, and Ingrin, belonged to the Swedish 
crown, but was suppressed by Alexis Michaelovitsh in 1656. 
The Swedes having however recovered possession of Livonia, 
it pat re-established in 1690: ID l§#9 they transferred it to 
Pernau; and in December, ISO 3, it was reconstituted by 
i [ti^ror Alexander for the benefit of Livonia, Est ho nia, 
and Cmjrland, the nubility of which elect a curator or super* 
inteudcnr, who, conjointly with its heads, administers its 
revenue, which amounts to about 5SU07. a year (126^000 
roubles). The university, which is open to students of every 
religious persuasion, consists of the fuur faculties of theology, 
law, mcilicine, and philosophy; bus .10 professors, and is 
attended by about S*u students. It has a library of nearly 
(10,000 volume*, and suitable collections fur natural and 
experimental philosophy, mineralogy, zoology, anatomy, and 
pathology, &c>; a botanical garden, clinical institutions, 
u theological and a philological seminary, an establishment 
for educating Russian professors, a gymnasium, and a 
bool for educating teachers in ihe elementary schools, 
"ublic education throughout Livonia, Esthonia, and Cour- 
liiinl. it under the direction of the University of Dorpat. 
DOUR-HAWK, [Goatsuckers^ 
BO RSKT. [S A ck vi l r, B.] 

DORSETSHIRE, an English county, bounded on the 
east by Hampshire, on the north by Wiltshire, on the north- 
mersetshire, and on the west by Devonshire: 
liern borders it is washed by the English 
ha n net. Dorsetshire is for a short distance separated 
in Hampshire by a rivulet which joins the Avon of Wilt- 
hire and Hampshire above Christchurch: fur a short 
inited from Somersetshire by the Ivcl or 
Ye), and the brooks that run into it; and in the west it is 
ponied from Somersetshire and Devonshire by the Axe 
id some small streams that run into that river. 
The form of the county is very irregular, and one small 
< liiiiely detached from the rest and inclosed by 
vonshire. Its greatest length is from east to west, from 
Alderholt, near Fordingb ridge, in Hampshire, to the western 
xtremity of the detached part, which is inclosed within the 
iry of Devonshire, 57 or 56 miles: but from the 
rraguUr course of the boundary, the line joining these two 
oints is not wholly in Dorsetshire. The breadth from 
j south varies much; the greatest breadth is from 
the spot where the river Stour enters Dorsetshire to Port- 
land Bill or Point, 40 miles: at the eastern extremity, 
along the Hampshire border, the breadth is 16 miles; at 
i extremity near Lyme Regis, only 5 miles. 
The area, as given in the table in Arrowsmith's large map 
of Kugland and Wales, and in the population returns, is 
1006 square miles, or 643,640 acres: the population in 1831 
was 150,252, or about 158 to a square mile. In respect of 
is below the average of the English counties ; and 
ect, both of amount and density of population, very 
much below, Dorchester, the county town, is 115 or 1J6 
miles from St. Paul's, London, in a straight line soulh-wcst 
by west, or 119-4 from Hyde Park Corner by the road 
toke, Andover, Salisbury, and Rlandf nd. 
i e is included between 50° 3u' and 51° 5' N. lat., 
and I 6 48' and 3*7'W< long. Dorchester is in 50° 43' 
N tat and 2* 2C' W. long. 

f, Bays, and hfaridit.— At the eastern end of Dorset- 
shire the coa>t is precipitous; but the cliffs extend scarcely 
II from the border of Hampshire, a! id are 
led by a low sandy tongue of land, running about a 
rther in the same direction to the narrow entrance 

of Poole harbour. This bay penetrates six miles inland 
towards the west, and expands to a breadth of four or five, 
Its outline is very irregular, and it forms several small 
hays; as Hole's Bay, Lytchet Bav, Ante Bay, &c. It re- 
ceives the Frome, the Piddle, and other streams: it consists 
for the most part of banks of mud, which are dry at low 
water, and covered with sea-weed, and are separated from 
each other by deeper channels. The town of Poole is on 
a peninsula at the entrance of Hole's Bay, on the north 
side of the harbour* There are several islands in Poole 
harbour; Brownsea or Brownsey, the largest, which lies 
near the entrance of the harbour, is a mile and a half 
long from east to west, and nearly a mile broad. It is 
sandy, partly covered with heath, furze, and fern, and 
partly cultivated or laid out in a plantation. There 
are on it an old castle and one or two tenements. 
The water is so sh allow in Poole Harbour, except io 
the channels, that only small or litrhlly-luden boats cai 
pass over the banks, even at high water; several of the 
channels are only sufficient for fishing boats and small 
craft : the Wareham and Main channels, the south or Wych 
channel, and that which leads to the town of Poole, are 
navigable for larger vessels. The shore round Poole 
harbour is low, and near where the Frome falls int 
Jand is projected from inundation by an embankment. 

From the entrance of Poole harbour a low shore rum 
southward nearly three miles, and then becomes steep and 
turns eastward, forming Studland Bay, the southern limit 
of which is Handfast Point. From Studland Bay, the coast, 
still fur the most part abrupt, runs about 4 miles south by 
west to Peverel Point and Durlston Head, forming the two 
small bays, Swanage or Swanwich Bay and Durlston Bay. 
From Durlston Head a precipitous coast runs weft by couth 
5 miles to St. AldhelmAs or St. Alben's Head (344 feet hi^h, 
E.), and from thence in an irregular line west by north K 
or 18 miles to Weymouth Bay, forming several small bays, 
such as Chapman's Pool, Kimmeridge Bay, Worbarrow 
Bay, Lul worth Cove, and Ringstead Bay. The cliffs 
extend from Peverel Point to the neighbourhood of 
mouth are a longitudinal section of the high land 
forms this part of the coast, 

The shore of Weymouth Bay is low*, and extends 2 m 
south to the towns of Melcomb Regis and Weymouth : here 
tne cliffs recommence, and run I mile south-west to Si 
foot Castle, from whence a low shore extends 2 miles 
Off east to Portland Castle, on the pen insula or Isle of _ 
land. The lofty coast of this island takes a circuit of 5 
miles to the Bill of Portland, the southernmost point of 
the county, and from thence above 3 miles northward to 
the commencement of the Chesil Bank, which conu< 
north-west extremity of the Isle of Portland wiih the main 
land. The bay between Weymouth and the Isle of Port- 
land is called Portland Road. 

The Isle of Portland is about four miles long, and in the 
widest part nearly one and a half broad. It is one continued 
bed or rock of freestone. The highest point in the island is 
AJH feet (B.) above the level of the sea: the cliffs on 
western side are very lofty; those at the Bill are not 
than 20 or 3D feet. There is sufficient depth of w 
soil to render the island tolerably productive, but not 
ficienlly so for the entire sustenance of the population, who 
get much of their provisions from Weymouth. Water is 
plentiful and good; one stream has sufficient volume to 
turn a mill. The herbage is very fine, and affords pasturage 
to a number of sheep, whose flesh is considered to be excel- 
lent mutton. In wet seasons the meadows produce a 
crop of grass, but in a dry spring it is so much pare 
nut to be worth mowing. The arable land is me- 
mo n field ; what in closures there are, are bounded by stone 
fences: wheat, oats, peas, and a little barley are grown; 
sainfoin is also cultivated. The grain harvest is small, 
but the corn is fine, and in request for seed. There are \ 
few trees in the island except a few elms in the southern 
part ; and from the scarcity of other fuel, the islanders are 
obliged tu use dried cow-dung mixed with the stubble of 
their corn, which they gather for the purpose. (Hutchins's 
Dorsetshire vol. ii. p. 354, 2nd edit., Lond., 1796-1815.) 
The whole island is included in one parish, which contained 
&1 a population of 2670, The slanders are a robust 
race, peculiarly adapted to the hard labour of quarrying 
stone, in which a considerable number are employed: they 
are not long-lived, which is ascribed to their free use of 
ardent spirits, (Hutchioss Dorsetshire) They occasion 

D O It 



;rage in fishing, and some few arc employed in agri- 
1<% anrl handicraft. The custom of gavelkind 
\ The island has one village, Chesilum, ai the 
commencement of the Chestl hank, on the northwest side 
«f Pbrtland: there are several hamlets. There are two 
ea»0e»: one, on the east shore of the isle, is very anticnt, 
*<*1 built in the form of a pentagon, with a number of 
»ma!l loop holes, whence it has been vulgarly called ' Bow 
•Ad Arn>vr Cattle :" it w sometimes called Rufus's Castle* 
Thr other is on the northern side of the island, built by 
Henry VIlL, and, in connexion with Sandsfbot Castle, 
romniands Portland Road : a few guns are still mounted. 
Near the Bill are two lighthouses. The quarries will be 
indeed hereafter, Masses of rocks extend under water to 
lerable distance from the island. A dangerous surf, 
1 The Race of Portland,' extends from the west of the 
bland eastward to St. Aldhelm's Head, Portland Road is 
sheltered from the south- west wind, and affords good hold- 
ing ground at eiq;ht or nine fathoms, 

1. Ilollinshed, and Camden agree in speaking of 
having been once separated from the main 
mg been united to it by the Chesil Bank, 
ingest and most extraordinary ridges of pebbles 
:n its commencement at the Isle of Port- 
the village of Chcsilton, to which it gives 
it extends in a remarkably straight line north- 
f many miles, not joining the shore at the part 
nearest to Portland, but running parallel to the coast, 
!rr»tti wbieb it is separated by a narrow arm of the sea 
«!ied * The Fleet,* as for as Abbotsbury, in miles from 
ftatfand: here it unites with the muin land and runs 
thug the shore nearly six miles further to the com- 
mencement of the cliffs at Burton Castle, not far from Brid- 
The breadth of the Chesil Bank is in some places 
a quarter of a mile, but commonly much less. The 
ts formed of a mound of blue clay, which is covered to 
depth of lour, five, or six feet, by a coat of smooth round 
chiefly of white calcareous spar (these are called 
I pebbles), but partly of quartz, chert, jasper, &c., 
a horse's legs sink almost knee deep at every 
The bank slopes on the one side toward the open sea, 
the other toward the narrow inlet intercepted by it : 
at the Portland end, and is there composed of 
large as a hen's egg; but they diminish In rise 
the west so regularly, that it is said the smugglers 
the night can judge where they are by exa- 
beach ; at Abbotsbury they are little bigger 
ans. Marine plants grow in patches along 
Tthe bank by the water-side. The pebbly cover- 
»"cominuaUy shifting: a north-east wind sometime* 
tway the pebbles in parts, leaving the blue clay ex- 
l;btit the denuded spaces are covered again with pebbles 
the heavy sea which the south-west wind brings up. 
t Fleet * receives the water of several rivulets, and runs 
Jo the open sea at its south eastern extremity by a narrow 
channel called ' Small Mouth:' it is in some places half a 
mfle broad; there are two or three passages or causeways 
♦refit. At the north-wesieni extremity it forms a * swan- 
twy/ which once consisted of 7001* Bwans, The Fleet is 
iTOch frequented by wafer- fowl, among which Dr. Maton 
the wild swan, (Hutchins's Dorsetshire : Smea- 
f the BJy atone Lighthouse ; and Maton's 

Burton Castle the coast, generally abrupt and fre- 
ight runs W.N W, ten or twelve miles to the 
nshire: the »liffs in this part are remarkable 
uty and variety of the fossils which they contain, 
t the Dorsetshire coast, including the 
t of the Isle of Portland, may be estimated at above 


sometimes called * the Isle of Purbeck, 1 being 
be main land, is not noticed here; it coro- 
lla formed by the river Frome and 
i one side, and the sea on the other. 

; hy, Commtmicnfintis— The surface 

r the most part uneven. Hie principal 

chalk downs which, entering Dors« 

t The northern side of Cranbourne Chase, 

e miles southeast of Shaftesbury, turn to the 

run to the valley ofthe Stour, in the neighbour- 

indfurd. In this range of downs, some parts of 

\ with wood, are Mel bury Dowa, Ash mo re 

nmell Down, lwerne Free Down, Bushy Down, 

Preston Down, Main Down, Gunvillu Down, Pimperne 
Down* Stowcrpiiine Down, Furze Down, Camp Down, and 
Mill. Down, with the outlying eminences Hod Hili and 
Hamilton Hill. From the valley of the Stour the chalk 
downs run nearly West to the neighbourhood of Bea minster, 
and form the northern boundary of the basin whose drain- 
tin is Drafted by Poole Harbour. In this part we have 
Okeford Hill, Bell Hill, While Hill (between the last two 
is Bulbarrow, 9S7 it. htgh)(A.)j Great Ball, Little Ball, 
Revels Hill, Dogberry Hill, Hiffb Stay. 891 ft. (A.>, High- 
combe Hill, Row Hill, East Hill, West Hill, Evendml, 
Rauipisham, Corsconibc, and Beaminstcr Downs, White* 
sheet Hill, and Horn Hill. The foregoing eminences be- 
long to the range of the ■ North Downs/ and lie along the 
northern escarpment of that range. The hills near Bea- 
minster form, with the exception of some outlying masses, 
the western extremity of the great chalk formation, The 
chalk hills from Beaminstcr run southeast or east, and 
form 4 the South Downs, 1 the highest points in which are 
along the- southern escarpment. The hills gradually ap-* 
proach the coast a few miles norlh-east of Meleombe 
Re^is. In this range we have Hack! horn Hill, Chilfrome 
Down, Eggardon, where is an old entrenchment, Chil- 
combe Hill, Little Rredy Down, Black Down, HI 7 ft. (A.), 
Whaddon Down, Ridge way Down* and Binc-omhc Down 
(if these he not two names for the WtoX Came Down, 
Moigues or Maine Dawn, II ul worth Down, and Chaldon 
Down. From Lot worth the chalk lulls run eastward to 
Handfast Point, the headland which separates Stud land 
and Swanage Bays. In this part uf ihe range are Purbock 
Hill, Knowl or Norden Hill, west of Corfe Castle, 369 ft. 
0X Corfe Castle Htll, 207 ft (B.J, Challow Hill, east of 
Corfe Castle, 390 ft. (B>), Nine Barrow Down, 625 ft. (B.), 
orG42 ft. (0.), and Ballard Down. 

Pillesdon Pen, west of Beaminster, which is D34 ft. high 
(O.), is ihe highest point in the county, and belongs to the 
green Eand formation. Swyre Hill* on the coast, near 
Kimmeridge, in the Isle of Purbeck, is 169 ft* high. (B.) 
For the above elevations we have given our authorities: O. 
the Ordnance Survey; A. Arrowsmith'a * Map of England 
and Wales j 1 and B, Dr. Berger in * Geol. Trans/ vol. i. p, 268. 

The Stour, ihe chief row of Dorsetshire* rises in Wilt- 
shire, in Stourhead Park, on the border of Somersetshire, 
and running so nth -by-east, enters Dorsetshire between 3 
and i miles from its source. After flowing about 4 miles 
farther in the same direction, it receives the Sbroen Water 
from Ihe north, and soon after the Lidden River from the 
north-east. It then tluws in a very winding channel, south- 
south-east, for 8 miles, to the junction of the Cak\ which 
comes from the neighbourhood of Win can ton, in Somerset - 
shin*. From the junction of the Cale the Si our flows south 
about 9 miles to the junction of the Lidden, and thence 
winds to the east past the town of Sturmiuster Newton, and 
through a depression in the range of the North Downs, and 
passes in a south-cast course to the town of Blandford 
Forum, after which it flows south-east fur 20 miles to the 
village of Corfe Mullen; and from thence 4 miles east to 
the junction ofthe Allen, which flows from the north near 
Cranbourne. After it receives the Allen the Slour flows 
east-south-east 6 or 7 miles into Hampshire, after entering 
which it receives a considerable stream, 16 or 18 miles long, 
from Cranbourne; and about 4 miles lower it joins the 
Avon near Chrislchurch, in Hampshire. The whole course 
ofthe Stour is nearly 65 miles, for 40 of which, viz. up to 
Shir minster Newton, it is navi gable* 

The river Yeo, Ive or Ivel, is formed by two brooks, one 
rising in Somersetshire, and one in Dorsetshire, which 
uniting near Milbournc Pert {Somersetsliiiel, and flowing 
south wist, enter Dorsetshire between MfllxHlttM Ptoft mid 
Sherhourne, about three miles from their respective sources. 
The Ye o then Hows first west-sruiih-west, ttien west north- 
for about seven miles, when it again touches the botdflr 
of Somersetshire, along which it winds for aliout three 
miles, and then entering Someisetshire flows north-west 
into the Parret. Ihe Stour and the Yeo carry off the 
drainage of all that part of the county which lies north of 
the Nonh Downs. 

The North and South Downs inclose the lain of the 
two rivers Piddle or Trent and Frmuc, v. Inch unite in 
Poole Harbour below Warehatn, and from their situation 
with respect to lhat town are respectively called Wareham 
North and Warehatn South river. The riddle rises in the 
village of Alton on the southern declivity of the H^tfk 

Downs, and flows south and Bouth-east past Pi dd let rent hide 
and Piddlebinton to Piddle town. From Piddle town it has a 

fenerul east-south-east course to its entrance into Poo la 
lorbour. Its whole cour^o is about twenty-two miles ; or, 
if we add seven or eight for the length of the low water 
channel through the n»stunry of Poole Harbour. 30 miles. 

The i'Yonie rises on the Downs near Corscombe, north- 
oast of Ben minster, and flows south-east. At ftfaideq Nei 
Ion it receives a stream frum tho Downs near Keaminsler. 
From Harden Newiou the Frome Hows s<>utb east eight 
uitlcs to Dorchester. From Dorchester tho Frame Hows 
east nearly twenty milos into Poole Harbour, just upon en- 
i.; whkofc it unite'* with the Piddle, and lias (he same 
low water channel as that river: its whole length is abuut 
tfiirtj ttvt cnilat, or, including the channel through Poole 
JJu . t\si ur forty-three miles, For a considerable 

part <>i ibiui" count both the Frome tuid the Piddle flow 
through low meadow*} the channel of each is repeatedly 
divided and ruuuited, They are not navigable, at least 

The western extremity of the county is watered by the 
Bredv, the Brit, the Chan and tho Axe, which last rather 
belones to Devonshire. The Bredy Hows westward leVOA 
freight miles from Little Bredy into the sea, near Burton 
idstoek, at the north-west extremity of the Chesii Bank. 
The Brit rises near Beam Ulster on the southern slope of 
the elmlk hills, near the junction of the North and South 
Downs, and flows south about nine miles into the sea below 
Briclport: the mouth of il forma Briilport Harbour. The 
Char is about as long as the Brit ; it rises near Pillesdon Pen, 
und flow* south and south-west into the sea at Charniouth : 
it receives many brooks. The Axe rises in Dorsetshire, and 
flow* for some miles alone; the bonier of the county. 

Dorsetshire has no canals. The Dorset and Somerset 
canal, for which acts wore obtained in 1796 and 1SU3, but 
which was never executed, was to have entered the county 
near Slalbridge, and to have followed the valley of (he Slour 
till it opened into that river above Blandford Forum* Tho 
intended English and Bristol Channels' sbin canal was to 
Qlpts the western extremity of the county. There is a short 
railway from the clay pits at Norden, near Corfe Castle, to 
tho Quay on Middlebere Channel, Poole Harbour. 

Tho rWzance, Falmouth, and Exeter mail-road crosses 
the county ijs nearly its whole extent. It enters it near 
Wuodyatu*" Inn, between Salisbury and Blandford, and runs 
( through the latter town, Winterbourne Whit- 
i\h, Milbourne St. Andrew, and Piddletown to Dorches- 
ter; And from thence west by Winterbourne Alius, Bnd- 
port, Chidcock* and Chartoouth to Axmiuster in Devonshire. 
The- Exeter in ail- road crosses the north urn part of the county! 
entering it near Shaftesbury, ami running thence some limes 
in S by Sher- 

bourne to Yeovil iu Sonn«r>et>hiro. It just crosses the 
western extremity, and the detached portion of the ♦ ounly 
between Chard and Houitom The Falmouth, Devonpurt, 
and Exeter mail n>ad also just crosses the western part of 
the county < The Southampton and Poole mail -road enters 
tho county beyond Ring wood, ami runs by Wimbourne Min- 
ster lo Poole. Roads run from Dofeaoatil to Weymouth, 
to Wh re. ham, Corfe Castle and Swanago T to Beaminster and 
■ kerne, and to Sherbourne; from Shaftesbury to Sher- 
hourne, to Stui Netfton, and to Blandford, and from 

Blandford to Wim bourne, 

GeologidcU character*— The direction of the chalk-hills, 

which has been already ootid lies the key to the 

geological structure of Dorsetshire. The North und South 

ns, which respectively extend westwards from the 

neighbourhood of Shaftesbury and the Isle of Purbeek, and 

unite at their western extremity near Beaminster, inclose 

i -in, * the Trough of Poole,' in which We have the form* 

to the chalk; beyond or without this basin 

ive the formations which underlie the chalk. 

The eastern part of the county, as I'r, >urne,Chal- 

bury and Wunbourn* Minster, and the Trough of Poole 
(bounded on the north by a line drawn from Wmibouri. 
Were Regis and Tolpiddl' »rd near Dorchester, its 

west Dotty, and on the south by a lioi drawn 

Broad Mayne along the northern slope of the South D 
t o Siudland bay) are occupied by the plastic clay. The un- 
dulations of tli nation are 

rable. Potters' day m beds o\' various thickness and at 
different depths alternates with loose sand in this forma- 
tion in the Trough of Poole* It is sent to Staffordshire, where 

it is mixed with ground flints and employed in the finer 
kinds of pottery. Beneath the potters* clay lies a scam of 
very friable earthy brown coal, which crumbles when put 
into water, burn* with a weak flame, emitting a par 
and rather bituminous smell, somewhat like Bovey cool 
An extensive horizontal bed of pipeclay skirts the nor- 
thern declivity of the South Downs, and ii contain* * 
bed of coal exactly resembling that of A4um Bay in the Isle 
of Wight : clay of the same bed, but not of equal 
may be found in other parts of the Trough of Pool- 
quarried extensively near the town of Poole, where cl 

icfcs is also dug. Near Huudfast Point the 
this formation passes into sandstone. The plastic v\a\ i> 
bund capping one or two hills south-west of Dorebes 

The clialk formation hounds the plastic clay. In the 
North Downs the chalk occupies a breadth of nearly la 
miles, viz., liom Shaftesbury to Cranbourne and along the 
valley of the Stour from above Blandford to WimboUrtll 
Milliter : at its western extremity the formation is still 
broader, extendi tig about eighteen miles from beyond Ben- 
minster to Stinsford near Dorchester. On the southi 
of the Trough of Poole it becomes much narrower, s 
averaging two miles in breadth. The cliffs along the south 
COM* are partly chalk: the strata are in some places curved 
and occasionally vertical. The valleys, drained by the uppef 
part ot the Frome and its tributaries, are occupied 
i^reen sand, so that the mass of the chalk-hills 
minster is cut oil from the rest of tho formation. 

The remainder of our geological notice must be arranged 
in two parts: the first referring to the district south 
chalk range and extending to the coast ; the second rel 
to the district west aud north-west of the same ruu^ 
shal] first speak of the southern districts. 

The chalk marie, green sand, weald clay, and in 
skirt tbe in the order iu which we have named them 
in Hie Isle of Purbeek, and extend along the coast h 
the chalk and the Purbeek and Portland limestone 
he noticed. The iron baud near Lulworth contains imper- 
fect beds of wood-coal. The weald clay is not found along 
the const west of the Isle of Purbeek. 

The Purbeek strata, belonging lo the upper series of the 
Oolitic formation, consist of argillaceous limestone alter- 
nating with schistose marie? they crop out from un 
iron sand in the Isle of Purbeek, A variety of the P 
atone, known as Purbeek marble, was formerly much used 
for columns and ornaments in our cathedrals a 
churches, hut is now out of use. The thickness of t he Pur- 
heck beds is estimated at 290 feeL The Portland Oolite* 
another member of the same series, which succei 
Purbeek stone, occupies the remainder of the Isle i 
beck and the whole of that of Portland. It c< 
number of beds of a yellowish white cab 
generally mixed with a small quantity of si] 
But the different hods of winch it is composed often 
their characters, nor are the same beds of an uniform cha- 
racter in different localities. The varieties of this 
tion afford the greater part of the stone nsed for architectu- 
ral purposes in Loudon* 

The Portland stone came into repute in tho time oi 
James L, who used it by tbe advice of his architects in re- 
building the bauqueling-house at Whitehall. At 
great fire of Londou, a.d. 16G6, v:«>t quantities of i!r 

LSed in rebuilding St. Paul's and other pul 
A considerable portion of Westminster Bridge a. 
whole of fUackfnars Bridge are built of it. The quarries 
are thus described by Mr. Smealon in his i Narrative of the 
Building, &c,» of the Edystoue Lighthouse ;' 

*The first thing that excited my curiosity was ll: 
subject I came upon ; that is, the quarries from whence the 
stone sent from Portland is produced. The upper surface 
oi the Island I found was totally Hat, but elevated ah 
ling to the estimation of my eye, at leas 
feet.* The stratum of -tone, that is wrought for sale, lies 
nearly parallel with the upper surface of the island, and 
with not much cover of earth or rubbish upon iL Tii 

beds of stone, lying in contiguity one above another. 
varying in thickness in general from two to four feet, and 
upward. Those which are usually called the merchantable 
bed - u>n account of the blocks tor sale being produced there- 
1 with a stratum called the cap, 
which is formed entirely of a congeries of petrified aea shells 
of a great variety of kinds, but in general so distinct and 
* Tut higligii pcort u we have Men i» much high# i Uhta fchk. 




rtptmte in their forms that to the curious naturalist their 
*j«eeie§ teem very easy to be made out ; but as they, in a 
ree, retain their respective figure* (though 
ie places more, in some leas), spaces or cavities are left 
n them, which consequently very much diminish the 
; but vet the cementing principle is so 
the whole together is considerably harder than 
chantablo beds; and indeed so hard that, to get rid 
v as possible, it is generally blasted off with gun* 
• ! ; \V rbr these cavities the capstone would 

he worked with tools; or, at least, it would not 
ng at a place where there is so great a plenty 
ahty ; bat as it is necessary to remove 
<f working the better kind of Itotie, though 
I lie greatest proportion is blasted into fragments, yet 
for the jo the inland the capstone is in genera! 

BO, and also for the piers and cjvmy walls of Weymouth har- 
ihe pier for shipping stone at Portland 
».re used from the cap: ami indeed were it not for 
of freight (which in the same as upon those of 
itehest quality) for various rough purposes under water, &c, 
the cap wijuld make quite as good and durable work as the 
f i table blocks. 
When the merchantable beds are thus cleared of the cap, 
ien proceed to cross-cut the large Hats, which 
with wedges in the way I have described as to 
ly the wedges are not so numerous, nor 
; stone split so evenly as granite; and frequently 
ng as well as other working of this stone, oys- 
r fossil shells are discovered in t he solid sub- 
terchen table stone. The beds being thus 
met lumps, the quurry-mtin, with a tool called a 
h is at ane end a hammer and at the other an 
n*, whose ed»re is so short or narrow that it approaches 
tovirds ihe shape of a pick, by a repetition of sturdy blows 
w>n reduces a piece of stone with his eye to the largest 
figure which it will admit, and blocks are thus 
naif a ton to six or eight tons' weight, orup- 
lUrolarly bespoke.' 
rata of stone of all kinds on the east aide of Port- 
iggrvgate thickness of 93 feet* on the west 
i ap' is at present only burnt for lime, 
jr, a blue slaty or greyish yellow clay 
the upper Oolitic series underlies the 

stone: it sometimes contains beds of a highly 

is shale* which from their be inn found near Kirn- 
i the lido of Purbeek, have obtained the name of 
I, and have given to the whole formation 
of Kiuimcridge clay. The shale burns with a 
ng out a sulphureous smell. The 
_ of the Klmmend-e clavis estimated at COO or 700 
is the base of the Portland Oolite in the Isle 
and, and the line of junction between the two for- 
levated on the north side of the island far above 

U* level of 
kraied hy a 
b? m abrupi 
lb Us 
Hot art 

see. The coasts of the island are here 

ink of Kim me ridge clay, surmounted 

ut of Oolite. On the south side of 

b dip of Ihe strata towards the south the 

is brought down to the 1 sen. 

irestern shore of Ihe Isle of Purheck 

ttere the chalk downs approach Ihe sea, and are skirted 

ate bi a eery narrow belt occupied by the iron sand, and 

i bet aeaward, by the Portland Oolite, the sea has 

' rrncd several singular coves, at the entrance of wh 

Wry headlands of Oolite; while the cove or basin is exea- 

1 inland as far as the chalk. The precipitous sides of 

exhibit in a most striking manner the forma- 

i between the chalk and the Oolite. 

Westward of the cere* just described, extending from 

wWnomh bay towards the river Brit, occurs what it termed 

trOeologbt double aertei of formations, A tier 

tie green v. ack, and Portland beds, and Kimmc- 

rieee clay b pped out from beneath the 

iMV the coral i clay, members of the mid- 

JltacHeiof Oolites rise to the surface in succession, and arc 

t«eree4ed 1' est Marble and the Great Oolite, which 

-eries of the Oolitic formations, To 

f the Great Oolite nnd Forest Marble t lie 

sepfffer strata reappear in reverse order ot succession ; the 

. then the coral rac;, and then the Kinimeridge 

liiehruna down to the shore at Weymouth, and rises 

spift from the sea in the Isle of Portland, where it appears 

\ wilftuke Portland Oolite. 

In. the north-western and western parts of the county, the 
chalk formation is succeeded by the green sand, which crops 
out from beneath it, and skirts the northern side and the 
western extremity of the North Downs. The green sand 
forms the outlying masses of Pillesdon and Lewaton hills, 
and of others vet farther w r est along the border of Dorset- 
shire and in the county of Devon. [Devonshire.] Neither 
Ihe iron sand nor the weald clay, nor bo far as wo are aware, 
the chalk marie, appears to be found in this part of the 

West tat Shaftesbury extends a bed of Kimmeridge clay 
which crops out from under the green sand : west of the 
Kimraeridge clay Is a range of coral rag hills; and still 
further west occur the Oxford clay, and the Great Oolite. 
All these formations aro overlaid bv the westward extension 
of the chalk and green sand from the vtilley of the Stour to 
Benminster: but some of them re-appear in the cliffs 
u bleb line tho coast westward of the Chesil Bank. 

The western extremity of the county is occupied by the 
lowest members of the Oolitic series and by the Lias. The 
line of junction of these formations extends nearly north 
and south from II minster in Somersetshire to the sea. In- 
sulated masses of green sand frequently cover both the 
Oolites and the Lias* and render it difficult to trace the 
liim of junction. The detached part of the county which 
is enclosed within Devonshire ii partly occupied by the red 
marie foundation. 

Agriculture.— The climate of Dorsetshire, though mild 
and healthy, is not so warm as its geographical situa- 
tion would lead us to expect; a circumstance owing- to the 
nature of the soil and the bareness of its chalk hills, there 
being little or nothing to break the force of the winds 
that sweep over them. The air is keen and bracing, 
rattier than soft and warm. In the valleys, the climate 
ibles that of the valleys of Devonshire, and the vege- 
tation is very similar. It "appears from Domesday Book 
that there were vineyards at that time in several parts 
of this COUflty , At present the harvest is not in general 
earlier than in the midland counties: and although snow 
seldom lies long on the ground, tin? land is not fit fbr 
sowing in spring sooner than in many parts of England 
where the winters nre more severe. 

A considerable portion of the soil in the smith -eastern 
part of this county is similar to that of Bagshot Heath, and 
not more fertile, being a loose sand and gravel, with u por- 
tion of ferruginous loam, The whole surface of tbe county 
consists chiefly of this loose sand and gravel, clay and chalk. 
The most fertile spots are those where all the three have 
been mixed in the valleys by the rivulets which run down 
the hills carrying the soil with them. The poor sandy soil 
occupies that part of the county which joins Hampshire. 
In the centre and towards Wiltshire lies the chalk; and 
along the coast, over a more solid chalky rock, is a stratum 
of clay, which likewise covers the western port towarts 
Devonshire, and the northern towards Somersetshire. 

The following division of the soils i* ghrefl in ihe * Agri- 
cultural Report of th nson :— 

Chalk . ICO ,759 Acres, 

Sand . . . . 85,157 „ 

Loam , 37,746 

Gravel , . . 59,894 

Miscellaneous . . * IS, 427 „ 

no Brash . . 29,700 „ 

Clay . 117,331 

Total . > 604,014 

is, towns, roads, &c. 
The chalk hills lo the west of Dorchester, and along 
the borders of the vale of Blaekmore, are of oofttLderablfl 

ntain several narrow vales and drop bolloi 
Tbe soil on the most elevated parts of the chalk district 
is a thin loam over a rubbly chalk mixed with stones which 
tl the solid chalk. It is most advantageous to let this 
toil remain as sheep-walk re being fine and si 

as in other downs. In the bottom of the vale of Blackioore 
extremely fertile meadows watered by the river 
Stour. The hills which took down upon this' valley 
high and bare; but the lower sides are bcanlifulH varied 
with woods and fl 

The quantity of arable land throughout the POtmtJ bears 
but a small proportion to the pasture; oi^! ra- 

tion is paid to the rearing of sheep and (btslios of rattle 
than to the raising of com. The implements <it vavv*\>W^ 

are similar to those in use in Devonshire* The wheel- 
ploughs are preferred in still' and stony soils; and U is usual 
10 put three horses before them, two abreast, and the third 
before the near horse; so that the furrow being turned lo 
the right, two horses walk on the utiploughed ground, and 
uiie in the furrow: they are driven by a lad. Improved 
plough en introduced; but the majority of farmers 

are slow in relinquishing the instruments which tiny have 
been eaily accustomed to. The nine-share plough, or sca- 
rifier, has been found very useful in the light soils, and 
saves much time in preparing the land for the seed, as it 
goes over a great width and saves a ploughing. 

On the larger farms the farm-houses are old buildings 
of, and covered with stone tiles; in the smaller they 
L»t ■ tly thatched with reed. Many collages are built 
ith mud walls composed of road scrapings, chalk, nnd 
The foundation is of stone or brick, and on this 
the mud wall is built in regular layers, each of which is 
allowed to dry and harden before another is put over it. 
Garden walls are frequently built of these cheap materials, 
their tup being protected from the weather by a small roof 
of thatch, which extends a few inches over each side. The 
(arms are large, many having been laid together. In pi 
perous times, at the desire of the richer farmers, and with 
the concurrence of landlords, who found that the repairs 
on one large set of buildings are less than on many small 

The rent of land varies greatly. In the poor sands it is 
a* low as 10*. or 12*. per acre; in the richer grass lands it 
is from 30*. to -10*.; some water-meadows lot as high as 
<J0#. or more. On the whole, the average rent of grass 
land is about 2ujt., of old meadow* about 3U^ t the tenant 
paying the tithes, which seldom exceed 5*. per acre. 

The old method of managing arable land, which is still 
followed by many farmers, was to fallow every fourth year 
■ »:i the i lava, and then take two or even three crops of corn 
in succession. Where clover or gra-ses are cultivated, they 
are put in with the second crop, and consequently the land 
is not in a clean state. The most common rotation on the 
rich loams in the vale of Blackmore is: summer fellow — 
wheat — barley with grata seeds, which continue two or Ihree 
ml ace then broken up again after the hay has been 
made, when a kind of bastard fallow succeeds, consisting of 
three ploughing, and the land is tolerably prepared for 
wheat : but it is not clean enough to prevent the necessity 
of a repetition of ihe summer fallow every sixth year at least* 
There is a practice with some farmers which deserves notice. 
as it is a step towards the system of double crops, by which 
the Flemish culture is rendered so much more productive 
than most other. It is as follows: the clover or grass of the 
second year is fed off early by sheep; the land is then 
ploughed up and sown with rape and spring tares, which 
give an abundant produce in autumn, on which ihe sheep 
are folded, and the land is thus well prepared for wheat. 
The lime of sowing is about the end of Alay or beginning 
of June. A bushel of vetches and two quarts of rape-seed 
are the quantities town on an acre. The crop is fed off by 

On ihe light chalky soils turnips have been very gene* 
rally introduced, although they are not yet every where 
cultivated in the best manner. 

The ml reduction of sainfoin on the dry chalky soils has 

great advantage! as it produce* a rich ladder! re- 

l it lie manure, and lasts many years. In this soil the 

wheal is generally sown after clover which has stood one or 

lira, hut lometimM also after turnips or rape I 
The folding of the land saves manure, and the vicinity of 
sheep downs gives an opportunity of having large folds and 
repealio I ling often, both before and after sowing 

the Seed, The tread of the sheep consolidates loose soils 
heller than the heaviest roller. The ploughing in the 
chalky soils is generally very shallow, because they say 
that the couch is thus more easily kept down; but those 
who plough as deep as the subsoil will permit find that 
their crops are more certain, especially in dry imnmers; 
and the couch is best eradicated by careful handpicking 
i every ploughing. 

t i> town sometimes in the light soils as soon as 
August, and bejbrc the wheat crop of that year is ripe, 
The quantity sown is usually three bushels, and is lamented 
as it is sown later. In the heavier loams the wheat is 
sown later, sometimes not much before Christmas ; in thai 
case a bushel more is required to allow for the grains that 

perish, or are eaten by the birds, who are then more alert 
after their food. The early sown wheat is thought moro 
subject to mildew. The seed is usually steeped and limed, 
When it is sown very early this precaution is frequently 
omitted. The average produce of wheat is fiom 17 to 20 
bushels per acre. 

Barley is here a more important crop than wheat. It ii 
sown from the middle of March to the middle of May. The 
earliest sown is generally the best. The produce average* 
;;ii bushels per acre. Oats are sown on the heavier and 
moisler soils, at the rate of six bushels per acre. They 
think that the straw is better fodder where the oats arc 
sown thick, but they perhaps forget that the b 
grain is produced by sowing thin or drilling wide. Bean* 
are planted or drilled in rows from 18 lo 24*inches d 
In the rich loams of the vale the produce is considerable, 
from 30 to 40 bushels per acre, and often more. Turnips 
are generally sown broadcast, at the rate of three pounds 
of seed per acre ; this gives an abundance of plants, which 
are thinned out by the hoc. 

Potatoes are cultivated lo a considerable extent in th« 
rich loams about Bridport, Beaminster, Abboisbur 
they are planted in rows, or the sets are dropped in every 
third furrow after the plough. They are horse-hoed, ana 
moulded up by a double mould-board plough : 24 bushels 
planted on an acre often produce 3C0, The beginning of 
May is the usual time of planting. 

Sainfoin is sown with a spring crop : four bushels of seed 
are required for an aere. It is cut before the blossom is 
fully expanded and made into hay, which is excellent fodder 
for sheep in winter. After several years, when it begins to 
go otf, it ii ploughed up, and the land sown wilh o . 
is often advantageous to pare and bum the land after sain* 
foin ; but as ibis practice is generally forbidden in leaf 
however advantageous it may be occasionally, a method i» 
adopted which equally destroys the vegetable mutter wttli 
burning the soil. This is lo rib the land; that is, to plough 
furrows with intervals, and do this again across the first 
ribs; the sods are thus cut in squares, and the harruvu 
passing over them leave the roots in the form of ma 
tufis, which are burnt, and the ashes spread to enrich the 
ground. A regular paring and burning would be mi 
better, both for the landlord and the tenant, 
does not produce much the first year after it is so* 
consequently many larmers sow hop-clover with it, which 
being an annual gives a produce the first year, and fills ihe 
intervals of the sainfoin, which is in perfection, the second. 
The land which has borne sainfoin for some year- 
sown a^ain with the same crop till after an interval of ie 
or 12 years at least. 

Hemp is cultivated to some extent in the richest I 
winch contain a considerable proportion of sand, and are 
too light for beans. The land is prepared by ploughing it 
three times; first, before winter, when it is richly dun. 
and next in spring, when it is well harrowed. The direc- 
tion of this second ploughing is across the former furrows, 
whenever it can conveniently be done* The third ploughing 
is in May, when the ground is laid as level and smooth »» 
possible by means of the heavy hoe or hack. Tuo bushel* 
of seed are lhen sown evenly over it, and slightly ha 
in, A slight rolling of the ground, if it is verj 
finishes the operation. Hemp completely keep* dam 
weeds by the shade of its leaves; and the land, 
richly manured fur ihis crop, is in good order after it fur any 
other which may suit it* An acre of good hemp produces 
800 lbs, of fibre, a middling crop is GOO lbs., and 
one 43U lbs. The chaff of the hemp makes an es 

Flax is likewise cultivated in the sound deep loam- 
have been gradually enriched by manuring ihe piv 
crops* II' the dung were not thoroughly incorporated m 
the soil it would make the flax coarse and uneven, 
soil must be pulverized to a considerable depth, and must 
lite be veiy free from weeds. Two bushels of seed 
on an acre. The be*t seed comes from Riga; the linu 
sowing is the middle of April. Clover seed is sometime* 

Id be most carefully hand-we< 
as soon as the plants can be distinguished from weeds : a J 
this the llax and clover will keep them down. The pr»- 
M bushels of seed, each of which 
gives a gallon and a half of oil, and from 600 to 900 lbs. of 
liax lit for spinning* 

The grass lands and pastures occupy about three-fifths of 




■H 1 1 Li I 

th* surface of the county, or above 300,000 acres, of which 
are irrigated, chiefly in (he sandy and chalky 
The meadows along the vale of Blackmoic are 
y rich, and produce much hay, which is used to feed 
winter. The upland meadow! are well 
i frequently dressed wilh lime .md dung. Many 
which feed on the downs in summer are wintered in 
The pastures on the hills arc not sufficiently 
n oxen, but are well adapted to feed dairy rows. 
r is in good repute in London and Porta- 
>hip provision as well as domestic use: it is not 
e Irish, and is therefore preferred, although the 
ler when it is of the best quality. Dorset salt 
n well washed, is very commonly sold in London 
i row pastures will keep a cow on 
es during the whole summer: of the inferior pas- 
three or four acres are required for each cow. The 
are frequently let to a dairyman at the rate of B 

:>w for the season. This is a great convenience 

farmer who has arable land to attend to, and is thus 

all care but that of providing pasture for the 

v for the pasture, The cows cat little else but 

w in winter, and very little hay is made in proportion 

rent of grass land. The farmer finds a house for 

[atryman and Ins family to live in, allows him to 

nd poultry as he chooses, and a mare to carry 
larkct, This mare generally produces a foal, 
dairyman's profit The bargain is from 
Candlemas, A notice to quit given by either 
All Saint* 1 Day is considered sufficient* and the 
i quits the premises at Candlemas. The butter is 
<fe from the cream, and the skimmed milk is made into 
rboeae. The milk is skimmed only once in twenty-four 
The Dorsetshire skim-milk cheese is preferred on 
ks of blue mould which frequently run 
through it. These streaks are said to be produced by 
■■ the eerd again after the cheese has been pressed, 
npnnkhng wheat flour over the fragments; it is then 
rl in the vat and pressed again, 
calve* are annually reared to keep up the number 
?be calves have milk for three months, and the 
> an allowance of a fourth part of the sums 
pays for a cow for each calf so reared. February 
weaning calves, because in May when 
idant they can be turned out to advantage 
ept for the dairy in the vales are chiefly of the 
breed, but the pasture on the hills not being 
_ good for them, another mixed breed is preferred 
jerr„ which ha^ longer horns, and seems to be a cross be- 
the old long horns and the Gloucestershire, or perhaps 
i n The colour is generally brindle on the sides 
i white stripe down the back and white under the 
re hardy, and in general good milkers on mo- 
Crosses with Alderney cows are occasionally 
., but chiefly in gentlemen's dairies on account of^ 
o which they give. Dairymen prefer quantity 
and large 
m Dorset sheep are noted as a profitable breed to those 
fear house-lambs for the London market. They are 
md well formed, straight in the carcase, deep in the 
: rump is larger than in other sheep \ the 
Weuft points forward, the face is thin, the horns m 
rod bend rather backward, the tail is usually left long. 
Tbej* give much milk and fettcn their lambs better than 
lay other breed. There is another very small breed 
n lb* Isle of Purbeck, and near Weymouth, of which 
tl* flesh is in repute with epicures: they weigh about 
Quarter, and are generally sold by the quarter 
like ib, and not by the pound. Some consider them 

M the real and original Dorsetshire breed. They resemble 
(fee email forest sheep formerly found on all the commons 
of die forest of Windsor, and on Bagshot -heath, the mutton 
*f which was in equal repute as Bagshot mutton. The 
v«ot is fine, but the fleece does not weigh above li or 2 
fOVlii en an average. The South-down breed is yeffj 
fifty found in Dorsetshire, and suits the pasture and climate 
•iian the Leicester. The management of Dorset 
when they are intended for producing early lambs, is 
fcdltfw*: — At four years old when t!i • had two 

lambs, their lambs an in April, and the 

are kept on water meadows and the richest pastures, 
r folded, that they may be in condition to 
P. C , No 543. 

take the ram in May and June, and be forward in lamb by 
Michaelmas, when they are almost invariably sent to Wey- 
hill fair, and sold to dealers who drive them towards London 
and sell them to those who fatten early ho use- lamb, and 
who make a very considerable profit on them, if they under- 
stand how to manage the ewes to the best advantage. The 
Dorset ewes frequently have twin lambs, but the single are 
preferred for fattening. When there are twins, one of them 
U either killed immediately or given away. The average 
quantity of wool on a Dorset sheep is 31 pounds. 

The following fairs are established in the county; but 
several of them are no longer cattle fairs, but mere holy days : 
Abbey Mil ton, Tuesday after July 25; Abbot sbury, July 
10 ; Allington, July 22 ; Beaminster, September 1 9 ; Bland- 
ford, March 7 f July 10, and Novembers, a large sheep 
fair ; Bridport, April G, fat beasts, cows, calves, bulls; Octo- 
ber 1 1, cattle and pedlery ; Broadway, Wednesday before 
September. 18; Broad Windsor, Trinity Monday; Cerne 
Abbas, Mkllent Monday, for barren cows, and cows with 
calf, Holy Thursday, October 2 ; Corfe Castle, May 1 2, 
October 39 for hogs and toys; Cranbourne, August 24, 
December 6, cheese and sheep; Dallwood, first Wednes- 
day before August 24; Dorchester, February 14, cows and 
calves, barreners. Trinity Monday, cows and horses: July 
(\ t sheep and lambs, August 6, sheep, lamb, wool, leather; 
Emmergreen, Tuesday before Holy Thursday ; E vers hot, 
May 12, cattle and toys; Farnham, August 21, cheese and 
toys: Frampton, March 4, August 1, September 1; Gil- 
lingham, Trinity Monday, cattle, September K\ toys; Her- 
mitage, August 26, horses; Holtwood, August G, horses, 
sheep, toys ; Lyme Regis, February 13, October 2; Leigh, 
March 25, May l f September 3 ; Lambert Castle, Wednes- 
day before June 24, cattle; Maiden Newtown, March 9, 
May 4, cows, &lc; Martin Town, November 22, 23, slu 

I horses; Milbornc St. Andrews, November 30, 
sheep, cows. ke. ; Melbury, Whitsun Monday; Ower 
Moigne, October 10, pigs and toys ; Poole, May 1, Novcm* 
ber ., free mart for toys ; Pamphill, July 7, October 2 
Piddle Town, Easier Tuesday, October 2$, cows and pigs; 
Portland, November 5, sheep ; Shaftesbury, Saturday before 
Palm Sunday, June 24, November 23, cattle; Sherborne, 
Wednesday before Holy Thursday, cattle, July 18, wool, 
cattle, horses, July 26, lambs, October 13, Wool and cattle; 
Shroton, September 25, sheep, cows, horses; Stalbridge, 
May 6, September 4, beasts; Stockland, July 18, cat lie ; 
Sturminster, May 1l\ October 24, fat cattle ; Sydling, De- 
cember 6, cattle: Toller Down, May 29, iheep, 3D, t 
Wareham, April 17, cattle. July 5, September 1 1 : Wim- 
borne, Friday before Good Friday, cuttle and horses, Sep- 
lembcr 14, cau 1 theep, cheese J Woodbury Hill, 

near Bere Regis, September 1 8, and five fallowing dfl 
cattle, burses, hops, oth, See. : Woodland* July 5, 

horses and cheese ; Woolbridge, May 14 
Yetminster, First Tuesday aftei April SOJOciohei 

Dfomont, Totvus. fa: — Tin- county ni' Dm i to 

the year 1740, was thu- divided. There wwrC five more con- 
siderable parts, or as they were termed, * divisions/ which 
took their names from the toWHftOf — L Blandford, II. Brid- 
port, HL Dorchester, IV, Shaftesbury, and V. Shcrboumc. 
These were further subdivided as fellows: — 

I. The Bland ford division contr'iied the boroughs of U) 
Blandford, (21 Corfe Castle, (3) Poole, and (4) Wareha 
the hundreds of (1) Bere Regis, f 2) Coombsd itch, ft) II; 

(4) Hundreds Barrow, (3) Pimperne, (BJ Rowbarrow, (7) 
Rushmore, and ($) Winfrith: i>nd the liberties uf(l) Bin- 
don, (2) Divelisb, (3) Overmoy^ne, and M) Siowhorough. 

II. The Bridport division contained the boroughs of (5) 
Bridport, and (6) Lyme Regis ; the hundreds of (9) Bea- 
minster, (10) Beaminster Forum, and Redhove, (11) Eggar- 
don, (12) Godderthorn, and ( 1 3) Whitchurch Canon icorum : 
and the liberties of (5> Brood Wil Kramptmi, (7) 
Loder and Buthenliampton, and (8) Poorshick. 

IIL The Dorchester dr otained the boroughs of 

(7) Dorchester, <>) We\ mouth, and (9) Melcomb Regis: 
the hundreds of (14) Cullifordlree, (15) George (St.), (tfi) 
Piddletown, (17) Tollerford, and < J H) Uggescomb, or Ugtrs- 
combe: and the liberties of j( 9) Fordington,(10) Piddlcbi: 
(11) Portland, (12) Preston and Sutton Poyntz, (13) \V 
, and (14) W T yke Regi> and El well. 
IV, The Shaft* contained (he borough of 

(10) Shaftesbury: tl La <4 i I'M Baflbuty, (20) Og- 

dean, (21) Cranbourne, V21\ Knulton, (23) Looaebarrow, 
i Sixpenny Haudley, (25) Up Wiubournc Mouktomond (2fi) 
1 V J VolIX^G 




Wimbourne SL Giles t &M the liberties of (15) Alcester, 
(1G» Gillinghnm, and (17) Stunuinster Marshall. 

V, The Sherbourne division contained the hundreds of 
(27) Brownshril, (28) Buekland Newton, Iffl) Cerne, (30) 
Modbury, (31) Redlane, (32) Sherbourne, (33) Sluruiinstcr 
Newton Cattle, (34jTotcomb, (35) Wtiiteway,and (36) Yate- 
minstcr: and the liberties of (18 J Alton Paucras, (luj 
Helstodk, $0) Minterne Ma^no, (21) Piddletrt ntlmk% (28) 
Ryme Intrinseca, ft3) Selling St. Nicholas, and (£4) 
Stour Provost, Cerne, Tot comb, and Modbury bundle! 
for some purposes united: and the liberty of Minterne 
Magna is by some given as united with thai of Piddle- 

The boroughs in the above list are not all parliamentary* 

Since 1 7 lu a new arrangement of the county has been 
adopted. The five divisions have been increased to nine, as 
follows : — 

1 The Slahdford north division (population 9198) con- 
tains the borough of ( 1 ) Blandford ; the hundreds of (1) 
mosditch, (2) Pimperne, (3) Rushmore ; and the liberty 
of m ) Diveilah, or Dewlish. 

11. The Blatnlt bid iOUtb division (population 15.139) 
contain* the boroughs D rfe Castle, and (3) Ware- 

ham; the hundreds of (4) Beer, or Bere Regis, (5) Hun- 
dredsbarrow, (6) fl Hasler, (7) Rowbarrow, (8) 

Winfrilh; and if (2) Bindon, (3) Chverraoigne 

or Ovenuovgne. Mnboroiigh, or Stowborough. 

11L f l ion 29,58 j) contains the 

boroughs of (4) Bridport, and (5) Lyme Regis: the hun- 
dreds of (9) B 1 10) Beamiuster Forura and Red- 
houe or RedhovcJ 1 1) Eggerton or E^gardon, (12) Godder- 
thorn, and Hi) Whitchurch C&nonicorttm ; and the liber- 
ties Of (5) Broad Wiltdtof, (4) Franuiton, {7} Loder, Ot Lo- 
tbers, and Bothehhamptftn, and {Si Poorstock. 

IV. The Cerne diviaiuii (population 85 17) contains the hun- 
dreds of H4) Buckland NeWton* (15) Genie, (16) Modbury, 
(17) Toteomb (which three are united), and (18) Wtailewey; 
the liberties of (9) Alton Patterns, (lU)Piddletreuthide, and 
(11) Sydling St. Nicholas. 

V. the Dorchester division (population 32,039) contains 
the borough* of(fl) Dorchester, {7)Melc.orab Regis, united 
with (8) Weymouth ; Lhe hundreds of (19) CulhfoVdfree, I2U) 
George, or St. George, (2 1 ) Toilerford, (22) Piddletown, i 23) 
Ug^scoinbe ; and tue liberties of (J 'J) Fordinglon, dr For- 
thington, (13) Piddlehiuton, (14) Portland, ( 1 A) Sutton 
Points, u 1 ' ■ • v ■ 1 1 1 z , ( 1 1 Wul »y ho use, or \V a y I m muse, and 
(17) Wyke Regis and Elwell. 

VI. the Shaftesbury, or Shaston, east division (population 
2U012) contains the hundreds of (24) Badbury, (25) Cog- 
dean, (2G» Cranbourne (part of), (27) Knulton, or Knov. I 

■eburruw, (29) Monkton up Winibourue, (30) Six- 
penny Handley (part of), and (31) Wimbeurne St. Giles. 

VII. The Shaftesbury, or Shaston. west division (popula- 
tion JJ.;>ni) contains the borough of (9) Shaftesbury * jmrts 
of the hundreds of (26) Cranbourne, and (30) Sixpenny 
Handley. given above ; and lhe liberties of (18) Alcester, anil 
(19) Gil line 

V III. 1 In Melbourne, or Sherborne, division (population 
10,1 uns the hundreds of (32) Sherbournc, und 
(3 I) Yateuiinster, or Yetminster ; and the liberties of (2U) 
Halstock, and (21) Ryiue Intriuseca. 

IX. The Sturm ins tor division (population 11,219) con- 
tain* tlif hundreds of (34) Brownshal, (35) Redlane, and 
<:t-> Sturminster Newton Caslle ; and the liberty of (22) 
Stour or Slower Provost. 

Tbl hundreds iu the above list, it will be Been, are the 
same as those in lhe foregoing: but the borough of Poole 
II here omitted, being considered as a county of itself (po- 
pulation 6459), and the liberties of Minterne Magna and 
Sturminster Marshall are respectively included in the liberty 
of Piddletrenthide and the hundred of Cogdean. 

The population given above is from the" census of 1831. 
ue market-towns. Dorchester, the county 
U sod a municipal and parliamentary borough, on the 
river Fro or- ; population, in 1B31, 31)33; the parliamentary 
boroughs of Bridport on the Brit, population in 1831, 4242 ; 
Lyme Regis on the Sea, population in 1831, 2621; Mel- 
comb Regis on the Sea, population in 1831, united with 
that of Weymouth, 7655; Poole, on Poole harbour, popula- 
tiun in 1631, 0469: Shaftesbury, on the the 

tiy adjacent to Wiltshire, population in 1831, 3041; and 
Wareham, between the Piddle and the Frome, popui 
in 183), 2325; and the municipal borough of Blandford 

Forum, on the Stour, population in 1831, 3109. Of these 
places, and of the market-towns of Beaminsfer on the Brit, 
near its source, population in 1831, 2968, Sherbourne on the 
Yen, population in 1631, 4261, and Wimbourne Mtasttn 
lhe Allen, population in 1831, 4009, an account is given 
l-Uc where. [Beaminstkr, Blandford, Bridport, Doa- 
chestkr, Lyme, Poole, Shaftesbury, Sherbourne, 
Wareham, Weymouth, Wimbourne Minster.] 

Of the other market-towns, Cerne Abbas, Cranbourne, 
Stalbridge, and Sturminster Newton, as well as of Corfe 
Oistle, a disfranchised borough, and Milton Abbas, the 
market of whieh has been discontinued of late years, an 
account is subjoined. 

Cerne Abbas is on the little river Cerne, a feeder of tbe 
Prome, and in the combined hundreds of Cerne, Toicomb, 
and Modbury, 1\ miles from Dorchester. The parish com- 
prehends 3010 acres (a large proportion being downs or 
sheep-walks), and had in 1831 a population of 1209, Cerne 
is in a pleasant vale, surrounded by steep chalk hills. It 
is a very small town, with little trade except what is trans- 
acted at its weekly market (held on Wednesday, for corn, 
butchers* meat, and provisions, and tolerably well 
quented), and at its three yearly fairs. The town was for- 
merly notorious for the number of persons engaged in 
smuggling. Petty sessions for the division are held here. 
There was formerly at Cerne a Benedictine abbey of great 
antiquity, rebuilt and endowed in tbe tenth century by 
Ailmer, or .ASlward, or iEgil ward, whom Leland calls carl of 
Cornwall and Devon. Its revenues were valued, at ths 
dissolution, at 623/. 13*. 2d. gross, or 515/. 17#. 1P<£ dear 
yearly value. All that remains of the abbey is a stalely, 
large, square, embattled tower or gate-house, now in 
dilapidated. There is an antient bridge, once an appendage 
bf the abbey, and a mure modern bridge; both are of stone. 
A mansion-house, called the Abbey House, and chiefly 
built from the ruins of the abbey, contains incorporated in 
it some remains of the more antient abbey-house, buiV 
Abbot Vanne in the fifteenth century. Several beau 
overflowing wells ssill remain, probably the work of the 
aJbBtiti, drawing their sources through subterranean chan- 
nels frnm the spring of St. Augustine. The parish church 
was built by one of tbe later abbots for the use of the 
parishioners. It is a handsome building, in the perpendi- 
cular style of Gothic architecture, with a fine fouer, which 
has octagonal turrets and pinnacles. The living is a 
viraragc, of the annual value of 81/., with a glebe-house. 
There is a meetinghouse for Independents, By the edu- 
cation returns of 1833, it appears that there were in Cerne 
1 infant and daily school, with about HO children, portly 
supportel by the clergyman of the parish; 9 dny-sch 
with nearly 220 children; and 2 Sunday-sch^ 
nearly 15U children (the larger school connected with the 
cnurcnL supported by voluntary contributions. 

On the southern slope of 'Trendle Hill/ a short distance 
north-west of the town, is the outline of a remarkable flfi 
of a man bearing a club, cut into the chalk; the li 
the figure is about J Hi) ft. ; the outlines a i >ad. 

There are various traditional and eonj u nts 

respecting the origin of this figure. It i^ r> 
townspeople about once in seven years. On tne&u 
of the hilt, over the giant's bead, has been an 
llt'iiiion, and on the north point a harrow. There are 
several barrows on the surrounding hills. Cerne was 
jured by the Irish troops in the king's service in the great 
civil war a.d. 1644, and; by a storm of wind ajj. 1 T 

Cranbourne is a small market-town, situated in a fine 
champaigu country, on the little river Allen (a feeder of the 
Stour) near its head. It is in the hundred of Cranbourne, 
93 miles from London. The parish is the largest in the 
county, comprehending 13,730 acres, and had, in 1S3 
population of 2158. chiefly agricultural. No mam; 
are carried on. The market, which is small, is on Thurs- 
days; there are two fairs and one great cattle market id 
the year. The houses are in general neat and well bu 
About a.d. 980 a monastery for Benedictines v as 
here by Ailward de Mean or Snew, of the family ol 
the Elder. This cither was originally, or subsequently be- 
came, an abbey; but the abbot ana most of the moi 

re m o ved t o Te W ke sb u r y , i t was red uced I * pie 

priory and a cell of Tewkesbury, Some time after the OB 

the present manor-house was built oh the site and 

frnm the materials of the priory; it is tJ ihc 

Marquis of Salisbury, who takes the title of viscount from 




this town* The parish church, formerly the priory church, 

which is one of the oldest and largest in the county, will 

>odate 1 QUO persons. The tower is in the pcrpcn- 

Le; the church has portions of an earlier charac- 

•or under the north porch is Norman. There 

h wood pulpit on a stone base. The living U a 

luipelries of Verwood and Bove- 

of the yearly value of 141/., with a glebe- house. 

\ were in the parish, in 1*33, G infant or dame schools, 

iuUiren; 4 day-schools, with 206 children; and 4 

Sund . with -JG'2 children. 

^t of the town is a large waste extending into 
re: it was formerly a free warren or chase, once pos- 
ttftsed by Uie house of Gloucester, and till lately by Lord 
. who had a right to keep deer all over it. It is 
ft chiefly with haaela and blackthorns, with a few 
umber trees* It has lately been disfranchised ns a eh ace 
>f parliament. It was very pernicious to the neigh- 
ins, and was the occasion that few turnips were 
io«n, as the deer made great depredations on that crop 
*d not be prevented. The deer are now destroyed, 
is in the hundred of Bruwnsha], about two 
I No Calo (which falls into the Stout)* J 12 miles 
Jrom London, The parish contains 4*ii»o aoiee (including 
the tithing* of Gomershay, Thornhill and Weston), and had 
I a population of 1773, of which rather more than a 
via agricultural. The market is on Tuesday, and 
-e tvro entile fairs in the year. The cattle market is 
weeks. According to Hutch iris's History 
2nd adit. JS13, vol. iiL, p. 839), the stock- 
is carried on here, 

regularly laid out : in the market-place is 

«g twenty-two feet high, or. including the base 

steps, thirty feet There is a dissenting moating' 

church is a large antient structure, with a bigQ 

wer at the. west end. The living is a reetoij of 

alue of 888/. with a glebe-house. There vera 

183, one * national- day-school, supported 

ption, with 115 children, three Sunday-schools. 

hen, besides several dame school*. Sto 

in the parish, and used for building and roofing. 

r or Stourminster Newton Castle is in the 

uf the same name, in a rich vale on the hank of 

9 miles from London. The town is divided 

s: Sturminster (by far the largest) lies on the 

Newton Castle lies on the south side of the 

connected by a bridge. The parish 

4530 acres, and had in 1831 a papulation of 1831, 

ml two-fifths are agricultural . The market is 

•aThur rti and on Saturday for butchers* meat: 

the rattle market is once a fortnight: there are two fairs in 

. Sec 

Th* i rly built ; the market-house is a very 

which is the base of a cross, on four 

church is a large building with an embattled 

moderate height. The living is a vicarage of the 

value of 712/. In Newton Castle is an antient for* 

, probably of the Saxon time, in the form of a 

Raman D. surrounded on the south-west side and part of the 

a vallum and ditch : there are the remains of 

buildings near it. There wore in the parish 

one infant school with nearly 170 children, one 

I with CO or 70 boys, and one Sunday-school of 

n, all supported by subscriptions or donations: 

rod fiva oU, with about 60 children. 

jed borough, is near the centre 

or rather peninsula of Purbeck, It is included 

m Blandford louth division, and is 1 16 miles from London. 

The borough and parish boundaries are the same, and in- 

w area of 9860 acres: there were in 1831 1712 in- 


• own* which is near the castle, consists of two streets, 

flf man looking houses, built of stone and covered with 

tiki. The inhabitants are partly engaged in the marble 

tad stunc quarries, and clay works in the neighbourhood, 

TNc church antient fabric, with many 

h architecture: it has 

large porch, and two 

le of the church, formerly cbtpels, 

*es. The church wns much 

a when the castle was attacked 


i tie e 1 I J 

lie wa* built, probably in the tenth century, by 

King Edgar. Its stateliness and strength, being situated 
on a high hill, caused it to be regarded in former limes as 
a fortress of great importance. It was sometimes the resi- 
denoe of the West Saxon princes. Here King Edward ihe 
Martyr was assassinated by his step-mother, EltVirk (a. d. 
978 or 981). King John in his war with the barons de- 
posited his regalia hero for security : and Erhyard 11 
he fell into the hands of Jus enemies was for a time 
prisoned here. In the great civil war Curie Ca 
stoutly defended for the king by Lady Bankes, wife of Lord 
Chief Justice Sir Jphn Bankes, the owner of it, with the 
assistance of her friends and retainers, and uf' i governor 
sent from the kind's army, It was however taken hy lh<» 
parliamentarians by treachery, February, 1645-46, and 

The ruins are extensive, and from their high situation 
form a very striking object. The castle is separated limn 
the town by a ditch, now dry, which is crossed by a bt ■> 
of four very narrow high arches. 1 The vast fragments of 
the king's tower/ says Mr. Hutching, ■ the round towers, 
leaning as if ready to fall, the broken walls and vast pieces 
of them tumbled into the vale below, form such a scene of 
havock and desolation as strikes every spectator with horror 
and concern. The plenty of stone in the neighbourhood, 
and the excellency of the cement, harder to be broken than 
the stones themselves, have preserved these prodigious 
ruins from being embezzled and lessened/ 

Corfe Castle was a borough by prescription previous to 
the reign of Elizabeth, who bestowed on it a charter ; but the 
privileges granted by this charter were vested rather in thfl 
lord of the manor than the burgesses. Another charter was 
granted by Charles II. Corfe Castle never - nan* 

tatives to the House of Commons till the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, and was diafranfibited by the Reform Act. The 
Mrisfa is now included in the parliamentary borough of 

The living of Corfe Castle is a rectory, of the yearly value 
of Biil., with a glebe-house. There were in the parish in 
1883, three infant or dame schools with 65 children ; five 
day-schools with above 25U children; four ol theae scb 
were chiefly supported by subscriptions and donations j and 
three Sunday-schools with above 200 children. One of the 
day-schools (supported by dissenters) had a lending library 

Milton Abbas, or Abbot, is said to derive its MOM | which 
is a contraction of Middleton Abbot) from its situation near 
the centre of the county. It is in the hundred of White- 
way, in a deep vale inclosed by sleep chalk hills on the 
north and south side, 1 1 1 miles from London* The parish 
comprehends 2 J20 acres, and had in 1831 a population of 
84fi persons: above three-fourths of the population are agri* 
cultural. Its market and fairs have been given up. 

Here was an abbey founded by King Athelstan, which 
alone gave any importance to the town, which was in former 
times more considerable than now. The abbey has been 
numbered among the mitred abbeys, but erroneously. Its 
value at the dissolution was 720/. 4*. Id* gross, or 578/, 
13*. 1 Id. clear. The buildings of the abbey were preserved 
for a long time, but were gradually pulled down, chiefly to 
be replaced by more modern erections. The hall yet re- 
mains, a noble and magnificent old room : part of the 
mansion of Milton Abbey, belonging to the Damer farady, 
which enjoyed for some time the title of earl of Dorchester, 
now extinct* Milton has an almshouse and a grammar- 
school. The conventual church was for some time the 
parish church, but a late earl of Dorchester having built a 
new parish church, converted the old one into a private 
chapel. It consists of the choir, transepts, and tower of the 
old abbey church: the choir El chiefly of early decorated 
character, the transepts and tower perpendicular. The 
general appearance of this edifice is very fine. 

The living of Milton Abbas is a vicarage, of the yearly 
value of 127/., with a glebe-house. In 1833 the parish 
contained seven da y - aob ool a with about 70 children, and 
Sunday-school* witbaboui 

Markets were formerly kept nt Abbot*hury, Bere Regis, 
Evershot, Frampton, and other places. The inhabitants 
• it Ahboishury, which is near the western end of the Cbi 
Hank, are much engaged in the mackerel fishery. A lai*go 
j of Benedictia nxnded here in the eleventh 

ry by Ore, steward of KillR Edward ihe ( 
little of BOW remain: the 

pnrual church i mtirely demolitl 







Near Abbot hbury is an antient chapel of St. Catherine, 
which, from its elevated situation, is used as a tee -mark. 
Swannnire> 6* Swmtfwicli, near Cote Castle, is a place of 
tfBlti resort as a bathing place. » 

Ditisiom for Ecclesiastical and Legal ptrrposes.— ln 
the earlier periorl of the Ecclesiastical constitution of Eng- 
land, Dorsetshire was included in the bishopric of Dor- 
chester in Oxfordshire, a see founded by Bin nils, first bishop 
of the West Saxons, about a,d« 626 ; and afterwards re- 
in ovetl to Winchester. In the year 705 when Ina, king of 
Wessex, divided his kingdom into dioceses, Dorset sh iiv was 
comprehended in that of Sherborne, from which place the 
see was removed, about the middle uf the 1 fill oettturj , to 
Sarum. Upon the. erection of the see of Bristol, a.d. 1 542, 
Dorsetshire was transferred to the new diocese. °f which 
it constituted the chief part, and it continued to he so, 
UCltil transferred back by the late act to the diocese of Salis- 
bury. Dorsetshire was an archdeaconry before it was trans- 
ferred 1o the see of Bristol. It 18 subdivided into five rural 
deaneries, Bridport, Dorchester, Pimperue, Shaftesbury, and 
Whitchurch \\ interbourne. While the county was in the 
of Bristol the bishop held his triennial, and the 
archdeacon his annual visitations at Bridport, Dorchester, 
Dlandibrd, Shaftesbury, Cms Abbas, of Whitchurch: this 
arrangement we presume will be continued. The numhur 
of benefices it is difficult to give: Hutch ins gives the 
publics at 250; of these some are parochial ehapelries ; 
others, though separate and independent in other respects, 
are united under one incumbent. 

This count J is included in the Western circuit. The 
were antient ly held at Sherhourne; sometimes though 
rarely -bury, but generally, especially in latter 

times at Dorchester, where they may be considered 

The shire -hall and county gaol are at Dor* bestir. 
The Epiphany quartet sessions are held at Blandfbnl, the 
Easter ar Sherhourne, the Midsummer at Shaftesbury, aaid 
the Michaelmas at Bridport. 

Btibre the passing of the Reform Art, twenty members 
were returned to the House of Commons from Dorsetshire, 
vix. two for the roimly, four tor the united boroughs of Wey- 
mouth and MeLcomh Regis, and two each for the boroughs 
of Bridport, Corfe Castle, Dorchester, Lyme, Poole, Shaftes- 
bury, and Wareham. By the Reform Act the number has 
been reducer! to fourteen, viz., three for the counl 
each for the boroughs of Bridport, Dorchester, and Poole,, 
arid Weymouth, united with Mclcornh Re^is; and one 
each for the boroughs of Shafte>bury, Lyme Regis, and 
Wareham, Corfe Castle was disfranchised and included 
in the neighbouring parliamentary borough of Wareham. 
The chief place of election for the county is Dorchester: 
the pulling stations are BeaminsteTj Blandford, Cbesilton 
(in the Isle of Portland), Dorchester, Shaftesbury, Sher- 
boiirne. Wareham, and Wimbourne* 

Hist >rtfaud Atrtujui ties.— This county was, in the BtrUMH 
period noticed hy history, inhabited by a people whom 
Ptolemy calls &ovporpty*£ Durotriges, • name which Mr, 
Huicluus ulict Camden) derives from the British words 
D.vrwa'cr and Tn^ au inhabitant, and interprets to mean 
- hy the water side. According to Asset* Menoven- 
fjritons called this people Dur Gwvr: the Saxons 
called them Donjecno (Durscttau,) whence the modern 
name of the county. The name Dorset tan is equivalent 
jn meaning to the antient British name, given in a Greek 
form hv Ptolemy* These Durotriges appear to have been 
of Belgic race. Upon the conqui by the 

Romans, Dorsetshire was included in Britannia Prima. 

Of this early period of our history there are several re- 
rn;iins in various camps and earth works, stone circles, 
cromlechs, and barrows. In the north-eastern part of the 
and the adjacent part of Wiltshire, are several em- 
bankments with ditches : they all run in a winding and 
irregular manner, mostly from southeast to north 

ihe ditch on the northea-t side. Venuhteli, which 
ii name to a part of Cranbournc ehaee, is >»] these* 
firimsditch ■ another. On the right of the road from 
Cerne Abbas to Calstoek and in other parts of the county 
are little ban other in all kind^uf angles': 

they are made of Hints covered with turf. Neither tli 
nor the, tns to be kn 

There are several Roman camps onty. Mr. 

Ilutchins enumerates twenty-five; and the waiU 
amphitheatre of Dorchester, and the eotnfl and pnements 
found there, arc monuments of the same victorious people, 

I pkoei 

There were at least two Roman stations in the county, viz., 
Durnovann, [Itin. Antonini J or Aovvtw, Dunium [Ptolemy], 
D Ofehester : and Vindochidia or Vindogladia, Vindelia m 
Richard of Cireaoester, which some are disposed to fix at 
Wiiidiourne, others more probably ut Gussage, between 
Bland ford FortUB and Cranbourne. To these Dr. Stu* 
would add a third, lbernmm, (mentioned by the anon; 
ll.iVL-nnasJ which he fixes at 'Bere Regis. Several p 
in the confused and barbarous list of names given by Ra- 
vennas, are conjectured by Baxter to be in Dorsetshire. 

The Icknkdd or Ecknield way enters the county at iu 
western extiemity, coming from Hembury Fort [Devon- 
shire], and runs east by south to Dorchester, near which 
it is \ery perfect, high and broad, and paved with Hint and 
stone: from Dorchester it runs by Sheepwick and Stur- 
miknter Marshall, and the Gussages into Wiltshire. la 
this part it is called Aekling dike* Its passing near the 
ives support to the conjecture of those who fix 
Vindogladia at one of them. The remains of a Roman road 
may be traced on the south-west side of the Frome, leading 
Broil Diin.hester in a north-west direction as far as Bradford 
Peverel, and Straiten, soon after which it disappears: 
another road may be traced from Dorchester, on the other 
hank ofFrome, parallel to the former road, and unit >: 
it atSlratton; a third runs south from Dorchester in the 
direction of Meleomb Regis ; and there are traces of sere- 
ral others. 

When the Saxons established their octarchy, Dor-> 
was Included in the kingdom of Wessex ; and even after 
the West Saxon princes acquired the sovereignty of Eng- 
land, they resided occasionally in this county. Ethelhald 
andEthelhert, the elder brothers of Alfred the Grear, were 
buried at Sherhourne; and Ethelred L, another brother of 
the siime prince, at Wmibom in 

In the invasions of the Danes this county suffered se- 
verely, Egbert, king of Wessex, foment a battle wit i 
al Charmiinth, near the western extremity of Dorsetshire, 
a.d. 833, Seven years afterwards bis sou Kthehvolf fought 
a second battle with them at the same place. In • 
they made themselves masters of Wareham, whet* I hey 
besieged by Alfred, who obliged them to qmt that 
place the next year, when 120 of their vessels were wi 
at Swanage. In k.b. 1 0-02, Sweyn, king of Denmark, in 
his invasion of England, destroyed Dorchester, S he rboiirne, 
and Sliaston or Shaftesbury 

Throughout the middle ages, few events of historical in- 
terest connected with the eounty occur. The content of 
the Etoau little ejected tins part of the kingdom. The 
towns on the coast were flourishing, as appears from the 
following list of the vessels which they furnished to the 
fleet of Edward 111. at the siege of Calais, a.d. 1S47* 
Weymouth, 20 ships and 264 mariners, or, according to 
Hackluyt* 15 ships and 263 mariners; Lyme, 4 ships, 62 
manners; Poole, 4 ships, 94 manners; Wareham. 
5S mariners. To judge of the comparative importance of 

lmaments, it must be remembered that BrisK 
dished only 22 ships and fi08 mariners, and London '23 
ships and 062 mariners; so that Weymouth furnished only 

is less than Bristol, and only 5 less than L 
they were, however, more weakly manned and fi 
smaller To the fleet of the lord high admiral (Horn 
Effingham) at the time of the armada, a . >. 
Bounty furnished 8 vessels (3 of them volunteers); the 

mnage of 7 of these was 5GU tons, 
carried irjo men; the tonnage of the eighth vessel i* 
unknown; it carried 50 soldiers. The second engagement 
of the English fleet with the armada was oil I' 

In the civil war of Charles T. the gentry were mostly far 
the king: but the people of the towns, where the clothing 
trade was then carried on, and of the poi 
parliament. In the beginning of the war, Sir Walter 
and Sir Thomas Trenchard, partisans of the pail 
possessed themselves of Dorchester, We) mouth, Portland, 
Lyme, Wareham, and Poole, while Sherhourne 
Chideock (.'astir, and Corfe Castle were garrisoned by the 
The parliamentarians always retained Lyme 
which were fortified; but the other to 
Opel), fell into the hands of whichever pari 
the field. In March, 1642-3, Sir William Waller m 
into the county with two regiments of horse, hut did htile; 
and the earl of Carnarvon entering the county with a body 
•iists, took Dorchester and "Portland, and ra: 




licgeof Corfe Castle which the parliamentarians had formed. 
Several engagements took place in the county ai a later 

Grind of the contest, but they were of little moment Corfe 
Utie held out for the king till 1645-6. The year 1645 
ww lied by the rising oF the club men in the 

counties of D j; , and [Somerset; their object was 

to del of the country from the outrages of 

kotb parties. Their assembling excited the jealousy of 
the parliamentarians, whose superiority was now established 
Cromwell defeated a considerable body of them at Ha- 
i hill, and other bodies were persuaded to disperse. 

-Dorsetshire is principally an agricultural 

county, ranking the seventeenth in this respect. Of 37,861 
niLiles twenty years of age and upwards, inhabitants uf 
Dorsetshire in 1831, there were 16,766 enya^cd tu agri- 
cultural pursuits, and only 722 in manulartures or in 
making manufacturing machinery. Of these latter 400 
were employed in the manufacture of hemp mio twine nud 
sailcloth, chiefly at Bridport ; BO were employed in the 
woollen manufactures, chiefly at Lyme Re^is ; about 40 in 
silk, mostly at Shaftesbury ; there were a few glove-makers 
at Cerne- Abbas ;: arid w ire but ton -ma king still gives em* 
ploy men t to a few hands. 

Ihe following summary of the population, as taken in 
1831, shows the number of the inhabitants and their occu- 
pations in each division of the rouuly. 
















•- a. 31 9 

S s p i 





* m 





b| =- 

a v5 


3 2 


* g E - 


< =-2 

5; * 

>rd. North > 










1 6,089 


Blandford, South , 












Bndp^rt . 











C«rae .... 











2,1 43 

>?ster . 












Station. East 


4,46 2 









8 IIS 





44 , 








Sherborne » i . * 


































Bndport, borough 
EXxrbcster, borough 






















Lpne Regis, borough . 













56 n 










Sherborne, town * 









2 t 266 



WareUam. borough 












SCSfCS.}*-* ■ 











hole, town and county . 








2,884 j 















The population of Dorsetshire each time the census m 




Incr. r*r cent. 




57.717 . 

66,976 , 


. 8 .13 

34 . 

.65 . 


. 15.88 

76,536 ♦ 

; 1 6 . 


. lu 

Hi I „ 

2 for each inhabitant. 


an increase between ihe first and last periods of 
44,933, nearly 39 per cent., which is 1 7 per cent, below 
tb general rate of increase throughout England. 

ijsnxrs. C —The sums expended for 

I of the poor at the four dates of 

jr. d. 

64,771, which was I I 

.304 ., 17 

85,647 „ 11 

„ 90,668 „ 11 

sum expended fur the same purpose in the year 

^36, was 68,01'.'/.; and assuming 

lit same rate of increase in the population since 1831 as in 

the ten years preceding that period, the above suni gives an 

fceraife reach inhabitant. These ave- 

d those for the whole of England and 

IT* sum raised in Dorsetshire for poor-rate, county- 
Me, an l the year ending the 25th 

rf March, 1S33, was 14*., and was levied upon 

U* various descriptions of property as follows: — 

On . » 

tofiiaa, Sec, 
Manorial profits, navigation, 8cc, 








The amount expended was : — 

Fur the relief of the poor 

In suits of law, removal of paupers, &c. 

For other purposes . , , 

£. *. 

90 t 488 16 

2,417 2 

14,301 10 



In the returns made up for the subsequent years, the 
descriptions of property assessed for local purposes are 
not distinguished. The sums raised in the years 1S34, I 
mid 1836 were 102,01;./. 11?.. 94,915/, 15*., and 82,14*/, 12*. 
respect ively, and the expenditure was as follows: — 

Fur the relief of ihe poor 
In iiiits dflaw, removal*, tee. 
Payment toward* the oouq- 1 
ly-nite . » I 

For «1 1 ot In** purpo»e» * 

9,634 IS 

I1.9U 19 

£76.091 3 
3.0C5 4 


/68/U9 7 

Total money ex prmled &&M i! H 94,213 13 S3^76 7 

The saving effected in the sums expended for the relief 
of the poor in 1836, as compared wilh the expenditure A' 
1834, was therefore 16,273/. 13*., or rather more lhan 19 
per cent, and the savins* in the whflk sum * fended was 
15,566/. 7*., or nearly 15J per cent. 

The county expenditure in 1834. exclusive of the relief 
for the poor, was 14,733/. 14*. 1 1 rf., disbursed tl fallow*: — 

£. *. A 
Bridges, buildings, and repairs &e. 
Gaols, bonsai ofcotTeetiotk, &c, atidl 
maintaining prisoners, itc , i 
Shire hall* and ruurls of justice — 1 
building, repairing, fcc. . j 

Lunatic as\lums 

-ecu lions • . t 

CI trk of the peace 

















Conveyance of prisoners before trial 

„ of transports 

Vagrants — apprehending and conveying 
Constables— high and special • 
Coroner ...» 

Miscellaneous . • 

£. #. d. 

819 15 5 

210 16 6 

147 10 

16 8 10 

459 16 11 

860 4 9 

The number of persons charged with criminal offences, 
in tt}g tfu-ee septennial periods ending with 1820, 1327, and 
1834, were 632, 866, and 1150 respectively;' making an 
average of 9Q annually jn the first period, of 124 jn the 
secpnd period, and pf )64 in tfie thinj period. The num- 
ber of persons tried a£ quarter-sessions, in respept to which 
any costs were paid out of the county-rates, were 123, 135, 
and 109 respectively. Of this number, there, were — 

Committed for felonies . . 
„ misdemeanors 






The total number of committals in each of the same 
years was 123, 135, and 109 respectively: ofwfron) 

1831. 1839. 1833. 

The number convicted was . 87 79 79 

„ acquitted ... 17 22 10 

Discharged by proclamation .19 34 20 

At the assises and sessions in 1836 there were 193 parsons 
charged with crimes in this county. Qt this number 15 
wore charged with offences against the person, 10 of which 
were for common assaults ; 1 3 with offences against pro- 
perty, committed with violence; 158 with offences against 
property, committed without violence ; 1 was committed 
for arson ; 2 for counterfeiting coin and uttering the same ; 

I for poaching; 1 for prison-breaking; and 2 for riot. 
Of the whole number of offende/s, 118 were convicted and 
75 acquitted, or no bill found against them. Of the number 
convicted, 5 were sentenced to death, which sentence was 
commuted to transportation ; there were also 14 other per- 
sons transported ; 1 sentenced to imprisonment for 2 years ; 

II for 1 year and above 6 months ; and 79 fbr 6 months 
and under ; 2 were fined, and 3 were discharged on sureties. 
Of the total number of offenders, 162 were males and 31 
were females. Among the whole not one had received 
superior instruction ; 19 could read and write well, 106 could 
lead and write imperfectly ; and 63 could neither read nor 
write; the degree of instruction of the remaining 12 could 
not be ascertained. The proportion of offenders to the 
population, in 1836, was 1 in 866. 

The number of turnpike trusts in Dorsetshire, as ascer- 
tained in 1834, was 17 ; the number of miles of road under 
their charge was 359 ; the annual income arising from the 
tolls and parish composition was 23,002/. 2*. 4d. t and the 
annual expenditure, 24,281/. 9*. lOd. 

The number of persons qualified to vote for the county 
members of Dorsetshire was (in 1836) 6320, being 1 in 
26 of the whole population, and 1 in 6 of the male popu- 
lation above twenty yean of age. The expenses of the 
last election of county members to parliament were to the 
inhabitants of the county 233/. 13#. lie/., and were paid 
out of the general county-rate. 

There are nine savings-banks in this county. The number 
of depositors and amount of deposits on the 20th of No- 
vember were: — 

1839. 1833. 1884. 1836. 

Number of depositors . 5540 5562 6370 6799 
Amount of deposits £234,344 233,037 259,288 274,792 

The various sums placed in the savings-banks in 1834 
and 1835 were distributed as under:— 

1834 183*. 

Depositor*. Deposits. Depositors. Deposit*. 

Not exceeding £20 2714 £22,468 2907 £23,693 





















ve 200 





.6370 259,288 6799 274,792 

Education. — The following summary is taken from the 
parliamentary inquiry on education, Liade in 1835: — 

Infant schools 

Number of infants at such schools ; ages 
from 2 to 7 years — 

Males . . . 

Females . . 

Sex not specified 

SehocVi 8©hoUrs. 


Daily schools 596 

Number of children at such schools ; 
ages frppa 4 to J4 years: — 

Males . . . 6,493 

Females . . . 5,566 

Sex not specified 3,898 

Schools. .711 — 

Total of children under daily instruction U 

Sunday schools 316 

Number of children at such schools ; 

ages from 4 to 15 and 16 years* — 

Males . . . 7,577 

, Females . . . 8,144 

Sex not specified 4,109 


Assuming that the population between 2 and 15 yi 
age has increased in the same proportion as the whole 
lation since 1821, and that since 1831 the rate of in 
has been in the same ratio as in the ten preceding 
there were in 1834 about 50,010 children in Dorse 
between the ages of 2 and 15. A very large number 
scholars attend both daily and Sunday-schools, but is 
number or in what proportion is uncertain. Thirty 
Sunday-schools, attended by 1268 children, are ret 
from places where no other schools exist ; but in all 
places Sunday-school children have opportunity of res 
to other schools also. Thirty-one schools, containing 
scholars, are both daily and Sunday schools, and dui 
entry is known to have been thus far created. W 
therefore conclude that not more than two-thirds < 
whole population between the ages of 2 and 15 wc 
ceiving instruction at tho time of the inquiry. 

Maintenance of Schools. 

Description of 

B f .ndown« B t. ; B M ^nptioo.| £i££Zl S^SSt 





s . cho- 1 SchU. 
lira. 1 



Infant Schools 
Daily Schools 








1.667! 6 

8.983, €E 

60 8 







10.710) ?5 


The schools established fry Dissenters, included i 
above statement, are : — 

Schools. Scholars, 

Infant schools 3 72 

Daily „ 9 322 

Sunday „ ..... 61 4,623 

The schools established since 1818 are:— 

Infant and othor daily schools 373 9,684 
Sunday-schools . . . . 150 11,810 

Twenty-nine boarding-schools are included in the 
ber of daily schools as given above. No school in this c 
appears to be confined to the children of the Estab 
Church, or of any other religious denomination, such < 
sion being disclaimed in almost every instance, esp 
in schools established by Dissenters, with whom are 
included Wesleyan Methodists, together with schoc 
children of Roman Catholic parents. 

Lending libraries of books are attached to 31 schc 
this county. 

DORSIBRANCHIATA, Cuvier's appellation ft 
second order of Annelids, which have tneir organ! 
especially their branchiae, distributed nearly equally 
the whole of their body, or at least a part. Chloci* 
vigny) and Cirratulus (Lamarck), with many other g 
which our limits do not permit us to enumerate, bet 
this order. The reader is referred to Lamarck (Am 
sans Vartcbres, .tome v.); to Savigny (Kg. Annel.); i 
Cuvicr (Regne Animal, tome iii.) as the principal j 
on this subject. [Annelida.] 

DORSTE'NIA, a genus of plants of the family < 
Urticac^w. The roots of several species of this gen 




confounded under the appellation of Contrayerva root, 
as they all possess nearly the same chemical cum po- 
rtion and properties, it is of little importance whiHi v l 
titular species yields what is used* Indeed, by the time 
tike root reaches Europe, whatever virtues it originally 
possessed are lust, so that il has scarcely any sensible quali- 
ties* and very little effect on the system. It eon- 
TDlalfle oil, extractive and starch. T*he first of thesi 
H some nower over the nervous system, should it not have 
been dissipated by time. Hence it is rem ru mended in the 
tow stages of fever, especially of children : but serpenlaria 
root toay at all times be advantageously substituted for it. 
5 erva signifies antidote, and it was at one time sup- 
jw*ed to be an antidote to all poisons, whether animal, 
ible, or mineral, except mercury. 
DORT or DORDRECHT, in anlient times called Thure- 
drecht, a city of South Holland, is situated on an island 
formed by the Maas, which was separated from the op- 
ihore in November, 1421* by an irruption of the 
listers. By this irruption the dikes were broken down, 
more than 70 villages were destroyed, and an immense 
number of the inhabilants were drowned. The city is 
1 twelve miles south-east from Rotterdam, in 51° 49' 
' K. long. 
Dort is said to have been- founded by Merovseus in the 

Mmtury. It ts certainly one of the most anlient cities 
<nd was formerly the capital of the province. 
is naturally so strong, that although frequently 
d it has always made successful resistance to the 
a safe and good harbour, and is well situ- 
r trade, hating two canals, by means of v Im-h L'o'"'ds 
cm he conveyed to warehouses in the heart of the city, 
t] trade is that of corn and wood; large rafts of 
or are brought down the Rhine to this place, and 
u up for sale. There are many saw-mills in the 
town, »nd ship- building also forms a large branch of its 
ns about 18,000 inhabitants. Gerard 
YmaJus and the brothers De Witt were natives of the town. 
■ n-hall is a handsome building, and the principal 
is 300 feet long and 125 feet wide, with lofty towers 

DORT, SYNOD OF, an Assembly of Protestant Divines 

fOTiTokcd at Dort in the year 1C 18, by the Stales General, 

the Influence of Prince Maurice of Nassau, by *hich 

of the Arminians, in live points, relating to pre- 

'n>n and grace, were condemned by the followers of 


At this synod ecclesiastical deputies were present from 

«it of the' States of the United Provinces, and from the 

rfcejehes of England, Hesse, Bremen, Switzerland, and the 

Pthttnate* Those from England were Dr. George Carleton, 

kthop of Landaff ; Dr. John Davennnt, regius professor of 

fivinity at Cambridge and rnnster of Queen's College ; Dr. 

tbtnticl Ward, master of Sidney College; and Dr. Joseph 

H*h\ then dean of Worcester but afterwards bishop of Nor- 

> H L'fl health, after two mouths, requiring his 

rrrarti, " c wai * replaced by Dr. Thomas Goad. To these 

tis afterwards added Walter Balcanqual* a Scots divine, 

deputed by King J Limes on behalf of the churches of that 

aition 4 was opened on November 13, I HIS: it 

»u*is*cd of thirty-eight Dutch and Walloon divines, five 

frnfranm of universities, and twenty-one lay-ciders; the 

mounted to twenty-eight Those from 

ad the precedence, after the deputies of the 

horn the Arminians were headed in de- 
ns Simon Episcopius, at that time 
Ley den, who ope tied the proceed- 
aj\ c:, I of his sect, with a moderation and elo* 

him honour. The remonstrants, how- 
iatiSp were called, desiring n> rest the 
ir cause, not upon the grounds in r» 
re on which their opinions were founded, but on 
of the opinions of the Calvinists their 
• difficulties arose, and their proposal was re- 
re told that the synod was met to judge, 

the Arminians, says Mosheim, in the pro- 
as*; gel the people on tnetr 
<4e,bf such an unfavourable representation of the Cal virus* 
<item. and of the harsh consequences that seemdeduci- 
W» from It, as might excite a disgust in the minds of those 
present, against its friends and abettors. And it 

is more than probable that one of the principal 
that engaged tne members of the synod to reject this pro- 
posal, was a consideration of the genius and eloquence of 
Episcopius, and an apprehension of the effects they might 
produce upon the multitude. When all the methods em- 
ployed to nersuade the Arminians to submit to the manner 
of proceeding, proposed by the synod, proved ineffectual, 
they were excluded from that assembly, and returned home 
complaining bitterly of the rigour and injustice with which 
they had been treated. Their cause was nevertheless tried 
in their absence^ and, in consequence of a strict examina- 
tion of their writings, they were pronounced guilty of pes- 
tilential errors, and condemned as corrupters of the true 
religion. This sentence was followed by its natural effects, 
which were the excommunication of the Arminians, the 
suppression of tlu'ir religious assemblies, and the depriva- 
tion of their ministers, 

Brandt, in the second and third volumes of his * History 
of the Reformation in and about the Low Countries, 1 foh 
London, 1 720-1 722, has given a very minut edetnil of the pro- 
ceedings in the successive sessions of this synod ; they were 
a hundred and eighty in number, and continued till May 
29th, IBJ9. Brandt, however, was an Arm tnian, and though 
he is to be relied upon for facts, the reasoning which he 
occasionally deduces from them requires a comparison with 
other writers. Maclaine in his ■ Notes on Mosheim,' says, 
the reader will do well to consult the letters of the learned 
and worthy Mr* John Hales of Eton, who was an impartial 
spectator of the proceedings of Ihis famous synod, and who 
relates with candour and simplicity what he saw and heard, 
All that appeared unfair to the Arminians in the proceed- 
ings of this synod, has been collected together in a Dunn 
book entitled * Nullitegten, Mishandelingen, ende annyllike 
Proeeduren des Nationals n Synodi gehonden tunnen Dord- 
recht, &c.* 

Of the disputes which had prevailed in Holland for some 
years, between the Calvinists and Arminians, previous to 
the convocation of this synod, we have already spoken in 
the account of Bar nevoid t the grand pensionary, whose fate 
was sealed, when it had been sanctioned by the decision of 
this assembly. (See Brandt, ut supr. ; Mo»hcim's ' E«vl. 
Hist. 1 4to. Lund. 1705, vuL ii pp. »4, 625 | and * The 
tides of the Synod of Dott, and its rejection of errors: 
transL from the Latin, with Notes, &c* by Thomas Scott, 1 
8vo. Lond. IS18.1 

The presentation copy of the ■ Acta Synodi Nationalii, 
autoritate illustr.eipricpotenlum DD.Ordfnum Generalmin 
Federal! Belgii Provintiaruin Dordrechli habitjp anno 
MDCXViii et Mrx:xix, foL Lugd. Bat. 1620,' formerly belong- 
in£ to King James I., splendidly bound in crimson velvet 
and embroidered with the royal arms, is still preserved in 
the library of the British Museum. A wood-cut fen 
senting the sitting of the synod is prefixed to ' Judicium 
Synodi National is reformutaruiu Ecclesiariim Betgicnrum 
habttro Dordrechti, Anno 1618 et 1619/ 'The Collegiat 
Suffrage of the Divines of Great Britain concerning the 
Five Articles controverted in the Low Countries : by them 
delivered in the Synod, March 6, 10 19, being their vote or 
voice foregoing the joint and publique judgment of 
Synod/ was published in English, 4 to., Lond. 1629. 

An Album containing the signatures of the different 
members of the synod was delivered to each person at the 
breaking up of the assembly; one of them was disposed < f 

ndon at the auction of Mr. Van Sybatein's MSN 
1825. The gold medal Btruck by the Slates in com me* 
moration of the sYpod to eftgrated in the - Histoire Metal- 
lique de la Republique de Hollande, par M. Bizot, 1 torn L 
p. 1 39. 

In the stxth session, which was held on the 19th Novem- 
ber, 1618, the synod of Dort proposed obtaining a transla- 
tion of the Bible from the original texts into Dutch, whicll 
was judged to be a necessary work. In the Setenth, und 
some of the succeeding sessions, tbe transition was Anally 
J to, and rules laid down for the direction of the trans- 
lators, ]n the thirteenth session, on the 24th November, 
the translators were appointed, when the following Mere 
chosen by a majority of votes; John Bogennan, the | 
sident of the synod ; William Ban dart and Gerson Bucer, 
for the Old Testament ; Jacobus Roland, Herman Fauke- 
Hus, and Peter Cornelius, for the New Testament arid Apo- 
crypha. The synod then chose sixteen supi- the 
translation; and also resolved, that in case any uf the trans- 
lators should die or be disabled by sickness the pre- id 

D O U 


o u 

with the two assessors, and the scribes of the synod, should 
be empowered to appoint successors. 

After a delay of nearly ten years, the translator* of the 
Old Testament assembled at Leyden, in 1628, and the next 
NVi 1629, the translators of the New Testament ; but as 
Herman Faukelius pastor of the church of Middieburg, 
and Peter Cornelius, pastor uf the church of Enchuean, had 
died previous to their meeting together, Anthony Walaoua 
and Fetus Hommius were chosen in their stead. When 
the translation of the Old Testament had advanced as far 
as the first chapter of Ezekiel, Gerson Bucer died, and was 
succeeded in his office by Anthony Thy sins : Jacobus 
Roland also died win n Eta translation of the New Testa- 
ment had advanced to The Acts of the Apostles. The 
translation of the entire Bible was completed in 1032. The 
supervisors of the Old Testament met at Leyden, with the 
translators, in 1633; and those of the New Testament in 
1634 ; and the revision was completed in October, 1635. 
The printing of the Bible was finished in 1637 t when it ap- 
peared in folio from the presses of Leyden and the Hague, 
and in octavo from the press of Amsterdam. This is what 
i> railed 'The Dort Bible/ Editions of it were soon rapidly 
multiplied and extensively circulated. (See Brandt, ut 
KUpr. vol. iii. p. 25 — 2S ; Leusdeni, Phifologus Hebrew 
't«, Diss. x. et xi. ; and Tuwnley's Illustrations ,/ Bibli- 
cal Literature, 8vo. Lind. 1821, vu'l. iii. pp. 400, 40L) 

DOT, in music, a point, or speck, placed after a note 
or rest, in order to make such note or rest half as long 
again. Thus a semibreve with a dot is equal to three 
minims: a crotchet reef with a dot is equal to three 
quaver rests. In modem musir a double dot n often used, 
10 which ceee the second is equal to half of the first. Thus 
a double dotted minim is equal to three crotchets ami a 
quaver; a double-dotted quaver rest is equal to three semi- 
quaver rests and one demisoiniquaver rest. Examples:— 





DOTIS, one of the four circles of the county of Coniorn, 
in northwestern Hungary. Dofa un Hungarian Tata\ 
the chief town of the circle, lies to »he south-east of the 
town of Comorn, in 47° 38' and 1*° 20' E. long. The 
town is situate on an eminence next the river Tata, and 
with its suburb, Tovaros, which signifies ' Lake Town/ as 
il lies on the margin of a narrow lake about four mile* in 
length, contains about 960 houses and 8870 inhabitants, 
Between the two are the ruin* of an antient castle, D 
brtled f^r its strength in former days, and Miid lo have been 
built by the Romans, which was a favourite residence of 
Mat bias Corvinus, kint? of Hungary. Among the buildings 
tOte are three churches, one of which is very old, a 
Cipuchin ami a Piarist monastery, the latter having a 
grammar-school, a head-dUtnct school, a military hospital, 
and some warm baths, much in repute. The inhabitants 
are industrious, have several flour anu saw-mills, and manu- 
facture coarse woollen cloths, earthenware and pottery, 
beer, bed-rugs, &c. In the adjoining villas of Bay is "a 
.spacious cellar, capable of slowing away SO.flOu aulms of 
wine : among them U a tun which 20 aulas. The 

Eelerhisy family have a splendid castle here, with grounds 
laid out in the' English style. At St. Ivany, near \> 
are quarries of fine marble and freestone. There are vine- 
yards, large sheep*grounds, and extensive forests, in the 
neighbourhood. Dotis, and much of the surrounding land, 
are the property of the Esterh&zy family. There are well 
attended annual fairs. 

I JOTTREL. [Plovers.] 

DOUAY, or DOUAI, a town in the department of Nord, 
on the river Searpe, near where the canal of the Haute 
Deule meets it, on the road from Pai onne and 

Carnbray to Lille and Bruges, If miles from Paris. It is 
108 miles from Paris in a straight line north by cost, in 
50° 21' N. lat, and 3 C 6' E. long. 

Douay is advantageously situated for commerce. It is 
surrounded by latitat walls, Hanked with towers: the walls 
afford an agreeable promenade. The town is further de- 
fended by a fort on the left bank of the Searpe. The area 

I by Pie walls is large, and contains almost as 
gardens as dwellings. The streets are well laid out, 
the town-hall, the church of St. Pierre (Peter), and 
arsenal, one of the most considerable in France, are 
principal buildings. The inhabitants, who amounted in 
1832 to 18,793, are engaged in manufactures of various 
kinds, as linens, lace, gauze, cotton goods and yarn, soap, 
glass, leather, and refined sugar. A considerable trade is 
carried on in flax, woollen cloth, and cattle. There is every 
second year an exhibition of the articles of manufacturing 
industry ; and prizes are distributed for the most useful ana 
ious inventions or the best finished pieces of work- 
manship. Medals are likewise annually distributed by the 
Departmental Society of Agriculture, which has its seat in 
this town, not at Lille. Douay is the seat of a cour royale, 
which exerci-es jurisdiction over the departments of Nord 
and Pas de Calais. It is also the capital of an arrondisse- 
ment* There are at Douay an academic umversif 
university, vl college or high school, a school for the artillery, 
and a school of drawing and music The public library 
consists of 27,01KJ volumes, and there are a museum of 
natural history, a botanic garden, and a collection of paint- 
ings and antiquities, a (bundling hospital, a theatre, two 
other hospitals (one military), and a military prison. 

Douay is a place of great antiquity: it existed in the 
time of the Romans, and became under the counts of 
Flanders a place of considerable importance. Phillippe le 
Bel having a dispute with the count ol Flanders, possessed 
himself of this town a,d> P297, but it was restored to the 
counts in ad. 1368 by Charles V. of France. With the 
rest of Flanders it passed under the dominions of the king* 
of Spain: and in a.d, 1552 Philip IL of Spain founded a 
university b< if In 1667 Louis XIV. of France took pos- 
session of Douay: it was taken in 1710 by the allies under 
Etfarlborough and Eugene, but the French retook it after 
tin' English withdrew from the coalition against France. 
The arrondissement is divided into six cantons, and - 
communes; it had in 1832 a population of 92,750. Much 
flax is grown, and coal is dug in the neighbourhood of lb© 

DOUAY BIBLE. [Bible,] 

DOUBLE-BASE, the largest musical instrument of the 
viol kind. [Viol.] In England, Italy, and France, the 
double-base has three strings, which are tuned in fourthi: 



(An Qctate tower.) 

In Germany a fourth string is used, tuned a fourth below 
tin* deepest of the above. 

Tin' double-base, in full orchestral pieces, takes the notes 
written for the violoncello, when not otherwise directed, 
and if these are nut too rapid, but alwaj hemos 

octavo lower. It may be considered as the founds 
the band, for a want of firmness in this instrument is mom 
fatal in its consequences than unsteadiness in any other. 

In our concerts the Italian name of this instrument, 
GonirthhoHQ (or, more strictly, Contrab-ba*$o) t is as h^ 
fluently employed as its English appellation, 

DOUBLE STARS. [Stabs, Double.] 

DOUBLOON. [Monky.] 

DO UBS, a river in the south-eastern part of Frar 
longing to the system of the Rhone, It rises in the loftiest 
ridges of the Jura, at the foot of Mont Rixon, near the 
village of Moulhe, in the department of Doubs, and flo«s 
75 miles north-east through the lake of St. Point and past 
the town of Pontarlier to the village of Glovilier, nesr 
Porentruy, in Switzerland, Here it makes a sudden bend, 
and re-entering France, flows '20 miles west- 

n of St. Hy polite, where it receives a small tributary, 
the Desoubre; below St. Hjpolite it makes another beni 
and flows north and then north-east 15 miles to the village 
of Audineourt, where it again I urns to the w< 
and west south-west, and Hows 100 miles, past 1 
Baume-les-Dames, Besancon, which it nearly encircles 
[Besaxcox], and Dole, to Verdun -si u 
the Saone. The whole course of the Doubs is ab< 

The lower part of its course is in the departments 
of Jura and Stftne et Loire. 

The source of Lbo Doubs is copious; il is the outlet of* 
subterranean reservoir fanned by the drainage of a coo- 




bfefttrface; hut the valley through which it flows in 

us course is narrow, and the stream re- 

ms until it reaches Audincourt, just below 

I I alio. This part of its course is over 

limestone; and Li ire partially (in one rase, below 

■t entirely) absorbed by the ravines which 

n the rock. Near the village of ttforteeu, a few miles 

1* The river is used 

r and rails below Audincourl, and occa- 

but the floating is subj 

obstruction Mid danger fioni the rocks which havo rolled 

from the taoun the channel of the river. 

formerly navigable for boats only near the mouth 

other ] >a r is ; 1 1 o w, by 1 1 \ e fo r in a I to n of 1 he ca nal 

to the Rhine, it has boon rendered naviga* 

Cuts have been made in some of the parts 

as very winding, in order to shorten tlie 

tisviga: b may be estimated at from 75 to 80 miles. 

3 of the Doubs is much wider below < 

that place; but it is nut very wide in any 

od I he affluents of the Doubs are of little import- 

rbe principal are the Laudeux, the Loue, 60 miles 

hixg. used for floating timber, the Doraine, and the Gu toll e, 

uter the Doubs on the left bank. 

a department in France, taking its name from 

r Doubs, which has its source and a considerable 

nine within its boundaries. It is nn the frontier 

rid is bounded on the south-east side and pari of 

(breast tide by Switzerland ; on the remainder of the east 

* bounded by the department of Ha at Rhin ; on the 

e department of Haute Saone, and on the west 

nt of Jura, This department is irregu- 

•ped: its greatest length is, from north-east near 

near the source of the Doubs, 

is greatest breadth, at right angles to the 

tu near Ma may on the Oignon to Jottgne, 

from Pontarlior to Lausanne, 48 miles: the 

J square miles, being below the average of 

ante, and about equal to the joint 

English counties of Wilts and Berks, The 

fspulat tot much more than 

rage Papulation of Ihe French depart - 

aents, and rather less than that of ihe English taunt] of 

Save*; nvc population was i2G to a square mile; 

age relative population of France being about J GO 

mile, and that of England 260. The jmpula- 

torn is very unequally distributed! in the plains it is far 

*tofe the average of France, but very thin indeed in the 

avmtaiflooa parts. The department u comprehended be> 

friro 4i> Q 33' and 47° 33' N. lat., and between a° 4'2' and 

long. Besancon, the capital, is 20.3 miles in a 

sraicbt line south-east of Paris; or 237 miles by the road 

tfceejtti i'rovins, Troves, Chatillon-sur-Seine, Dijon, and 


Toe south-eastern part of the department is traversed by 

la* ndges of the Jura, which have a general direction 

ertb-test and south-west : the summits kd r Launiout, 

Tkmnniont Mont Dor, and Rissons, are the principal : the 

Ui-menttoued is about 2170 feet high, and the highest 

department. On these summits no vegetation 

they are composed of bare rocks, covered with 

Dearly two-thirds of the year. The slopes of these 

ere rocky, with patches of moss, and straggling 

and hazels. On the do the slopea afford 

Storage, and pleasant valleys sheltered by pine 

in some of the valleys barley and oats are raised, 

•jtoperature is too cold for wheat or rye. The few 

inhabitant* of these highlands preserve the hospitality and 

of manners which mark the people of a mountain 

Between the higher country and the valley of the 

Deuba ia e dist - levation, marked by a milder 

and a more productive soil than belong to the district 

,tL Wheat, though iu small quantity, is pro- 

on some of the more favourable slopes the 

i ; in the woods the oak and the beech 

Many tracts in this and the more ele- 

i them tlow the 

it* Deuba oer< 
lad populous. 

The roers are the Doubs, and its tributaries; and the 
try oi t tie Sadne, which, rising in the 
Veegee, flows south-west into the Saone; it touches the 
P C, No, 544. 

it. The plain or Telle] of 
st of the department ; it is fertile 

boundary of this department below Villerscxel (II auto 

Saone), and separate* it through a considerable pari of its 

course from the department of Ha; 

taries of the Doubs which are within this deparftnetll 

the Drnjon, which falls into it below Ponlarlier, the I ).-- 

SOUbre, the Halle, the Lruulcux, and the Loue, 1 ] 

the Braitie, and the Loison are feeders of the Loue ; and 

the Creuse and the Cusanrin are feeders of the Laudeux. 

There are several lakes, but none of any size except the 

lake of St, Point, formed by the river Doubs, which is about 

flre miles long and one or two broad. 

The canal which unites the navigation of the Rhone with 
that of the Rhine traverses this department throughout, 
and consists partly of an artificial channel, pertly of that 
of the river Doubs. The department U ill prOTJOed vim 
roads; a road hum Paris by Dijon, Besaiieou, and Ponl- 
arlier to Lausanne passes through it: snot her road from 
Bale and Bcllurt to Dole and Beaune passes along the 
valley of the Doubs through Baunie lei Dames and Be- 
sancon: a toad from Besancon runs through Duingey to 
Poliguy, in the department of Jura: and another ft 
Ponlarlier to Sauna and D61« , both m the department of 
Jura: another road runs from Beaa acoB to Vesoul, in the 
department of Haute Saone; and another from Bale 
Clerval, where it falls in with the road from B&lc and 
Belfort to BeaaneofL The others are all bye roads. 

The mineral treasures of the department are et m 
dcrable. There were formerly silver mines in Mont Dm-, 
but they tire no longer wrought : oxide of iron is procured 
in abundance; freestone is quarried; and marl, sanu 
proper for making glass, ochre, and a species of inflam- 
mable sehistus are dug. Peat for fuel is procured in many 
places. The temperature is variable, and colder than the 
latitude would give reason to expect: the rains are frequent 
and heavy, but the climate is not by any means unhealthy. 
The soil is in different parts composed of sand, clay, or 
marl, or a combination of these substances. Wheat,* rye, 
mixed corn, maize, hemp, potatoes, pulse, wine, and fruit 
are produced in the plain; barley, oats, a little tlax, and 
limber in the higher grounds. The agricultural produce, 
except in barley, and perhaps oats and potatoes, is very far 
below the average of France, Oats and potatoes form a 
considerable part ofthe food of the poorer classes : the Spa- 
nish oat is that chiefly cultivated. Agriculture is in a back- 
ward state. The quantity of horses and oxen in proportion 
to the population is very considerable: cattle constitute 
the wealth of the mountaineer. The artificial gr 
cultivated ; trefoil is found to be better suited to the cliii 
than either lucerne or sain-fuin. Their Eire extensive OOTO7 
inon lands, on which < to The number of sheep 

in the deportment is comparativi mall. 

The department is divided into four arrundisscnicns or 
iub-prefectures : Moutbrliard 111 the northeast and e. 
population 53,642; Pontarlier in the south, population 
1*^77; Besancon in the west, population 96,032; and 
Baumc les Dames, centre and north, population fiJ,8s4. 
four arrondissemens are subdivided into 87 cantons 
and 646 communes. The capital, Besancon p on 1 1u 
has a pojiiiUitmn of 94,042 for the town, or 2!?,167 for the 
whole commune, and Baume les Dames, also on the Doubs, 
a population of 2S09 t<>r the town, or the 

whole commune. [Baume; Bssaxco:*.] Ofthe other 
towns we subjoin some account. 

Mmitbelinrd i* 011 the little river Halle, ju>t before its 
junction with the Doubs. It was formerly the capital of a 
smell principality; it is now a thriving and industrious 
ii.iun. Ihe capital of an arrondissement, It ifl pleasantly 
situated in the valley which separates the ridges ofthe Jura 
from those of the Vosges, and is surrounded by vineyards. 
It is well built, and adorned by several fountains. An 
antient castle, once the residence of the princes of Moiit- 
beberd, and in which the archives of their princi] ahty are 
still preserved, commands the town: it now serves as a 
irrack for the gendarmerie. The market - 
*) and the church of St, N 
which has a roof 85 feet Ifl ' without pillar 

sustain it, are the buildings most worthy of notice. The 
inhabitants amounted, in 1632, to 4671 for the town, or 
4767 for the whole commune: tiny manufacture watch 
movements, watchmakers' tiles, cotton yarn, hosiery, woollen 
cloths, kerseymeres, and leather: they carry on a consider- 
able trade with Switzerland. The arrondissement of Mont- 
bcliard is distinguished by the prevalence of maivvjfosNNKwe 




similar to those carried on in the town itself with the 
Uon of saw manufactoi houses, paper-mills, and 

oil- mills. The number of tan-yard- is groat in everv part 
of the department, hut especially In this arrondissement. 

Pontarlier is on tlie Doubs, in the upper part of its course, 
36 miles south- south-east of Bcsancon, by the road through 
Omans. It is near a natural pass from Fiance Into Swit- 
zerland, known to the antient s, and defended hy b 
(iht? Port of Joux) on the pyramidal summit of Mont Joux. 
Tins fort of JoUX was the plaeeof the confinement and death 
of Toussaint L'Quverture, the Haytian chief* Ponla 
lms been supposed hy D'Anville to be the Ariolica of the 
Itinerary of Antoninus, the Abiolica ojf the Theodosian 
Table; but the soundness of his opinion has been disputed: 
the most an Hen t records give it the names of Pbntplia, 
Pons /Elii, Pons Arleti, and Pons Aria?. Until the four* 
ntury, 1 here were two adjacent towns, Pontarlier 
and Morieux, but they now form only one. It has 
repeatedly destroyed by fire, the last time in 1754. It is 
Well built, and is surrounded by an ant tent wall, bul 
fortified. There are a library, a high sell- nil, a cm 
house, and a fine range of barracks for cavalry. The popu- 
lation has, from the increase of trade, doubled in tb< 
forty years: the inhabitants, in 1832, amounted to 4$ 
the LtO 7 for the whole commune oture 

], bar iron, iron and steel goods of various ainrts (among 
them are cannon, nails, steel wire, and \* ateh and elock move- 
ments), porcelain, and calicoes: there is a copper thundery, 
at which are made church bells and cylinders for printing 
calicoes: there are also tag-yards and paper-mills. A 
great quantity of extract of wormwood is made here • 
year. Among the natives of PtWitorlier was General 
d' A icon, the contriver of the fleeting batteries at the 
of Gibraltar, in 1782. [Arcon.] The neighborhood of 
Pontarlier produces excellent cheese. 

Grnans is seventeen miles from Besancon. in the arron- 
1 t of Besancon, on the road to Pontarlier. It \s 
wal led : near the walls are the remains of an antient castle ■ 
there are a fine hospital and a public library. The in- 
habitants in 1894 amounted to 2858 for the town, or 
for the whole commune ; they manufacture a considerable 
quantity of leather, some paper, cheese, and extract of worm- 
L Immediately round tbe town cherries ore cultivated 
in t^ent quantity; and an excellent kirsebwnsser is pn-j 

CO them. The neighbourhood of Ornaus abounds With 
natural ci ; as the grottos of BaumarchaK Bon- 

nevaux, Btou id ChSteauvieux, the cascade* of 

Houthier, and the well of Breme, which, when the rivers 
overflow their hanks, is filled with a muddy water that 
in it, (lows over the top, and inundates the valley in which 
the well is situated: on these occasions it throws up a 
number of fishes. 

Beside l V»e foregoing; there are in the arrondissement of 
Montbchard the towns of Blamont, near the Doubs, and 
lite, or Hippolyte, on that river, Blaniunt is u 
fortified town, but is very small. The inhabitants manu- 
factured, at the commencement of the present Century, fire- 
arms, cannon, iron wive, and paper: we have no later 
account At Si, Hypolite hard- wares are made and eh 
There are many iron factories in the neighbourhood. The 
j mediately surrounded with \ 
backed by n covered with wood. 

Near St, Hypolite is a curious cavern, between eighty and 
ninety feet high, which penetrates horizontally the per- 
pendicular face of a rock: the name of the cavern, * Le 
Chateau de la Roche; is derived from an antient castle at 
the entrance, which was ruined in the religious wars of the 
sixteenth century ; the ruins stili Audnicourt, a 

village on the Doubs, has a population of 1000: the inha* 
bit ants manufacture iron goods and cotton yarn. M M&deure, 
another village in the arrondissement, h on the site of a 
Roman town, Epamanduorum. There are the remain 
on amphitheatre, and medals and other antiriu 
hern dug up. At the village of Hcrii mm court are manu- 
factured wooden screws, and clock and watch movent 
wood* Lre made at Dampierre. 

In the arrondissement of Baume tea Dames are the towns 
of Clerval on the Doubs, Rougemont, and Passavant, The 

e manufacture 

of i .unction of the 

mes navigahle. In the arron- 

u1 of Be^nncon are t! if Quingey and Yil- 

"ms, Qumgey is a town of less than 1000 inhabitants, 

who are engaged in the manufacture of Iron goods. There 
is an antient caslle, once the residence of the co\ 
Buurgogne ; and near the town is a cavern, adorned with a 
variety of congelations. Near Boussiere, which is not far 
from Quingey, is a remarkable cavern, consisting of 
of apartments, extending ah ive half a mile in length. 

In the arrondtssemenl of Pontarlier are the towns of 
Roche jean and Morteau on the Doubs, 1^ Ri 
Drujon, and Juugne on the border of Switzerland. At 

jean are smelting houses for piir uon and en 
tan yards and 1 1; and at La Riviere ar> 

yard and a linseed-oil mill At the village of Levier, and 
m the neighbourhood, a good deal of cheese tsmade 
the village is a pit, the depth off which is unklioi 
appears to consist of a bu f caverns on d 

levels: it \t used as a receptacle for the carcases of : 
and other refuse. Two dogs which had by accident fallen 
into one of the caverns lived for a long time on the 
thus disposed of, and brought forth young before they *cre 
red and rescued. The village of Mont Benoit (Be- 
nedict), on the Doubs, has a handsome Gothic • 
formerly the conventual church of a considerable abbey 
which existed here. The neighbouring village of Reruon- 
not has for ils church a remarkable cave. 

The department of Deuba sends four members 
Chamber of Deputies; it forms, with the depart:: 
Baone, n of the archbishop of Be 

in the jurisdiction of the Cour Royale, or S 
Court of Besancon, and in the sixth militarv rlivi 
which the head-quarters are at Besancon. Edu< 
more general m this department than in almost ai, 
in France: there is one hoy at school for < 

The inhabitants of the mountains are tall, 
health) ; sober, economical, gentle, willing to oblif 

and true to their word, but untaught and 
those of the plain are neither so robust, nor temperate* oof 
obliging. This department is part of the former count} of 
Bourgogne, or Frunche Comte. (Dictionnatrt Umverttl 
de hi Fntncr : Mnlte Brun ; Dupin, Forces / > tU 

hi Fntup,' : Dictionnm apktque UmrerscL) 

DOUCHE. [Bathing] 

DOUCKKR. [Divers] 

DOUGLAS FAMILY. Tltis family derives its , 
from certain lands on the Don 
shire of Lanark, which were granted out about the 
of the twelfth century by Arnold, Abbot of K 
Theobald, a Pleming, whose son was thence called William 
de Doti 

William married a lister of Friskin de Kerdal, in the pro* 
vim -v of Moray, and had several children, all of whom, 
except the eldest, settled in the north, Bnce, i he second 
son, became bishop of Moray; Alexander, the thii 
became sheriff of Elgin ; and their sister, M 
1 1 e i vey de Keith, i reschal of t he I 

Archenbald, the eldest son, married one ghter* 

and co-heiress* a of Sit John de Crawford, of Crawford, and 
had two sons, William and Andrew, each of whom h 
sons likewise, William's eldest son married a s 
Lord Abernethy, but dying without issue, wan sucre* 
hi* brother, some time governor of the castle 
Andrew's eldest son married I lie only daughter el 
toiler, lord high steward of Scotland, and bad I 
eldest of whom WOS Sir James Dougla- 
called to distinguish him from his cousin, * 
.' one of the chief associates of Bruce in m 
independence of his country. lit 

banneret under the royal standard ut Bam , whem 

he commanded the centre division of the Si 
died in a contest with the Saracens when, 
the trust committed to him, he was on his way to deposit 
the heart of Bruce in the Holy Land. 

William de Douglas, some" time governor of Edinburgh 
Outle, was a msr -I Sir James of Loudon, 

eldest lawful son, also William de 
of Athol conferred upon bun on the death of John < 
hell without issue; but he soon afterwards fasten < 
title, and gave a charter of the earldom to J 
Scotland, This William de I 
of Ltddisdale, and though himself the fl 
as he was culled, is to he particularly di« 
Sir William i lie knight of Ltddisdale, natural soft 

of the good Sir James. The knight of Liddisdsie leaf 




merited the eulogy which Fordtin gives him, of being* Eng- 
_e and Scotland's bulwark ;' but the praise of pa- 
ri of humanity itself, he outlived ; for being 
Lfipointment to the sheriff- 
pportunity, and came upon 
Ramsay with an armed band, 
1 him, and dragged him away to Hermitage castle, 
unoffending victim, Hunt with 
3 rankling wounds, till, after a period of 
uftrring. death at length terminated his 
ivernment of lb in such a 

at I that the king not only could not avenge 

I to pardon the relentless mur~ 
r. an r to put him into the vacant sheriffship. 

at la-: died b\ the hand of an assassin of the house of 

I Sir James had another natural son, whom we 
ii presently, but having no lawful issue, he was 
bis brothers, Hugh and Archibald, the latter of 
of John Cumyn, of Badenoch, 
v of John Baliol, king of Scotland, and 
the younger of whom, William, inherited the 
. and became earl of Douglas, in which cha- 
id bun lord justiciar of Lothian the year 
II. ascended the throne, He was 
He married first a daughter of the twelfth 
nd in her right was styled earl of Douglas 
id earl of Douglas and 
, man iref, eldest daughter of King Robert IL, 

no surviving male issue, the earldom of Mar 
and the earldum of Douglas on Ar- 
tie natural son of the good Sir James 
ipecial settlement. This Archibald, 
led from his great prowess * Ar- 
," had himself a natural son, who married 
ing Robert II. 

1 of Douglas, had no children by liLs 

By his third marriage, which was with 

of the third earl of Angus, 

i, George, who obtain edj on his mother' 

Italian, a grant of the earldom of Angus. He also got a 

grant of tfship of Roxburgh, and is found in that 

efitie antiu 1398. Tlie previous year he married Mary, 

*maul daughter of King Robert 111. 

las, who gallantly defended the castle of 

-li in the minority of David II, r 

I William, lord of Liddisdale, above 

children, three of whom only 

notice. James, Henry, and John, 

I Mar iota, daughter of Reginald de 

►iland beyond the Grampians, 

im de Vaux. Sir Henry married a niece of King 

Hubert IL, and by her had a son, who married a gruud- 

SUsdilct of the same king. Sir James, the eldest, sue- 

aesbd his uncle, the lord of Liddisdale, in the lordship of 

, other extensive p He was 

tea* married, h wife bei; r of Km^ 

i, by his first marriage, married 

tdtogh III-, and had a grandson, who j 

ighter of King James I., and relict 

U Jam**, Ibi old was on the 14th March, 

be House of Douglas: the 

is, and the earl of Morton. 

! ill 1\ . D 'Uglas, eldest son of Archibald 

i daughter of king Robert III., 

who in the life- 

[ earl of Wigton. On the death 

.«s chosen one of the council of re 

year no it-general of the 

-ularly William, the young earl 

ithority of an infant prince, and 

is ions which arose among th< no 

<nt power within the kingdom, 
tad forbidding the vassals of the house to acknowledge any 
aster authority, created knights, appointed a pn\y council, 
sal iMutn*-' xtertors of royally. They were both 

u lenxtli however beheaded, and the earldom of Douglas 
fessaed to a grand -uncle whoso eldest son married his 
Hum, the mix maid of Galloway, and restored the house 
h its former splendour. He became lieutenant-general of 
'dual, and no les* formidable to the crown than 
las last in his family who held that high office, But this 

leacy, slid 


power proved bis ruin, and dying without issue, he was 
succeeded by hi* brother, in whom this great branch of 
the Rouse of Douglas wa3 cut down and overthrown for 

hibald V., earl of Angus, great*grandson of Willi, 
first earl of Douglas, throm >•, who obtained the earl- 

dom of Angus on his mother's resignation as above men- 
tioned, was some time warden of the Bast Marches, and on 
the death of A rgyle was made lord high chancellor of the 
kingdom, anrl so* continued till 1408, when he resigned, 
lie was commonly called * the Great Earl of Angus; 1 and, 
according to the historian of his house, was * a 1 1 way 

accomplished both for mind and body* 1 bishop of 
Dunkeld, the translator of Virgil, wr.s his third sun by his 
first marriage, which was with ■ daughter of the lord high 
chamberlain of Scotland. The bishop's two elder brother*, 
George, master of Angus, and Sir William Douglas of 
Glenbervie, fell on the fatal Held of Hodden; and their 
father, the old earl, who had in vain dissuaded the king 
from the ruinous en lerprize, bending under the calamity, re- 
tired into Galloway, and soon after died. Sir Archibald 
Douglas of Kilspindie, the n by a second marriage, 

lade lord treasurer of Scotland towards the end of the 
year 152f>, bv king James V., who used to style him his 
1 Grey Steal; and the next year we find Archibald VL, earl 
of Angus, eldest son of the deceased George, master of 
Angus, lord hi^h chancellor of the kingdom. This Archi- 
bald, the sixth earl of Angus, married Margaret of England, 
queen dowager of James IV., and had by her a daughter, 
who became the mother of Henry, lord Darnley, husband 
of Mary queen of Soots, and father of James 1, of Eng- 
land. His brother. Sir George, was forfeited on his fall, 
and spent the remainder of James's reign in exile in Eng- 
land ; and their sister Jean was burnt as a witch on the 
castle hill of Edinburgh. The son of Sir Geor ded 

his uncle as seventh earl death of 

his -ii. Lb uly called *the Good Earl of 

Angus,* without male issue, Sir William Douglas of Glen- 
bun ie, great-grandson ^ Archibald the great earl, suc- 

1 to the earldom, and had soon afterwards a charter 
from king James V., confirming all the antient privileges 
of the Douglas, namely, to have the first vote in 001 
be the kings lieutenant, to lead the van of the army in the 
day of battle, and to carry Ihe crown at corona: 

The seventh earl of Angus had a younger brother, who 
became fourth earl of Morton, and imous Regent 

Uorton, Hi- was condemned to death tor the murder of 
Darnley, and was executed by the maiden, an instrument 
himself introduced into Scotland, 
Sir William Douglas of ( above mentioned 

conveyed the lands of Glenbervie to a younger son. His 
eldest son became tenth earl of Angus; and the sou of the 
latter was in 1633 created marquis of Douglas, the sa 

in which another branch of the 1> lily was 

advanced to be earl of Queensbeny. Archibald, eldest 
of the first marquis of Douglas, officiated as lord high cham- 
berlain at the coronation of king Charles IL, and was the 
upon created earl of Qrruond. His young* Willi on 

had been some years before created earl of Selkirk; hut 
afterwards Anne, duchess of Hamilton, he was 
on her gnu on created duke of Hamilton for life, 

and a new patent of the earldom of Selkirk issued in favour 
of his younger sons, two of whom were themselves also el 
valed to the peerage. The third marquis of Douglas was 
advanced to be duke of Douglas; but on his death the 
dukedom became extinct, and the a 

venth duke of Hamilton. II is grace was one of the 
party to the great 'Douglas cause,* the subject of which 
was tlie Douglas estates; but these were ultimately awarded 
neut, who bet tied to the estates, as- 

sumed the name and arms of Douglas, and in 1790 was 
I to the peerage as baron Douglas of Duuglas castle, 
in the shire of Lanark. 

The rge, IGth earl of Morton, was en- 

rolled amotlg the peers of Great Briti u Dnuglasof 

Lochleveu. The third earl of Queen sherry had previoo 

raised to a marquisate and dukedom ; and the fourth 
duke of Quecnsberry, who was also third earl of March, 
made a peer of England by the title of baron Douglas of 
Ameshurv ; but on the death of his grace in 1*10, the 
a red upon himself, and the earldom 
of March, conferred upon his grandfather, expired \ viW\» 
the dukedom devolved <m \he Suta qI'&u^W^V. *cA \\v>* 

V sV 

D O U 


D V 

original peerage descended to the present marquis of 
Queen sherry. 

DOUGLAS, GAWIN, was bom in the year 1474 or 

1475, and WSJ ihe third son of Archibald, sixth earl of Angus, 

aurnamed Red-! he Cat. t Scott's Marmiun* canto vi. t *t. 

xL) Being intended for the church, he received the best 

education which S oafla&d and France could give, lie uh- 

luoeeasively the provostship of the collegiate church 

of St. I BtUnburgn, and the rectorship of He hot 

church. He wis then made ablvt of Aberbrolhirk, and 

bishop of Dtmkeld, hut his elevation It* the srch- 

b shopxick of St, Andrews was prevented by the pope. In 

line political intrigue* compelled him to retire to 

Bngland, where be was favourably received by Henry VII I. 

He died of ihe plague in 1521 or 1522, at Ihe Savoy, where 

he had resided during the w bole of his May. 

In his early years he translated Ovid's * Art of Love,* 
and coin posed two allegorical poems, \ King Hart* and * the 
Palace of BjMKWT: 1 but he is best and most deservedly 
known by his translation of Virgil's * /Encid/ which, with 
the thirteenth book by Mapheus Vcgius, was produeed in 
I5i:t. To each book is prefixed an original prologue, iotdj 
of which give lively and simple descriptions of scenery, 
viitten in a manner which proVi a their author to have been 
possessed of considerable poetical power. 

At the end of the work (p. 280, ed. of 15531, he informs 

us that * rompilet was this work Virgilean' * in eighteen 

■••■,' for two months whereof he 4 wrote never 

one word.' lie is also solicitous thai his readers should 

^^— ' T^il li-iil, (UNI tflktr HiHJiil t'-Ul in 1 ii. ii- 

TJiry neluVr maul uor mi*nirlr« tin rSj 

which reminds us of Chaucer's address to bis book — 

* So pray I Gr»J mmm mtarritfl tlnv. 
Nor ibee mUmolre for *kfmll of Unique/ 

Those who take the trouble to examine Douglas for 
themselves! will find his language not near so different 
fro in our own as might be imagined from a cursory gl 
at the pages. The chief difference consists in the spelling 
and the accent, which we may suppose to have borne, as in 
Chaucer, a considerable resemblance to the present pro- 
nuneiationof French; at least without some sucn supposition 
it will be found im] scan either. (Warton's £?&f . 

/. Poetry (who gives copious extracts), and itfo*. BriU, 
art * Douglas.' j 

DOUGLAS. [Max, Tslb of.] 


DOUR A, or DURRA. [Sorgiii'm VOT-GAB*.] 

DOURO in Portuguese, Duero in Spanish, one of the 
principal livers of the Peninsula, rises in the Sierra de Ur- 
bicin, in (he north part of the province of Soria in Old I 
ide. It first flows southwards, passing by the town of Soria, 

i turns to the west, through the pi 
VuUaduhd, and Zamora, and 

both fr in the north and the south, the principal of which 

* Pisuerga, which rises in die Asturian mountains, 

and after receiving the Alanzon from Burgos and the Car- 

n from Palencia, pas lladolid, and enters the 

Dun Tordcsillas: 2. the Se^uillo, also from the 

noil), passes by Medina del Rio Seoo, and joins the Douro 
shore Zamora ; 3, the Bala, a large stream, comes from the 
mountains of Leon, and enters the Douro below Zamora. 
i receiving the Bsla, the Douro reaches the frontiers of 
Portugal, where it turns to the south, and for about fifty 
arks the boundary between the province of Sula- 
manca in Spain, and that of TrasosMontes in Portugal. 
In this part of its course it receives first theTotmi 
stdefsbta stream, from the south-east, which rises iu the 
lolly Sierra dt vilamaura, and then 

further south the- Agueda, from Ciudad Rodrigo. The 
Douro 1 1nn turns again to the west, and crosses the north 
part of Portugal, marking the limits between the provinces 
ofTras os Montes and Entre Douro e Minho on its north 
i;, and the province of Beira on its south bank. The 
principal affluents of the Douro in Portugal are the Coa 
from ihe south] and Ihe Saber and Tauie^a from the OOffth. 
The Douro passes by the towns of LsinegQ and Oporto, and 

•rs the At loiter City, of which it forms 

the harbour. The whole course of the Douro wish its wind- 
ings is nearly 600 miles, through some of the finest and 
most fertile regions of Spain and Portugal. 

DOUW, GERARD, was born at Ley den in 1013. In 
1622 he was put by his father, a glazier, to study drawing 
under Bartholomew Dolendo, an engraver, with whom 

remained eighteen months. He afterwards received the 
instructions of Peter Kouwhoorn, a painter on glass, and 
learned his art so well that be proved of great advantage to 
his father. The latter, however, alarmed at the danger he in- 
curred by mounting to his work at church windows, made 
bjm study painting instead, and the illustrious Rembrandt 
was chosen for the lad's master. From that great painter 
Gerard learned the mastery of colour and chiaroseui 
he differed entirely from his teacher in Ins manner of paint* 
iug. Instead of growing bolder and rougher in his handling as 
he grew older, he became more and more delicate 
elaborating everything which he touched with the n 
quisite delicacy and minuteness, in so much that the thread* 
of brocades, and of line carpels are expressed even 
smallest paintings. Nothing escaped his eye nor his pencil, 
And yet with till his elaboration of detail his pictUJ 
powerful in effect, and harmonious and brilliant in colour. 
Hi was accustomed to prepare his own tools, that he might 
have them of the requisite fineness. 

Gerard Douw has been charged with excessr 
in finishing; and some anecdotes are tokl in proof of it, 
Sandrart says, that he once visited Gerard's study i 
pniiy with Bamboccio, and on their both expressing thad 
admiration of a certain miniature broom-handle in one of 
his pictures, he said, that he should spend three more dajs 
upon it, before he left it. It is said that his sittetl 
bo wearied by his dilatorincss, and disgusted by the 
scripts of their jaded faces, which he faithfully put upon the 
canvass, that others were deterred from sitting, and he waj 
obliged to abandon portrait-painting. But Karel de Moor, 
wfaio had been a pupil of his, averred that he waj 
slow as had been asserted \ and the number of his pic: 
tends tO corroborate his statement. Douw got e 
prices for his paintings; generally from 600 to 1000 no 
and Sandrart informs us that Spiering, a gentleman of the 
Hague, paid him an annual salary of IGUu tlorins, for the 
mere right of refusal of all the pictures he painted, 
highest price he could obtain. Gerard Douw died in lC^U 
The most famous among his pupils was Miens. ! 
turcs arc in all great collections, (Argenville ; Stndrart.) 

DOVE. [CoLUMBinjE.] 

DOVE DALE. [Derbyshire.] 

DOVER, one of the Cinque Ports, a borough and market- 
town, having separate jurisdiction, in the eastern di 
of the county of Kent, IG niiles* south-east by south from 
Canterbury and 11 east-south-east from London, i ' 
situated on the coast, ut the opening of a deep valle; 
by a depression in the chalk hills, which het 

M Ction in i he sea. This depression runs into ll 
' ral miles, and forms the basin of a small 

Dover was called by the Saxons Dwyr, tium dwftirlra 
p place), or from dwr (water), thre being 
stream in the valley at the extremity of which I ). 
By the Romans it was called Dunns, whence D 

Prom its proximity to the continent, Dover has for many 
years been the usual port of embarkation for 
going both from and toEngland. [Calais,] In the i 
Henry VIII. the emperor Charles V, landed hep 
Henry on that occasion contributed a large ^ 
erection of a pier, which was subsequently completed ia 
the reign of Elizabeth. The castle, which is on the northern 
side of the town, is supposed to have been original 
sfructcd by the Romans. The southern i Do\tt 

were originally strongly fortified during the I 
extend in a semicircle as far as the fatuous S 
Cliff, so called from the celebrated scene in * K ! 

The boundaries of the present borough, in 
the old borough, include a part of the parish » 1 liu 
and comprise a population of 15,2118 persons; l<- 
registered after the passing of the Reform Act. I 
rough sends two members lo parliament. It 
the Municipal Corporation Report to be doubtful whe- 
ther there are any charters. A court of record is h< 
times a week. The general sessions are held thret 
year before the recorder and other justices. There 
hundred court, hut it has fallen into disuse. The tov 

iucipally of one street about a mile 
the direction of the valley. A theatre and as- 
were erected in 1790. The town is now e 
fashionable watering- place, and possesses every com 
for sea-bathing. Many handsome houses have r< 
been built for the accommodation of visitors in 
The harbour is not very good, but it can accomn 




of 500 tons, and is principally used for sailing and steam 
pickets to France. It has now for some years (1837) been 
undergoing repairs and improvements, but it does not seem 
probable that it can ever be made a good port. Some corn 
is ground in the neighbourhood, and exported to London ; 
and there are some paper-mills near the town. The mar- 
ket-days are Wednesday and Saturday. An annual fair is 
held on the 23rd of November. 

There are two churches, St James's and St. Mary's ; the 
Sinner worth 145/., the latter 287/. per annum; as well as 
a new church, and places of worship for Baptists, Society 
vf Friends, Independents, Wesleyan Methodists, Unitarians, 
and Roman Catholics. A charity-school for boys and girls 
was founded in 1789; it has received various donations, 
and in 1820 a new building, capable of containing 200 boys 
and 200 srirls, was erected. The hospital of St. Mary, after- 
wards called the Maison-Dicu, was founded in the 13th 
Henry III. by Hubert de Burgh, earl of Kent and chief 
justice of England. [Cinque Ports] 

DOVETAIL, a term in joinery. A dovetail is the end 
of apiece of wood fashioned into the fan-like form of a dove's 
tail, and let into a corresponding hollow of another piece of 
wood. Dovetails are either exposed or concealed; 'con- 
cealed dovetailing is of two kinds, lapped and mitred.' 
(Nicholson's Diet.) 

DOVRA FIELD. [Norway.] 

DOWER (Law) is that part of the husband's lands, tene- 
ments, or hereditaments which come to the wife upon his 
death, not by force of any contract expressed or implied be- 
tween the parties, but by operation of law, to be completed by 
m actual assignment of particular portions of the property. 

Prior to the reign of Charles II., five, and until the pass- 
ing of the act 3 & 4 Win. IV., c. 105, four kinds of dower 
ttre known to the English law. 

1 . Dower at the common law. 

2. Dower by custom. 

3. Dower ad ostium ecclesiae. 

4. Dower ex assensu patris. 

5. Dower de la plus beale. 

This last was merely a consequence of tenure by knight's 
lerrice, and was abolished by stat 12 Charles II. c. 24; and 
die 3rd and 4th having long become obsolete, were finally 
ibolished by the above-mentioned statute of Wm. IV. 

By the old law, dower attached upon the lands of which 
the husband was seised at any time during the marriage, and 
thichajchild of the husband and wife might by possibility 
nberit ; and they remained liable to dower in the hands of a 
purchaser, though various ingenious modes of conveyance 
were contrived, which in some cases prevented the attaching 
if dower : but this liability was productive of great inconve- 
Jtoence, and frequently of injustice. The law too was in- 
consistent, for the wife was not dowable out of her husband's 
equitable estates, although the husband had his courtesy in 
tW to which the wife was equitably entitled. [Courtesy.] 
To remedy these inconveniences the statute above men- 
tioned wa» passed, and its objects may be stated to be, 1, to 
Bake equitable estates in possession liable to dower ; 2, to 
tike away the right to dower out of lands disposed of by 
the husband absolutely in his life or by will ; 3, to enable 
the husband, by a simple declaration in a deed or will to 
tvthe right to dower. 

1 The law of dower,' say the Real Property Commission- 
ers, in their Second Rejwrt, upon which this statute was 
banded, * though well adapted to the state of freehold pro- 
perty which existed at the time when it was established, 
and during a long time afterwards, had, in consequence of 
the frequent alienation of property which takes place in 
modern times, become exceedingly inconvenient.' In short, 
dower was considered and treated as an incumbrance, and 
▼as never, except in cases of inadvertency, suffered to 
arise. The increase of personal property, and the almost 
universal custom of securing a provision by settlement, 
tfibrded more effectual and convenient means of providing 
far the wife. Dower at the common law is the only species 
ef dower which affects lands in England generally ; dower 
tor custom is only of local application, as dower by the cus- 
tom of gavelkind and Borough English ; and freebench ap- 
plied exclusively to copyhold lands. The former is treated 
of in Robinsons ' History of Gavelkind,' the latter in Wat- 
loss on ' Copyholds.' 

In order to describe dower at the common law clearly, it 
vQl be advisable to follow the distribution of the subject 
ttde by Blackstone. 

1. Who may be endowed. 

2. Of what a wife may be endowed. 

3. How she shall be endowed. 

4. How dower may be barred or prevented. 

1. Who may be endowed. — Every woman who has at- 
tained the age of nine years is entitled to dower by common 
law, except aliens, and Jewesses, so long as they continue 
in their religion. And from the disability arising from 
alienage, a queen, and also an alien licensed by the king, 
are exempt. 

2. Of what she may be endowed.— She is now by law en- 
titled to be endowed, that is, to have an estate for life in 
the third part of the lands and tenements of which the hus- 
band was solely seised either in deed or in law, or in which 
he had a right of entry, at any time during the coverture, of 
a local or equitable estate of inheritance in possession, to 
which the issue of the husband and wife (if any) might by 
possibility inherit. 

3. How she shall be endowed.— By Magna Charta it is 
provided, that the widow shall not pay a fine to the lord for 
her dower, and that she shall remain in the chief house of 
her husband for forty days after his death, during which 
time her dower shall be assigned. The particular lands 
and hereditaments to be held in dower must be assigned 
by the heir of the husband, or his guardian, by metes and 
bounds if divisible, otherwise specially, as of the third pre- 
sentation to a benefice, &c. If the heir or his guardian do 
not assign, or assign unfairly, the widow has her remedy at 
law, and the sheriff is appointed to assign her dower ; or by 
bill in equity, which is now the usual remedy. 

4. How dower may be barred or prevented.— A woman 
is barred of her dower by the attainder of her husband 
for treason, by her own attainder for treason, or felony, by 
divorce d vinculo matrimonii, by elopement from her hus- 
band and living with her adulterer, by detaining the title- 
deeds from the heir at law, until she restores them, by 
alienation of the lands assigned her for a greater estate than 
she has in them ; and she might also be barred of her 
dower by levying a fine, or suffering a recovery during her 
marriage, while those assurances existed. But the most 
usual means of barring dower are by jointures, made under 
the provisions of the 27 Hen. VIII., c. 1 ; and by the act of 
the husband. Before the stat. 3 & 4 Wm. I v., c. 105, a 
fine or recovery by the husband and wife was the only mode 
by which a right to dower which had already attached could 
be barred, though, by means of a simple form of conveyance, 
a husband might prevent the right to dower from arising at 
all upon lands purchased by him. By the above-mentioned 
statute, it is provided that no woman shall be entitled to 
dower out of any lands absolutely disposed of by her husband 
either in his life or by will, and that his debts and engage- 
ments shall be valid and effectual as against the right of 
the widow to dower. And further, that any declaration by 
the husband, either by deed or will, that the dower -of his 
wife shall be subjected to any restrictions, or that she shall 
not have any dower, shall be effectual. It is also provided 
that a simple devise of real estate to the wife by the husband 
shall, unless a contrary intention be expressed, operate in 
bar of her dower. This statute however affects only mar- 
riages contracted, and only deeds, &c, subsequent to 1st 
January, 1834. 

Most of these alterations, as indeed may be said of many 
others which have recently been made in the English real 
property law, have for some years been established in the 
United States of America. An account of the various 
enactments and provisions in force in the different states 
respecting dower may be found in 4 Kent's Commentaries, 
p. 34-72. (Bl. Com.; Park on Dower.) 

DOWLETABAD, a strongly fortified town in the pro- 
vince of Aurungabad, seven miles north-west from the city 
of Aurungabad, in 19° 57' N. lat., and 75° 25' E. long. The 
fort consists of an enormous insulated mass of granite, 
standing a mile and a half from any hill, and rising to the 
height of 500 feet. The rock is surrounded by a deep ditch, 
across which there is but one passage, which will allow no 
more than two persons to go abreast. The passage into the 
fort is cut out of the solid rock, and can be entered by only 
one person at a time in a stooping posture. From th'is en- 
trance the passage, still cut through the rock and very nar- 
row, winds upwards. In the course of this passage are 
several doors by which it is obstructed, and the place is alto- 
gether so strong, that a very small number of persons within 
the fort might bid defiance to a numerous army. On the. 




other hand, the fort might be invested by a very incon- 
siderable force, so as effectually to prevent any supplies 
being received by the garrison, who, owing to the intricacy 
of the outlet, could never make an effective sally. The 
lower part of the rock, to the height of 180 feet from the 
ditch, is nearly perpendicular, and it would be wholly im- 
practicable to ascend it. The rock is well provided with 
tanks of water. 

Since the seat of government has been transferred to 
Aurungabad the town of Dowlctabad has greatly decayed; 
only a small portion of it is now inhabited. This place is 
said to have been the residence of a very powerful rajah in 
the thirteenth century, when the Mohammedans under 
Allah ud Deen carried their arms into this part of the Dec- 
can. In 1306 the fort and surrounding country were 
brought under the dominion of the emperor of Delhi. 
About the close of the sixteenth century they were taken 
by Ahmed Nizam Shah of Ahmednuggur, and in 1634, 
during the reign of Shah Jehan, again came into the pos- 
session of the Moguls. Dowletabad has since followed the 
fate of that part of the Deccan, having been conquered by 
Nizam ul Mulk, with whose successors, the Nizanis of 
Hyderabad, it has since remained. 

DOWN, the fine hair of plants, is a cellular expansion 
of the cuticle, consisting of attenuated thin semi trans- 
parent hairs, either simple or jointed end to end, or even 
branched, as in the Mullein. When attached to seeds, it 
enables them to be buoyed up in the air and transported 
from place to place. When covering the external surface 
of a plant, it undoubtedly acts as a protection against 
extremes of temperature, and probably as a means of 
absorbing moisture from the air. 

DOWN, a maritime county of the province of Ulster in 
Ireland; bounded on the north by an angle of Loch Neagh, 
the county of Antrim, and the bay of Belfast ; on the east 
and south by the Irish channel ; and on the west by the 
counties of Louth and Armagh, from which it is partly 
separated by the bay of Carlingford and the river of N ewry. 
The greatest length from Cranfield point on the south-west 
to Orlock point on the north-east is 51 English miles ; 
greatest breadth from Moyallan on the west to the coast 
near Ballywalter on the east, 38 miles. The coast line (in- 
cluding Lough Strangford) from Belfast to Newry, ex- 
clusive of small irregularities, is about 125 English miles. 
The area, according to the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, 
consists of— 


Acres. Roods. Poles. 
608,415 2 15 
3,502 1 14 

Total .... 611,917 3 20 
Statute measure, or 956 square statute miles nearly. 

Down forms the south-eastern extremity of Ulster. The 
surface of nearly all the county is undulating ; but the only 
uncultivated district is that occupied by the Mourne moun- 
tains and the detached group of Slievc Croob. The moun- 
tainous district of Mourne is bounded on the east by the 
bay of Dundrum and on the west by the bay of Carlingford, 
and covers an area of nearly 90 square miles. Beginning 
from the west, the principal elevations are Cleomack, 1257 
feet; Tievedockaragh, 1557 feet; Eagle Mountain, 2084 
feet, having on the north Rocky Mountain, 1328 feet, and 
on the south Finlieve, 1868 feet ; Slieve Muck North, 2198 
feet, from the north-western declivity of which the river 
Bann takes its rise at an altitude of 1467 feet; Slieve 
Muck South, 1931 feet; Slievc Bingian, 2449 feet; and 
north of these Chimney Hock Mountains, 2152 feet ; Slieve 
Bearnagh, 2394 feet; Slieve Corragh, 2512 feet; and Slievc 
Donard, 2796 feet, the highest ground in the county, which 
overhangs the sea above'Newcastle, a small town situated 
on the western shore of Dundrum bay. This mountain 
group contains much fine scenery. Its north-eastern de- 
clivities are clothed for several miles with the plantations 
of Tullymore Park, the splendid residence of the Earl of 
Roden ; its western flanks overhang the beautiful vicinities 
of Warren's Point and Rosstrevor, and on the narrow strip 
between its southern declivities and the sea is situated the 
fine demesne of Mourne Park the residence of the Earl of 
Kilmorey. The Slieve Croob range covers an area of about ten 
square miles to the north-cast of the Mourne Group. Slieve 
Croob, the highest elevation of the range, has an altitude of 
1755 feet; on its north-eastern declivity the river Lagan rises 
at an elevation of about 1250 feet above the level of the sea.. 

The remainder of the county, about 650 square mile* 
is productive, being either under cultivation or serving 
the purposes of turbary. The numerous hills which 
diversify the surface are seldom too high for arable cul- 
tivation ; and the irregularity of the surface facilitates 
drainage, and likewise affords a shelter, which, from the 
scarcity of timber in some parts of the county, is of material 
advantage. A low chain of cultivated eminences, well tim- 
bered, and on the northern and western side covered with 
the demesnes and improvements of a resident gentry, com- 
mences east of Dromore, and extends under various names 
along the valley of the Lagan and the eastern shore of Bel* 
fast Loch, as far as Bangor. The only detached eminence 
of any consequence is the hill of Scrabo at the head of Loch 
Strangford, 534 feet. This range separates the basin of the 
Lagan from that of Loch Strangford. 

The eastern shore of Belfast Loch has no anchorage for 
vessels above the third class. There is a small quay for 
fishing and pleasure-boats at Cultra, a mile below the 
bathing village of Holywood, where regattas are held. 
Out of Belfast Loch the first harbour on the coast of 
Ards is at Bangor, where a pier was built by parliamen- 
tary grant in 1 757, forming a small harbour in the south- 
east part of the bay of about 300 ft. square. Fifteen sail 
of carrying vessels belong to this place, which are chiefly 
engaged in the export of corn and cattle to the coast of 
Scotland. Colonel Ward, the proprietor, is engaged in the 
construction of a pier, which, when completed, will afford 
fifteen feet at low water within the harbour. The coast 
here consists of low slate rocks ; and there is a difficulty m 
getting stones of a sufficient size, which has hitherto retarded 
the completion of this desirable work. East of Bangor is 
the little harbour of Groomsport or Gregory's Port, where 
Duke Schomberg landed in 1G90. Here is a small quay 
and about 100 houses, chiefly occupied by fishermen. South- 
east of Groomsport is Donaghadee, the only place of security 
for a large vessel from Belfast Loch south to the harbour 
of Strangford. [Donaghadee.] OfF Donaghadee lie three 
islands, called the Copelands, from a family of that name 
which formerly held the opposite coast. On one of these, 
called the Cross or Lighthouse Island, there is a lighthouse, 
which marks the entrance to Belfast Loch from the south. 
This building, which was erected about 1715, is a square 
tower, 70 ft. high to the lantern: the walls 7 ft. thick. The 
mode of lighting practised in 1744, when Harris wrote hit 
' History of Down,' was by a fire of coals kindled on a 
grate, which was fixed on an iron spindle rising from tha 
masonry. On a windy night this grate used to consume a 
ton and a half of coal. This island contains 40 acres ; the 
other two, 295 and 31 acres respectively. The sound be* 
tween Big Island, which lies nearest the land, and tha 
shore of Down, is about a mile and a quarter in breadth. 
It has from 7 to 8 fathoms of water ; but the side next tha 
mainland is foul ; and a rock, half a mile from the shore, 
called the Deputy, which has but 1 ft. of water at low 
ebb, renders the navigation difficult in hazy weather. 

From Donaghadee south the coast is low, rocky, and 
dangerous. The rock of Sculmarlin, covered at hair-flood, 
and the North and South Rocks, the former never covered; 
the latter at every half tide, lie farthest off shore, and art 
most in the way of vessels coming up channel. The light 
house of Kilwarlin was erected on the South Rock in 1797, 
and has since proved highly serviceable to all traders in tha 
channel. At Bail v waiter, Ballyhalbert, Cloghy, and New* 
castle, in Quintin feay, all situated on the eastern shore of 
Ards, are fishing stations. The first is very capable of im- 
provement as a harbour, and there is a small quay for tha 
supply of the Kilwarlin Lighthouse at the latter ; hut no 
shelter in any of them for vessels of more than 30 tons. 

South fiom Newcastle is Tara Bay, much frequented by 
fishing-vessels, and capable of great improvement. Tha 
estimated expense of a breakwater pier, which would convert 
it into an excellent tide harbour, is 3806/. The peninsula of 
Ards runs out at Ballyquintin to a low rocky point south 
of Tara Bay. A rock, called the Bar Pladdy, having lift. 
water at spring ebbs, lies immediately off Quintin Point; 
and the entrance to Strangford Loch is erroneously laid 
down in Mackenzie's Map as lying through the narrow in- 
termediate channel called Nelson's Gut. Several shipwrecks 
have occurred in consequence. The true entrance to 
Strangford Loch lies west of the Bar Pladdy, between it 
and Killard Point, on the opposite side. The entrance m 
a narrow channel of about 5 miles in length by an tvaiqp 




breadth of less than a mile. Within, the loch of Strangford 
expands into a very extensive sheet of water, extending 
northwards to Newtownards, and nearly insulating the dis- 
trict between it and the sea. The tide of so large a sheet 
of water making its way to and from the sea, causes a great 
current in the narrow connecting strait at every ebb and 
flow, and renders the navigation at such times very difficult, 
Across this strait is a ferry, which gives name to the town 
of Portaferry at the eastern or Ards side of the entrance. 
The town of Strangford. which lies opposite, is supposed 
to derive its name from the strength of the tide race be- 
tween. The true channel, at the narrowest part of the 
rtnit, is little more than a quarter of a mile across, being 
contracted by rocks, one of which, called the Ranting 
Wheel, causes a whirlpool dangerous to small craft. There 
is another but less dangerous eddy of the same kind at the 
opposite side. Within the entrance there are several good 
anchorages, and landing-quays at Strangford, Portaferry, 
Mlileagh, the quay of Downpatrick, and Kirkcubbin. Kil- 
kJeagh quay was built by parliamentary grant in 1 765, and 

I eo»t I2uu/., but is now much gone to decay. Strangford 
i Loch contains a great number of islands, many of which 

are pasturable, and great numbers of rabbits are bred in 
' them. From Killard Point the coast beat's south-west, and 
■ rocky and foul as far as Ardglass, where there is a pretty 
good harbour, safe for small vessels, by which it is mucn 
frequented, but cxpused to a heavy ground swell in south- 
easterly gales. A pier was built here about 1819 at the 
hint expense of the old fishery board and the proprietor, 
Mr. O^ilvie. There is a small lighthouse at the extremity 
of this pier. Ardglass is a principal place of resort for the 
lining Meets which frequent the channel. Immediately 
vest of Ardglass lies the harbour of Killough, between 
Ringf >rd Point on the east and St. John's Point on the 
ve.»t. A natural breakwater, easily improvable, extends 
between these points, and gives a pretty secure anchorage 
for large vessels within. There is an inner harbour for 
small craft, dry at ebb, with a quay, built about the begin- 
ning of the last century. 

West of St. John's" Point opens the great bay of Dun - 
drum, which extends from this point on the east to the 
coast of Mourne on the west, a distance of about four 
kagiies by a league in depth, running north by we-t. This 
bav is exposed, shallow, and full of quicksands, and so situ- 
ated that, till the erection of the prcMMt pier, which forms 
a small asylum harbour at Newcastle, a well-frequented 
Wihing-placc on the south-western side of the bay, vessels 
embayed here with an east or southeast wind inevitably 
vent on shore. From an inspection of the books of the 
nstdent revenue officer stationed at Newcastle, it has been 
ascertained that from 1783 to 1835, 58 vessels, valued at 
M9.051)/., have been wrecked in Dundrum Bay. The pier 
■f Newcastle was erected at the joint expense of the old 
fchery board and the proprietor, Earl Annesley: the cost 
wa» 3,600/. It is hignly serviceable as a station for the 
ftbing-boats of the coast, and has been the means of saving 
finr vessels within the last three years. 

From Newcastle south to Cranfield Point the coast of 
Mourne possesses only three small boat harbours, the prin- 
cipal of which is at Derryogua, where there is a fishing 
nation. On this part of the coast, near Kilkcel, is a light- 
taue, 120 feet high. Between Cranfield Point on the 
cast, and the extremity of the barony of Dundalk, in the 
CDQBty of Louth, on the west, is the entrance to the ex- 
tensive harbour of Carlingford. This loch is about eight 
Biles long by a mile and a half broad, and has steep 
mountains to the east and west along each side. From 
Xarrow Water, where it contracts to the width of a river, 
lbs tide flows up to Newry, whence there is a canal com- 
MDication with the Upper Bann river, which flows into 
Loch Neagh. There are numerous rocks and shoals at the 
entrance, where a new lighthouse is about being erected, 
sad a bar all across, on which there are but eight feet of 
water at ebb tides. The middle part of the loch is deep, 
Wit exposed to heavy squalls from the mountains. The best 
aefcorages are off Carlingford, on the south side, and oppo- 
ato Warren's Point, and Rosstrevor, in the county of Down. 
There are two great beds of oysters in this loch, one off 
Bosstrevor Quay, two and a half miles long by half a mile 
broad; the other off Killowen Point, one mile long by half 
a mile broad. The marquis of Anglesey is the proprietor. 

I I Tkeftsbery is open to all persons paying 5s. yearly. Abouf 
i| lltffc worth of oysters are taken annually: they soil in 

Warren's Point at 7 s. to 15$. per thousand, and are ode* 
bra ted throughout Ireland for their excellent flavour. It 
has been proposed to carry the Newry canal, which termi- 
nates at Fathom, at the head of the bay, forward to the 
deep water off Warren's Point, where it is intended that it 
should terminate with a ship lock and floating basin. 
Warren's Point has a good quay, from which steamers sail 
regularly for Liverpool : most of the exports of Newry are 
shipped here from the small craft that bring them down 
the canal. The scenery on both sides of Carlingford Loch 
is of striking beauty. 

With the exception of the Upper Bann, all the rivers of 
Down discharge their water into the Irish channel. The 
navigable river Lagan, which, throughout near half of its 
course, has a direction nearly parallel to the Bann, turns 
eastward at Magheralin, four miles north-east of which it 
becomes the county boundary, and passing by L^burn, falls 
into the bay of Belfast, after a course of about thirty miles. 
The Ballynahinch or Annacloy river brings down the 
waters of several small lakes south-east of Hillsborough, 
and widens into the Quoile river, which is navigable for 
vessels of 200 tons a mile below Downpatrick, where it 
forms an extensive arm of Strangford Loch. The Quoile 
is covered with numerous islands, and its windings present 
much beautiful scenery. The Newry river rises near 
Rathfriland, and flowing westward by the northern de- 
clivities of the Mourne range, turns south a little above 
Newry, and after a short course falls into the head of Car- 
lingford Loch. Numerous streams descend from the district 
of Mourne immediately to the sea, and there is no part of 
the county deficient in a good supply of running water. 

The Lagan navigation, connecting Loch Neagh with 
Belfast Loch, gives a line of water communication to the 
entire northern boundary of the county ; and the Newry 
Canal, connecting the navigable river Buuu with the bay 
of Carlingford, affords a like facility to the western district, 
so that, with the exception of about ten miles between the 
Bann and the termination of the Lagan navigation, the 
entire county boundary is formed either by the coast line 
or by lines of water carriage. The Lagan navigation was 
commenced in 1755, and cost upwards of 100,000/., but 
owing to mismanagement and the difficulties of keeping a 
rapid river navigation in repair, it has not proved a profit- 
able speculation. The summit level, towards Loch Neagh, 
is 112 feet above the level of the sea. 

The Newry Canal admits vessels of 50 tons through the 
heart of Ulster. It was commenced in 1730, by commis- 
sioners appointed under an Act of the Irish Parliament, 
passed in the 3rd of George II., and was wholly constructed 
by government. The original object was chiefly to afford a 
water carriage for the coals of Tyrone district to Dublin. 
The canal lies partly in the county of Down and partly in 
Armagh ; it extends, from its junction with the Bann river 
near Guilford, to Fathom, on the bay of Carlingford, about 
14 Irish or 17f English miles, having its summit level 77 
feet above the sea. The average breadth of the canal at 
top is 40 feet: the locks are 15 in number, and 22 feet in 
the clear. The c*anal was opened in 1 741, but being among 
the first works of the kind attempted in Ireland it required 
numerous repairs, and has not yet made any considerable 
return for the original outlay. From the year 1802 to the 
year 1817, the total amount of toll received was 27,838/. 
13*. G\d. t and the total expenditure was 70,495/. 18*. 8jrf.; 
and for the succeeding ten years the gross receipts were 
25,461/. 19*. firf., and the gross expenditure 10,897/. 14*. 7id. 
This navigation was vested in the directors-general of Ireland 
navigation down to 1827. It is now under the control of 
the Board of Works. 

Down is well supplied with roads. The great northern 
road from Belfast to Dublin passes through the county from 
north to south, by Hillsborough, Dromore, Banbridge, 
Loughbrickland, and Newry : this is the only turnpike road 
in Down. The other chief lines are from Belfast to Do- 
naghadee by Ncwtownards ; from Bel fast to Downpatrick 
by Ballynatiinch ; and from Downpatrick to Newry by 
Castlewellan and Rathfriland. The roads in general are 
hilly, but well constructed, and kept in excellent repair by 
the grand jury. The Ulster Railroad, from Belfast to 
Armagh, will pass through parts of the parishes of Moira 
and Shankill in this county. The entire length, when 
completed, will be 36 miles and 291 yards. A railroad has 
been projected from Belfast to Holywood, a bathing-place 
much resorted to by the citizens of Belfast in summer 




The vicinity of the sea prevents the continuance of frosts 
OH the easl in 1 south; and the insulated position of the 
mountainous (met confines the heavier mists ami rains to 
Unit part of the county where their offsets are least felt. 
The general inequality of the ground carries off surface 
waters and prevents damps, to Uial the climate, although 
somewhat cold, is considered very wholesome. The pre- 
vailing winds in spring are from the east: westerly winds, 
although more frequent than from any other point, have so great a prevalence as in the neighbouring counties* 
Larch timber thrive.* on very exposed situations on the 
Mourne mountains. 

The chief geological features are strongly marked. The 
Mourne and Slieve Croob groups consist of granite, The 
boundary of this primitive district begins from the east at 
Dun<liLiiii whence paaaing northward to Slieve Croob, it 
run;* nearly due west, including the lordship of Newry. and 
pusei into the adjoining counties of Armagh and Louth. 
This mass of granite reappears in Cavau, and probably is the 
same which rises on the opposite side of the island in the 
mountains of Sligo. Northward and eastward of the 
granite district the whole of the remainder of the county is 
occupied by nn extension of the transition series which forms 
ihe southern basin of Loch Neagh. Clay slate in greater 
or less degrees of induration is the prevalent rock, Towards 
the sea on the north -east and east slate quarries are 
com mom On the Antrim boundary near Moira an ex- 
tension of the tertiary limestone formation which occurs 
throughout the basaltic district occupies a small portion of 
this county, and eflbffdl a ffiOal valuable supply of lime 
manure to the north-western baronies. Limestone boulders 
are found along the eastern shore of the Bay of Belfast; and 
at Carthespil. near Comber* on the western side of Sh 
fbjrd loch, there is a quarry of reddish granular limestone. 
Great quantities of marl are raised in tho neighbourhood of 
Downpatrick. The junction of the greywacke and granite 
may be observed along the eastern branch of the river 
Lagan, where it rises on Slieve Croob. 

Copper ore has been found in the mountains about five 
miles north-east of Rosslrcvor ; also near Portaferry, and 
at Clonligg, between Newtownards and Bangor* At the 
latter place is a I cad- mine which has been worked with 
moderate success at various times. Lead ore occurs on Ihe 
i re of Ballylcady, in the same neighbourhood, and on 
that of Bryansford, near Newcastle; also at Killough, and 
near Portaferry. A lead-mine has likewise been worked in 
the Blundel estate, half a mile from Dundrum. Indica- 
tions of coal have been observed in the north-cast of the 
county, and ochreous earths have been found in various 
places; but hitherto without leading to any practical 


Chalybeate spas occur at Newry, Dromore, Magheralin, 
near Donaghadee and Rathfriland, and at various places in 
the barony of Ards, A chalybeate strongly impregnated 
with sulphur and nitre rises about two miles north-west of 
Bally nahinch, on the declivity of Slieve Croob mountain, 
which has been found very elhVacious in scorbutic cases: 
the village of Ballynahinch has become a rather fashionable 
resort dining the summer months in consequence. 

The prevalent soil in the low district is a stony loam 
fanned by the decomposition of the schistose rock. Clayey 
- are confined to the north-east of the county and the 
barony of Ards, and are of a strong and productive quality, 
but they are wet and require a large quantity of manure. 
The iirhest soil in the county is m the district of Locale, 
and I small tract of loam incumbent on limestone gravel in 
the neighbourhood of Moira and Magheralin : the timber 
here is of larger growth than elsewhere in Down. Alluvial 
cut, and yield luxuriant crops of graae with- 
out manure. The bogs in general are not larger than is 
lous for purposes of turbary. Moory land is con- 
I to the mountain district: the soil is here light and 
gravelly; but with proper cultivation, as in the vicinity of 
NeWTJ and of Cast ;. in he mad*' to yield good crops 

of outs and barley. Considerable quantities of wheat are 

led throughout the county, but chiellv along both shores 
of St rang ford Loch; oats and barley are Ihe chief produce 
of lite Mjuih and centre of the county. Numerous resident 
hty and gentry eat an example of the Deal modes of 
id several farming societies encourage com- 
petition among the landowners by annual ploughing matches 
and cattle-above. The contrast betwt en the slovenly farm- 
ing of Meath and the workmanlike manner in which the 

land is fenced and laid down in this county strikes an oV 
server travelling from Dublin to Bel!., 
system of green crops and stall feeding ia now being pur- 
sued by most of the gentlemen-farmers; but has 
become general among the ordinary landowners. ! 
on the Antrim boundary and along the line of the Dublin 
road are of quickthorn ; clay banks and dry stone wa 

tiinmn in the other parts of the county. 
Large quantities of ae* wood are used as manure along 
the north east and eastern coast* The distance of limesi 

- re ml. is lime manure very ex pen ughout 

the eantxal baraniee; but in the south and south-east there 
is an abundant supply of marl in the 1 
This valuable substance ia found in morasses and alluvial 

ii the bottoms of hills, and consists entirety uf i 
exuviie: the bed of marl is sometime* five feet in thii 
It was first brought iiilo use in 1707, before which t 
neighbouring country was only moderately fertile in oals 
and barley : but with a judicious use of this manure 
yields excellent crops of wheat* The immediate udvaro 
on the value of land which followed its iniroductioi 
Four- fold, and a corn trade was opened firoi 
consequence. The eagerness, however, with wh 
manure was applied led to the bad consequences which 
always attend strong manuring and over cropping; and it " 
said that so late as 1804 some of these lands had not 
recovered. The annua] agricultural produce of Down 
baa been valued at 1,396,000/. ; the rental of prop] 
i 7% IS9li per annum, and the rent to occupii t, ut 

22 v per acre. 

Tlie following table exhibits the quantities of wl 
sold at the principal grain markets of Down in the \ 
1 S3 1-5 + The market of Newry ia supplied from Arm 
and other counties, as well as from Down ; and large qu 
ttties of the produce of Down are disposed of at Be 

it i.nn 

i m wai 



Cirl. v. 





In ,|, 











Klrrknjffifiil , 



•. , 

n ■ 




KtUough . . 






1,7 OK 







Bo&bfklgt . , 


Moira . 



Drum lire . 


■ . » 





Ni wry . 





Wb* th*r m 

jtntio to akct 
Increasing or df 


No return 1<,r i£ja» 

Down is not a grazing county, nor are there any sheep 
farms; but great numbers of pigs are reared for the pro- 
\ is ion markets of New rv and Belfast, The general cond 
of the people is much superior io that of the peasantry of the 
Mint hern counties. Wages of labourers are 1 iu/ per lav in 
winter, and If. during the rest of the year: the average 
number of day* 1 work obtained in agriculture ea. I 
160. The resident nobility and gentry are more numerous 
in proportion to the extent of the county than in e 
part of Ulster. Among the principal may be mention* 
ihe marquieaea of Downshire and Donegal, and durit 
]>art of each year the marquis of Londonderry and 1 

iwiUiain, the earl of Roden, Earl Annes! 
ferin and Clancboy, Lord Bangor, Sir Robert 
Mr Ker, Colonel Forde, Mr. Sharman I 
ineomea varying from 8000/. to 60,000/. per annum. Tin 

(iv of the county ore an intelligent < 
cloth is the usual dress of the better daw* of the M 
and Ihe loose frieze coat so common in Louth am I 
of Armagh is rarely seen here. The provisions of the 
tag and paving act have been put in force in Newi, . 
Downpatrick, and Banbridge, and are about b< 
to Dromore. 

Down contains seven baronies, and part of the lord- 
of Newry ; the remainder of this division lying in 
The baronies are— Ards, on the east ami north R een 

Loch Strangford and the sea, containing part of the town 
of Newtownards, total population (in 1831 > 4442; ami 
towns of Portaferry, population 2203; Bangor, popular 
8741; Donaghadee, population 2996 ; Bal papula- 

tion 664; and Kirkcubbin, populate 

on the north east and north, between Loch Strangford and 
the county of Antrim, containing the towns of Bally- 
macarratt (the eastern suburb of Belfast), population 5J6S; 



D O W 

nutation 13 77; Holy wood, population 1288; 

Id, population lu.33. Dufferin, on the western 

ford, contains the town of Killi- 

J i 1". Iveagh, Lower, on the north and 

Is Antrim, and Loch Neagh, containing 

i Hillsborough, population l 153; Dromora, po- 

id Motra, population 787. Iveagh, Upper, 

west and midland, containing the towns of Ban- 

population 2469; Rathfhland, population 2001 ; 

point, population 
6; and CastlewelJan, po- 
Kinalearty, midland, between Upper Iveagh 
id Dufierin, containing the town of Bally nahinch, popula- 
! i , on the south-east, between Strangford 
i Dundrum hay, containing the borough ■ f Down- 
population i, po- 
auLi Killougb, population 1162; and Strang ford, 

i Dundrum bay and 

t>rd Loch, containing the town of Kilkeel, population 

"and part of the lordship of Newry, containing part 

Newry, the total population of which is 

four members to the imperial parliament, 

fO for the county, uiie for the borough of Newry, and 

out for ihe borough of Downpairick. Besides these ho- 

nugh^. »j"h, ami Hillsborough 

Dtaben to the Irish parliament, and are still car- 

p uf Newry, the greater part of 

this county, is Rubji cl to a peculiar eerie- 

nasties! jurisdiction < by the family of Needbam 

of Sir Nicholas Bagnalt, to whom, after 

f religious houses? in Ireland, the abbey of 

and privileges was grunted 

i. The manor of Mourne formed a 

d by marriage to the 

claim Ihe sunn unuju> 

r it m tin of Down as the Needham family 

ion in the diocese of Dromore, but hitherto 

The authority of the representor 

K din ore v in his lordship of Newry extendi 1o 

the granting of lmirriuge li- 

i^c in their ecch aiastiea] capacity, and to 

l he holuing of courts baton and leet, and discharging all 

a forfeited within that jurisdie- 

r cm! capacity. 

The linen manufacture is the staple trade of Down, and 

pre* employment to a greater number of operatives, in 

population, than in any other part of Ire 

iaao. In 1831 the number of linen weavers was 6711$ 

md of weavers of damask, 6 : the number of wheelwrights 

(maker* of wheels for spinning linen yarn by hand) ^a> 

d in making other machinery 

manufacture of linens, mil' ecd-roakera, 

Uiv makers. See, 2207; together with 34 engaged in 

and 32 for damasks : all 

of female hand-spinners throughout the county ; 

number to whom the trade gives occupa- 

ited at 10, QUO. The linen manufac 

tnrt Uu. trried on in Ireland, but its ur>i 

wus in consequence of the settlement of French 
Mugee> on the of the edict 

eing the improved machinery of the continent, 

ample of more business-like habits, raised 

ture to a high degree of perfection and im- 

i L Croramelin, who settler! at Lisburn in 

f William III,, Down owes the introduction of 

an extensive scale : before 

nan of the quality called * a fourteen- 

nadc Dt Ireland. This enterprising 

Krted a thousand looms from Holland, and 
such importance as secured it the 
-;e of government. In the 4th of 
irt duty on Irish linens was taken 
i that time the trade has continued to flourish. 
eed employs a considerable capital 
It is generally thought necessary to 
. but a few farmers have 
n seed, and the practice has so far 
The dressing of the grown crop gives 
ttftWywumt lo numerous scutchers and hacklers throughout 
the introduction of linen spinning ma- 
, ,., ., ; , ned the demand for handHabour 

ed flax into thread. Manufacturers, 

however, prefer hand-spun thread for the weft, and the 
demand is still sufficient to give occupation to numerous 
females, who, except at the limes of harvest, haymaking, 
and raising Ihe potato nop, can make from 3d. to Ad. per 
day, besides attending to their ordinary rural concerns. 
Weaving is mostly carried uii in the houses of small farmers, 
and there are few weavers who do not give part of their 
time to agriculture; hence they are generally a healthy 
and long lived class of men. Hand-spinning and weaving 
lot confined to any particular district. When the webs 
are ready for ihe bleacher, l hey are carrietl Lo market. The 
following table, drawn up in 1802, exhibits the quality 
of cloth manufactured in the district surrounding each 
town. It is difficult to ascertain the quantity made in the 
county at large, as the T Lurgan, Lisburn, and 

He] fast, are in ■ gteal measure supplied from the northern 
j aits of Down, and it not unfrequentl* happens that what 
is sold in one market is resold in another. 

Lincti Htfkstl in 


Newry . * 

„ a few , 
Ratlifriluiid . 
Kir keel , 

Down pat rick 
Bally nahiiuh 
D rum ore 
Portaferry and I 
Kirkcubbin I 

Quality of LtifM 10111 

in racU 

from 8 lo 14 hundreds; 

n I to J0 ditto 
from H to 14 ditto. 

„ 8 to )o ditto, 

„ 8 to Ifi ditto. 

B 8 to 9 ditto. 

„ 6 to \a ditto. 

„ 8 to I a ditto. 

„ 10 to lilt ditto. 

„ G to 20 ditto, 

„ 10 to M ditto* 

The next pro© that which employs nearly an 

equal number of hands, is the bleaching and preparing for 
market the greet! web as purchased from the weaver. The 
chief manufacturing district of this county, a> uf Ireland at 
large, is along the valley of the Upper Bann. The waters 
uf this river are peculiarly ethVaciuus in bleaching; and its 
rapid descent affords numerous sites for the machinery em- 
ployed. From Tundeiagie in Armagh, to the miles above 
Banbridge in Down, the banks of this river present an 
almost continuous succession of bleaching greens. On that 
part of the river which flows through Down there tire 
ei g hie en of these establishments, each covering a large 
tract of ground, and giving employment to a numerous 
rural population, Besides these establishments, there are 
upon the Bann several extensive flour mills, u vitriul in. 
factory, and two factories for spinning linen thread by 
machinery. The waste of these bleach greens is found 
highly valuable as a manure. The neighbourhood of Guil- 
ford and Moyallan, about half way between Banbridge and 
Tanderagie, is celebrated for its rural beauty. Orchards 
are attached to all the better class of" and the 

.iiiy of so many bleach greens gives the effect of a con* 
tinuous tract of rich park scenery on each bank of the ri\er. 
The proprietors of ihe majority of these establishment i 
Dissenters and members of the Society of Friends, and the 
population generally is Protestant. 

The cotton and muslin manufacture in 1831 gave occu- 
pation to 3278 individuals: of these 307 were muslm 
ers, and 13 were weavers of corduroy. The principal 
market lor muslin fabrics is Belfast. This trade is not DQ 
the increase. The leather manufacture is carried on p. 
briskly in Newry and in various parts of ihe county. The 
number of operatives employed in both in 1831 was 
There is on extensive iron foundry near Bally raacarratf, 
which supplies much of the machinery used in the I 
of Belfast. Here also axe salt and vitriol wurks, with a 
manufacture of coarse glass. The manufacture of kelp is 
carried on to some extent on the shores of Loch Strang- 

The exports and imports of Down ore made almost 
entirely through the ports of Belfast and Newry. The net 
receipts of customs' auty at Newry m \H3t> was 43,*u7/. 
About 80,000 firkins of butter are exported yearly from 
Down, and this as well as all other exports is increasing 

The fishery on the coast from Bangor to (Jarlihglbrd bay 
is pursued with a good deal of industry, but hitherto with- 
out sufficient capital or skill The herring fishery l 

• The lfn«Di beinff x>n<* yaTit wid«, ate dirttnguiihrd by lot nunil rr of 
ihivjiU couUaird iu that breadth ; tliui an eight band red *«b it utwttUue* 
wani cvutaiui that number of thread* of vara* 




monces in July, and is pursued throughout the autumn and 
beginning of winter. The principal fishing ground lies off 
Lecale, at a distance of a quarter of a mile to two leagues 
from shore, in three to seventeen fathom water, and extends 
with little interruption from Newcastle on the south to the 
entrance to Strangford Loch upon the north. The fish taken 
are herrings, mackarel, haddock, cod, ling, glafisan, bream, 
pollock, gurnet, plaice, bait, and turbot Besides this there 
are several other fishing grounds off the coasts of Mourne 
and Ards. 

The following table exhibits the number of boats and men 
employed in the fishery in 1835 at each of the coast-guard 
stations as below : — 






Craofleld • 


S: ' 

KlUitiigh i 








Mrn Ku, 









OrM-n tail 

Ha. K*i 






Row bit. 



No* K« 

it 16 











Upwards of 300 boats frequent Ardglass harbour during 
the fishing season. Of those about one-third are from Eng- 
land, one-third from the Isle of Man, and one-third from 

Arklow, Skerries, and other places on the Irish coast. This 
concourse of fishermen causes a considerable trade in Ard- 
glass. Three additional butchers have booths here for the 
sale of meat during the season. The English and Man 
boats are larger and better found than the Irish. Their 
tackle and gear also are of a superior description ; and 
although so many inhabitants of the coast appear by the 
above table to be engaged in the pursuit, it is a remarkable 
fact that neither at Newry, Downpatrick, nor Belfast, is there 
a sufficient supply of fish, and that the salt herrings con- 
sumed throughout the county are invariably of Scotch 
curing. There is ample occupation for five times the num- 
ber of men at present engaged in the fishing off this 

The county assizes are held twice a year at Downpatrick. 
Quarter sessions are held by the assistant barrister twice a 
year at Downpatrick, Newry, Dromore, and Newtownards. 
The constabulary force stationed in Down in the year 1835 
consisted of 5 chief constables, 30 constables, 114 sub-con- 
stables, and 6 horses ; and the expense of their support was 
6,884/. 6*., of which 3,297/. 10*. 8d. was chargeable against 
the county. 

Before and for some time after the coming of the Eng- 
lish, Down was known as Ulladh or Ulidia, the original of 
the name of Ulster. The antient inhabitants are supposed 
to have been the Voiuntii of Ptolemy. The north-eastern 
portion of Down was at an early period occupied by the 
Picts, of whom there was a considerable colony so late as 
the 6th and 7th centuries, extending from Strangford Loch 
to the Lower Bann in Antrim. Whether these Picts, who 
are called Cruitkne by the annalists, were of a nation essen- 
tially different from the bulk of the Celtic inhabitants of 
Ireland is still under discussion : the region occupied fay 
them abounds with stone-circles, cromlechs, and subterra- 
nean galleries, which usually mark the presenco of this pe- 
culiar people. The territory occupied by them was called 
Dalaradia, and extended from the Ravil river in Antrim 
over the southern part of that county and the north and 
north-east of Down. 


11 nw ucdjUhitd. 










-11 i 

£ p Q ° 







Estimated by Dr. Beaufort 

Under Act of 1212 . . , 
Under Act 55 Geo. TIT. c. 120 
Under Act 1 Wm. IV. e. 19 , 


i ■ 


* * 

* * 


• • 

< a 


169, 416 

a • 


201 t m 



The presence of St. Patrick in this county in the sixth 
century is attested by authentic records, and can be traced 
with topographical exactness at the present day. Down- 
patrick, Saul, Dromore, Moville, and Bangor, are the chief 
ecclesiastical foundations of Patrick and his immediate suc- 
cessors. Of these the last was the most famous, having a 
college, which for many years rivalled the schools of Ar- 
magh and Lismore. The foundation of the abbey of Newry 
for Cistertian monks, by Maurice Mac Loughlin, king of Ire- 
land, in 1153, is the most interesting event connected with 
Down prior to the English invasion, as the charter is still 
extant (O'Connor's Her. Hib. Scrip. Vet. Proleg. ii., 153), 
witnessed by the celebrated primate Gelasius and by the 
petty kings of most of the northern provinces. The lands 
are conveyed with their woods, waters, and mills. 

Down was overrun by the English under John de Courcy 
in 1177. The chief families introduced by the conquest 
were the Savages, Whites, Riddles, Sendalls, Poers t Cham- 
berlains, Stokes, Mandevilles, Jordans, Stauntons, Logans, 
Papelaws, Russels, Audlevs, Copelands, Martells. Of these 
the Savages, Whites, and Russels still remain : most of 
the other names have become extinct in consequence of sub- 
sequent conquests by the Irish, and forfeiture. The county 
was originally divided into two shires, Down, and Newtown 
or the Ards, to which sheriffs were regularly appointed 
until 1333, when the revolt of the Irish on the murder of 
Wi'liam de Burgho [Belfast] overturned the English au- 
thority throughout Ulster. The family of Savage, who had 
nosst-sfted the baronies of Ards and Castlereagh, were driven 
into the peninsula between Loch Strangfbra and the eea, 

and the Whites, who had held the centre of the county, wen 
confined to that part of Dufferin which borders on Lock 
Strangford on the west. Castlereagh fell into the hands of 
the O'Neills; Kinelearty into those of the MacArtanes; 
and MacRory and Magennis obtained the whole of Upper 
and Lower lveagh. Lecale and Mourne, being protected 
until the middle of the seventeenth century by the castles 
of Ardglass, Dundrum, and Green Castle, held out against 
the natives, and having a sea communication with Louth, 
were considered as part of that county, while the rest of 
Down remained without the pale. 

The Whites and Savages being separated from the Eng* 
lish fell soon after into Irish habits, but still maintained as 
independence among the hostile tribes around them. Ard- 
quin in Upper Ards, and Killileagh on the shore of Loch 
Strangford, were their respective places of defence. The 
attainder of Shane O'Neill, who was slain in rebellion in 
1567, threw all lveagh, Kinelearty, Castlereagh, and Lower 
Ards into the hands of the Crown. The dissolution of re- 
ligious houses had already enabled the government to place 
an English colony at Newry, which had been granted to 
the family of Bagnall, and an attempt was made in 1572 to . 
occupy the Ards and Castlereagh with a similar force under 
the family of Smith : but the son of Sir Thomas Smith, 
who led the expedition, being killed by Neal Mac Brian Ar- 
tagh, one of the attainted O'Neills, the project miscarried. 
Some indulgence was now shown to the O'Neills, Magen- 
nises, and Mac Artanes, who upon submission acquired grants 
of their estates. In 1602. however, O'Neill ofCartlertyh 
being seized on eome flight pretext, «a4 toporaftoi uGir 




rickfcrgus Castle, contrived to make bis escape by the 
e Montgomery, the brother of a Scotch 
irtune, who afforded the fugitive protection 
arrival in Scotland, and afterwards negotiated his 
af having the greater part ol CVNeilfs 
c*iate made over to himself and Mr. Hamilton, his asso* 
elite in i be proceeding The colony led over by Sir Hugh 
Montgomery settled chiefly about Newiownards and Grey- 
abbey, along the north-eastern coast between Straj 
Loch and the sea, and by their enterprize and ind 

)»ed that part of the county to a very flourishing 
The general plantation of Ulster soon after 
their improvements. Sir Hugh was raised 
unt; and his colony proved of the 
ee during the subsequent wars which cora- 
Bcmcl with the rebellion of 1641. The family of Hamilton 
bd at Bangor and Kilhleagh, That of Hill, which about 
th* tame time acquired large estates in the north of the 
con 1 m the ic^hbourhood of Belfast, ami 

after their arrival laid the commencement of a town at 
HilUborough, the residence of their present representative, 
D isbire. The forfeitures consequent on 
the 641 and the war of the revolution de- 

pnv< kit Uie old Irish and Anglo-Norman families 

of ii left. Magennis, Lord Iveagh, was the chief 

sufferer by the first ; the Whites, Russets and Savages, 
vans i be principal families affected by the latter. At pre- 
sent the fee of the county is almost entirely in the hands of 
I proprietors of English and Scotch descent. 
ijan antiquities of Down, the most remarkable 
tig omnia li, inclosed by a circular ditch of extra- 
uons, called the Giant's Ring, near Shawa 
Bridge. between Lis bum and Belfast The inclo- 

•urv i» nearly half an English mile in encuuiferem > 
thtraiii Tii 12 to 14 feet in height. There are 

•too* monument* of the same character at Sliddeny Ford, 
nor Dundruni, and Legaraney in the parish of Druni- 
gtmhin. There is a remarkable cairn, or sepulchral pile of 
stones, on the top of Slieve Croob. The main pile is 
77 yards in circumference at bottoms 45 yards at top, and 
54 feet high at its greatest elevation: there ore twenty- 
two smaller cairns raised on the top. Along the Armagh 
boundary of Down there extends a great earthen rampart, 
called by the people of the country the Danes' CasU and 
sometimes Tyrone's ditches. The native Irish call it Glin 
»j mine dutbh, or the Glen of the Black Pig. which is the 
same applied by the lowland Scotch to the wall of Anto- 
ftlfttt*. The Danes' Cast measures from BO to 50 feet 001009, 
tad occurs at intervals along the line of the Newry canal 
from the lands of Lisnagadc, where it commences, near 
Snnragh ill Down, to the neighbourhood of Forkbill in the 
eoaacy of Armagh, west of which it has been traced to a 
greet distanc e b) the offic e rs of the Ord n an ce S ur ve y . 1 1 s 
Origin is qi wn, There are numerous raths or 

• d mounds throughout Down* of which the 
eject remarkable are at Downpatrick, Donaghadue and 
Drecno<re* Of thi N'nrman military antiquities of 

IXnrti, Ibe castle of D is the most important. It is 

anpouugly situated on a rock over the bay, and consists 

us outworks. It is Mid to 
aaie been built irey for the knights templars, 

wheorr kppression of that order in 1313, 

•hoi it was grunted to the prior of Down, In 1517 it was 
Irish, who had seized it some time before, 
by Get ECildare; and again in 1538 by the Lord 

lirput) Grey, with ^< in Locale, li after- 

lie hands of the Magenniscs, who held it for 
said lo have usually kept 200 tons 
of wm» here. In 1601 it was taken from Ever 

laagenno by the lord deputy Mount) oy, and was finally 

he progress of the 

air of lfi4J. It i> now the property of the marquis of 

ffevmshire, as representative or Lord Blundell, to whom it 

csra* tbroti. lass after its forfeiture by 

the Magerfniae*, I istle in Mourne was a place of 

great importance in the early history of Ulster. In 1495 

is deemed so important a post, that none but an Eng- 

to be warden. The castle of New- 

wma b< Felix Magennis in 1568, and j 

■ ■ Magennises had castles also at Castle well an 

sad R There are extensive military remains at 

Ardgtass. and the castles of Killileagh, Ardquin, Portaferry, 

>, and Hillsborough, are the most important of those 

stilt standing. There are also some remains of th 
cations erected by General Monk for the defence of the 
peases into Armagh at Scarvagh, Poyntz, and Tuscan nasi 

The chief eooleaiaatleal remains in Down are at Down- 
patrick, where I here are the ruins of the cathedral, end of 
three other religious houses. The cathedral was loo feel 
in length i the roof of the centre aisle was supported by live 
arches of fine proportions. Prior to 17 f J0, around lower 
6G feet in height stood at the western end: it was taken 
down at the time of the partial rebuilding of the cathedral ; 
and it is worthy of remark* that part of the wall of 
more antient edifice was found to run below its found 
There is another round tower at Drumbo, near Belfast. 
There are a few remains of the abbey of Bangor; and at 
G rev abbey there is still standing in good preservation a 
part of the antient abbey founded here in 1192 by Africa, 
daughter of the king of Man, and wife of De Courcy. 

A mile and a half to the east of Downpatrick is a hill 
about 150 feet high, called Slrual mountain, celeb ra led all 
over Ireland for the resort of the lower orders of Roman Ca- 
tholics, who come here every Midsummer for the perform- 
ance of penance. The ceremonies commence by the peni- 
1 j rabing Strual mountain on their knees, with a large 
stone placed on the back of the neck, three, seven, or nine 
times, according to the circumstances of the case: alter 
this they are turned thrice round in a stone seat call 
Patrick's chair, by a person who in 1630 usi an- 

nually from the county of Mayo for the purpose of presiding 
over this part of the ceremony. The penitents then de- 
scend to a neighbouring plain, where they bathe promis- 
cuously in a well dedicated to St Patrick, and conclude by 
drinking from another well. Tents are erected in the ad- 
jacent fields, and the evening is generally spent in dissipa- 

Education has made rapid progress since 1821 ; in that 
year the number of young nig instruction was 

9521 ; In 1924 it was 14,111 J and in 16:14 the number of 
young persons receiving daily instruction, in the two dio- 
ceses of Down and Dromore, which are together very nearly 
co-extensive with the county, was 36,440. These dioceses 
stand respectively fourth and twelfth in educational rank 
among the thirty-two dioceses of Ireland. According to 
Mr. D' Alton's return of funds designed for educational pur- 
poses in Ireland, the annual amount so designed in Down 
is 1092/. J*. B^d, ; the acreable possession* of the different 
schools is seventy-one acres, and the amount contributed by 
the National Board of Education is 645/. per annum. 

County expenses arc defrayed by graud jury present- 
ments: average amount so levied during the twenty years 
preceding 1830,31,000/, Down pays 13,817/. is. {d. us 
share of the original expense of the district lunatic asylujn 
at Belfast, and a share of the annual expense propor- 
tioned to its population. Two newspapers are supported 
Newry: the number ed to these in 1831 was 

ifO; and in 1836 ihe number was 131,961. The gross 
produce of customs* duties collected within the Newry and 
u;ford district in the I i3,902& 4* 

(Harris's Hi don/ of Down, Dublin, 1741 

< y of Down, Dublin, 1902; InguYs Ire/and in 1834; 
Report on Irish Fisheries, 1837; Reports on Education in 
Ireland, 1S37; Cox's History of Ireland,) 

DOWN, a bishop*s see in the ecclesiastical province of 
Armagh in Ireland. The chapter, which is regelated by 
petentof James I., consists of dean, precentor 

archdeacon, and two prebendaries. With tl,, n of 

part of one parish lying in Antrim, thlB dlOCeae is situated 
entirely in the county of Down, of Which i\ ihe 

eastern portion. It extends in length from south-west to 
north-east 51 English miles, by 28 miles in breadth from I 
to west. It contains 42 parishes, constituting 37 1 
In 1792 the number of chun-hes was S3 ; and in 1814 the 
numbers were, churches of t! bment 40, Re-man 

C&tholio 37, Presbyterian 5G, other places of worship 19. 
In the same year the gross population of the diocese was 
188,558, of whom there were 37,662 members of the 
established church, 58,405 Roman Catholics, 98,961 Pr 
byterians, and 3,. ^30 other Protestant Dissenters bung in 
the proportion of rather more than two Prutestants of what- 
ever denomination to one Roman Catholic There wer*» 
at the same tune in tin- diocese 309 daily lucating 

19,459 voung persons, being in the proportion of II 
cent, of the entire population under daily instruction, in. 
which respect Down stands fourAk ttauiw^ ^\fc ^L ^ssicaaKa 




of Ireland* Of the abovo schools 46 were in connection 
with tin- National Board of Education. 

The set i Doi n was founded about the end of the fifth 
c b 11 1 vi i y by S r , Pat r lc k, w h o a ppoint e < I Ca i] in, el >b i « t of An - 
it nil to the bishopric. The fust episcopal teal was at 
Dowiumtriek, then called Ans Keltair ami Rath Keltatr, 
where it continued until after the plantation of Ulster in 
the reign of James 1., when the church of Lisbum was hy 
letters patent constitute!! the cathedral of the united dio- 
cese of Down and Connor ; hut the original episcopal scat 
toied to Downpatrick hy act of parliament about 
1790. The most distinguished bishop of Down, prior to the 
English invasion, was Malaehy Q'Morgair, who succeeded 
in 1 137, and assisted the Primate Gelasius in the introduc- 
tion of the Roman discipline. In 144*2, the union of Down 
wiih the see of Connor took place in the person of John 
first bishop of the united diooi r. Among his fi 
those of rooSt DOte were, Leslie, bishop during the wars of 
I G 4 1 , and the celebrated Doctor Jeremy Taylor, who suc- 
ceeded in ir>60. From 1141 down to the end of the last 
century there has been no episcopal residence attached feo 
this see, Doolor Taylor generally resided at Port more, near 
Glenavy, in the county of Antrim. The present episcopal 
mansion stands within s mile of Holywoou, on the eastern 
shore of Belfast Loch. Tbo same ecclesiastical immunities 
are claimed by the Paget ftuniry for their manor of Monrne 
in tl bs by the Needham family for their Lord- 

ihip of Newry [Down] in the diocese of Dromore; but 
tins claim has always been resisted by the bishops of Down. 
By act 3rd and 1th William IV. c. 37, the united diooeae of 
Down and Connor is further augmented by iho diocese of 
Dm more. 

(Beaufort's Memoir of a Map of Ireland ; Ware's Bishops : 
lie) or/v tf Co7nmi8tionert t &.c.) 

founder of this college was Sir George Downing. Bart., of 
Gamliugay Park, in Cambridgeshire, who by will dated 20th 
December, 1717, devised estates in the counties of Cam- 
bridge, Bedford, and Suffolk, first to Sir Jacob Gerard 
Downing, and afterwards to other relations- in succession, 
nnd in fa dure thereof, to build and found a college in 
this university, upon a plan to lie approved of by the two 
archbishops and the masters of St. John's and Clare Hall, 
This dirs the reason for giving them the power 

Which they possess in elections and other matters by the 

charter and statutes* 

Sir George died in 1740 and Sir Jacob in 1764, and (the 
other devisees having previously died Without issue) Upon 
this event the foundation ought to hove been immediately 
carried into execution. But the estates were in the posses- 
sion of Lady Downing, and afterwards of her devi- 
without any real title ; and when the university sued in 
chancery for the establishment of the college, the party in 
i the suit in that court. En I7fi9 a decree 
was obtained in favour of the foundation. 

The persons named as trustees in the founder's will 
having died in Iin lifetime, the execution of the trust* 
devolved upon the heirs-at-la j - In, niter combating a 
: scries of opposition and litigation, nod overcoming 
of various de I i petition to 

the crown for a charter; and at length, in 180©, the pi 
council decided to recommend the foundation to his ma- I 

On 2nd September, 11300, the p-ent seal was affixed to 

the charier by Lord Loughborough: by this charter the 

lege i^ inooi Ith all flu tig to 

any college in the university, and endowed with the estate 
devised by the founder, with a power to bold lnuded pro- 
perty (in addition thereto) to the value of I6C0£ per annum. 
The charter dire tea to he framed govern- 

ment of the college, which was done m July, 1805, and 
shortly afterwards the if the members began to 

he paid. By the statutes un bonenYinl leases of the college 
estates are all ■ any fine to be taken tor a grant Off 

renewal. It is also provided thai no new foundation shall 
ever be engral'trrl oil this college neist- 

with the charter and statutes. But the college may 
accept any additions to their property in augmentation of 
the number or value uf their present appointments or to 
be applied in any other manm it with their pn 

-tjtution. There is also a power given to the four elec- 
tor* and the master to alter the statutes, on application by 
a certain portion of the college. 

A piece oflaiul, nearly thirty seres, having been pu 1 
for the Site, and for grounds and walk-, OB the iMhMa}. 
1807, the first stone was laid; since which time the bit 
ing has proceeded at intervals, at the expense of S 
6U,G00/. In S 821 buildings sufficient for opening the 
lege, and comprizing nearly two sides of a la i 
completed; and in May, 1BJ1, undergraduates were ad- 
mitted to reside and keep terms. 

This college will consist of a master, two professors (one 
of the laws of England and one of medicine), sixteen fellows 
(two of which only arc clerical), and six scholars. The 
objects of the foundation aie suited in the charter to be 
students in law, physio, and other useful arts and learning. 
At present only the muster, professors, and three 
arc appointed, for the purpose of taking posses&iou of the 
estates, administering the revenues, superintending the 
building of the college, and for the other necessary purposes, 
The appointment of the remaining fellows is reserved 
until after the erection of the buildings necessary for the 
college. The scholars will also be elected after that period; 
but not more than two in each year. There are also two 
chaplains nominated by the master. 

The master is elected by the archbishops of Canterbury 
and York, and the masters of St. John's and Clare l 
from among those who have been professors or fellows. The 
electors to professorships are the same as to the m 
with the addition of the master. The electors to the fellow- 
ships are, the master, professors, and fellows of the de 
of M.A. After the building of the college is cotnph 
the elections will he annually on the 21st of 1 
While t lie college remains uncompleted, th» 
fellowships arc at uncertain times, depending upon vj 
cies. The clerical fellowships are to be tenable for 
the lay fellowships to continue only for twelve year- 
present master is the Rev. Thomas Worsley, M.A., 
J 836 j and the number of members upon the boards of lbs 
college forty-nine. The rectory of East Hartly, and the 
vicarage of Tadlow, boih in the county of Cambridge, are in 
the patronage of this college. 

(Ackermann's Hist. &/ tin*. Univ. of Cambridge, 4to» 
Lond. ISIS, vol. ii, p. 283—288; Cambridge Univ. Calen- 
dar for 18,17.) 

DOYVNPATR1CK. the assize town of the county of 
Down, in Ireland, distant from Dublin 73 Irish or 93 
English miles j situated m the barony of Leeale, one nule 
to the south of the Quoil river, which opens into the 
SOQtll«western angle ^>Il Strangford Loch about four miles to 
the cast. Downpatrick is the seat of a bishopric, and returns 
a member to the imperial parliament. Constituent 

The boundaries of the borough embrace an ext 
1488 statute acres, containing 697 houses, of which 
thai died and 66U are slated : of the latter 285 are estimated 
to be worth IbL per annum. 

Downpatrick takes its name from St. Patrick, who IS 
stated in many antient records In have been buried here. 
Before his time the place was called Rath Keltair and 
Dun-dadethglass, from an eunhen fortification, the rums 
of which still cover a considerable space, and present an 
imposing appearance on the north-west of the town* On 
the conquest of Ulster by lhe English in 1177, De I 
made Downpatrick his head-quarters, and it continued in 
the hands of the English until about lh< the re- 

bellion of Shane O'Neill, in 1567, when it fell into the 
hands of the Irish, but was retaken by Sir Richard Mor- 
rison soon alter. 

The town is pleasantly situated in a rich, undulating 
country, surrounded by lulls. There is a good court-house, 
a ruined cathedral, one church, two Roman Catholic do., 
a Presbyl nan meeting-house, s Methodist do., and a good* 
market-house and gaol. An hospital was founded 
about 1740, by Mr. Southwell, for Lhe reception of decayed 

oisions of the Paving and Light: 
WOJN put in force here in 1829, since which time lhe town 
ii lighted with oil: expense, about 3GG/. per annum. 

There are branches of the northern banking company 
and of tlse provincial bank of Ireland at Downpatrick. 

There are ten schools with small endowments within tlie 
deanei) < hool, to which the bishop and 

subscribe 90/, per annum; and a gaol school supported by 

des a male and female school, sup j 
by Lady Harriet Forde, and twenty-four ot! 
total number of voung porsons under instruction, 81*7 niaks 
and 462 

d ; 6 x 


D R A 

Population in 1821, 4123; in 1831, 4784. [Down.] 
DOWNS or DUNES, are little hillocks of sand formed 
along- the sea-coast. 
The mode of their formation is this : — the waves of the 
I sea, in certain localities, drive upon the beach a certain 
quantity of fine sand, which, becoming dry during low 
water, is carried up still higher by the wind, till meeting 
with the obstruction of large stones, bushes, tufts of grass, 
&C it is accumulated into little heaps : these offering still 
greater surface of resistance as the sand increases upon and 
■gainst them, soon rise into mounds of considerable height, 
whose number, arrangement, and dimensions, depend na- 
turally upon the size and distribution of the obstacles to 
which they owe their existence. If these obstacles are 
close-set, there will be little more than one range of sand 
hillocks, and, if vory close, these will in time unite so as to 
form a continuous ridge. Should the arresting objects, on 
toe contrary, be thinly scattered, and at different distances 
from the brink on a shelving coast, there will be several 
ridges of hillocks, the one behind the other. 

The downs having attained a certain height, the wind 
lias no longer the power to increase their elevation, and 
they are then urged forward upon the land. 

The way in which this is effected is easily conceived. On 
the windward side of the hillocks the grains of sand are 
fated up to the top, whence they are swept off as they 
arrive, and fall by their own weight on the opposite slope. 
Thus the mass goes on invading the land, while fresh ma- 
terial is constantly brought by the sea. 

This progress inland depends however upon the habitual 
direction of the wind and the relative direction of the coast- 
hne. In Gascony the sand advances eastward, and gene- 
nlly along the whole coast of France, from Bayonne to 
Calais, the downs progress in a north-easterly direction, the 
wind blowing most frequently from the south-west ; whereas 
from Calais to Dunkerque, the coast trending in the di- 
rection of the wind, they make no progress inland, but form 
a ridge or chain parallel with the coast. 

The rapidity with which the sands advance is, in some 
cases, most alarming. Between the mouths of the Adour 
and the Garonne their progress is about sixty feet yearly ; 
nor is it easy to arrest tneir march. The town of Mimizan 
k in part buried under the sands, against whose encroach- 
ment it has been struggling for the last five-and-twenty 
tears. In Brittany also, a village near St. Pol de Leon 
has been entirely covered with the sand, so as to leave no 
fart visible but the steeple of the church. 

In the Boulonnais the advance of the downs has been 
almost wholly arrested since the works there executed by 
Cassini. The inhabitants plant a species of cyperacea (the 
Anmdo arenaria\ termed by them oya, which thrives well, 
aad fixes the sands. This process is so much the more ad- 
vantageous, as every hillock which becomes fixed is an 
effectual barrier against the invasion of fresh sand from 
the sea. 

In Gascony the peasants force the wind, in some mea- 
sure, to drive back what it brought. Thus, when the wind 
ttows in a direction contrary to that which pushes the 
downs upon the land, they toss the sand high into the air 
with shovels, and in this manner get rid of a portion of it : 
this portion, however, is very small, and the prevailing 
winds being from the south-west the sands continue to 
advance in spite of all their efforts. 

Downs sometimes intercept the flow of water to the sea, 
fanning stagnant pools between and behind them which 
give rise to an aquatic vegetation and the occasional forma- 
tion of a kind of peat 
DOWNTON. [Wiltshire.] 

DOXCyLOGY, a form of giving glory to God, from the 
Latin doxologia, and that from the Greek doxa (&6£a) t 
fdory, and logos (Xfyoc), a word or saying. The doxology in 
&e concluding paragraph of the Lord's Prayer, ' Thine is 
Ihe kingdom, and the power, and the glory,' is left out of 
ssanyof the antient copies of St. Matthew's Gospel, though 
it appears in others; St. Luke omits it entirely. The 
authenticity of this form of praise, as a paragraph of the 
prayer, has' been a difficult subject of dispute. It does not 
appear in the Vulgate, but it seems to be established by the 
Greek MSS. and the Eastern versions. Doxology is also 
ased for the short hymn, Gloria PatrU which we use in our 
church service at the end of every psalm, of every part of 
the hundred and nineteenth psalm, and of every hymn 
except Te Deum, winch is a doxology of itself. Durand 

and other writers consider this exception to have been 
introduced into the Romish church by St. Jerome. The 
first express mention of it is in the second council of 
Vaison, a. d. 529. Amongst the Christians it was always 
considered as a solemn profession of their belief in the 
Trinity. (Wheatly on the Common Prayer, 8vo. Oxf. 1802, 
pp. 124. 132. Broughton's Diet, of all Religions, pp. 341, 

DRACAENA, a genus gf endogenous plants, of the natural 
family Asparageco of Jussieu, now arranged as a section of 
Liliaceae by Dr. Lindley. The genus was established by 
Linnaeus, and named from one of its species yielding the 
resinous exudation, familiarly known by the name of Dra- 
gon's blood, a translation of the Arabic name dum al akh- 
uxiin, met with in Avicenna and other Arabian authors. 
Dracaena is characterized by having an inferior six-partite 
perianth, of which the segments are nearly erect, and have 
inserted on them the six stamens, with filaments thickened 
towards the middle and linear anthers. The style is single, 
with a trifid stigma. The berry two or three-celled, with its 
cells one or two-seeded. 

The species of Dracaena are now about 30 in number, and 
found in the warm parts of the Old World, and in many of 
both Asiatic and African islands, whence they extend south- 
wards to the Cape of Good Hope and New Holland, and 
northwards into China, and to the eastern parts of India, as 
the districts of Silhet and Chittagong. Species are also 
found in Socotra, and the Canary and Cape Verd Islands, 
as well as at Sierra Leone. From this distribution it is evi- 
dent that the species require artificial heat for their cultiva- 
tion in England. They are found to thrive in a light loam, 
and may be grown from cuttings sunk in a bark bed. 

The species of Dracaena are evergreens, either of a 
shrubby or arooreous nature; and having long, slender, 
often columnar stems, they emulate palms in habit Their 
trunks are marked with the cicatrices of fallen leaves; the 
centre is soft and cellular, having externally a circle of 
stringy fibres. The leaves are simple, usually crowded to- 
gether towards the end of the branches, or terminal like the 
inflorescence: whence we might suppose that the name 
terminalis had been applied to some of the species, if Rum- 
phi us had not stated that it was in consequence of their 
being planted along the boundaries of fields. The structure 
of the stem and leaves is particularly interesting, as the 
fossil genera Clathraria and Sternbergia have been assimi- 
lated to Dracaena, the former by M. Adolphe Brongniart, 
and the latter by Dr. Lindley ; and as Rumphius compares 
the leaves of a Dracaena with those of Galanga, it is as 
probable that the fossil leaves called Cannophyllites may 
be those of a plant allied to Dracaena, as that they belong 
to one of the Cannes. 

Of the several species of Dracaena which have been de- 
scribed by botanists, there are few which are of much im- 
portance either for their useful or ornamental properties. 
Among them, however, may be mentioned D. terminalis, a 
species rather extensively diffused. The root is said by 
Rumphius to be employed as a demulcent in cases of diar- 
rhoea, and the plant as a signal of truth and of peace in the 
Eastern archipelago. In the Islands of the Pacific Ocean 
a sweetish juice is expressed from its roots, and afterwards 
reduced by evaporation to a sugar, of which specimens were 
brought to Paris by Captain D'Urville from the island of 
Tahiii. (Otaheite.) The root is there called Ti or Tii, and 
thence no doubt corrupted into Tea-root by the English 
and Americans. M. Gaudichaud mentions that in the 
Sandwich Islands generally an intoxicating drink is pre- 
pared from this root to which the name Ava is often applied, 
as well as to that made with the roots of Piper methys- 

Dracaena Draco is the best known species, not only from 
its producing Dragon's blood, but also from one specimen 
having so frequently been described or noticed in the works 
of visitors to the Canary Islands. The erect trunk of the 
Dragon-tree is usually from 8 to 12 feet high, and divided 
above into numerous short branches, which terminate in 
tufts of spreading sword-shaped leaves, pointed at the ex- 
tremity. The most celebrated specimen of this tree grows 
near the town of Orotava, in the Island of Teneriffe, and 
was found by Humboldt in 1799 to be about 45 feet in cir- 
cumference. Sir G. Staunton had previously stated it to be 
12 feet in diameter at the height of 10 feet; and Ledru 
gave even larger dimensions. It annually bears flowers and 
fruit; and though continuing thus to fcrow^do^x^^yafc* 




much increased in size, in consequence of some of its 
branches being constantly blown down, as in the storm of 
J uly 1819, when it lost a great part of its top. The great 
size of this enormous vegetable is mentioned in many of the 
older authors ; indeed as early as the time of Bethencourt, 
or in 1 402, it is described as large and as hollow as it is now ; 
whence, from the slowness of growth of Dracaenas, has been 
inferred the great antiquity of a tree which four centu- 
ries have so little changed. Humboldt, indeed, remarks 
that there can bo no doubt of the Dracaena of Orotava 
being with the Baobab (Adansonia digitata) one of the 
oldest inhabitants of our planet, and as tradition relates that 
it was revered by the Guanches, he considers it as singular 
that it should have been cultivated from the most distant 
ages in the Canaries, in Madeira, and Porto Santo, although 
it comes originally from India. This fact he adduces as 
contradicting the assertion of those who represent the 
Guanches as a race of men completely isolated from the 
other races of either Asia or Africo. To this it may be re- 
plied, that we know too little of the Botany of the interior 
of Africa to be able to draw from it any inferences ; vhile 
the Dragon-tree on the other hand is not known to exist 
further to the eastward than the island of Socotra. 

DRACHM, or DRAM, a small measure of weight, the 
etymology of which is to be found in the Greek drachma 
(^p«v|ii/). The drachm of our pound troy is stated to be 
nearly the same as the Attic drachma, or the Roman dena- 
rius (under the earlier emperors). 

There are two drachms or drams remaining in our system 
of weights; the first is the sixteenth part of the ounce, 
which is the sixteenth part of the pound avoirdupois of 7000 
grains : this is now totally out of use, as no species of goods 
which are weighed by the avoirdupois weight are of such 
value as to make the sixteenth part of an ounce worth con- 
sideration. In the national standard, the troy pound of 
6760 grains, there is no dram ; but this weight occurs in 
that particular division of the troy pound which is used by 
apothecaries, in which the dram is the eighth part of the 
ounce, which is the twelfth part of the pound of 5760 
grains. This is the real remnant of the Roman division ; 
the denarius (which, according to Pliny, was the Attic 
drachma of his time) was, however, the seventh part of the 
ounce. The drachma or dram is used in England, France, 
Holland, Prussia, and in some parts of the Levant. 

DRACHMA, from the Greek drachme (fyaxA"?)> * silver 
coin. It was the chief coin in use among the Athenians, 
and probably other Greeks also. The didrachm or two 
drachms, the tridrachm or three drachms, and the tetra- 
drachm or four drachms, were its multiples. The last was 
the largest form of Greek silver. The average weight of 
five drachma) in the British Museum is 60. 92 grains; and 
the average weight of three tetradrachmro in the British 
Museum is 260.56 grains. The Attic drachma has been 
supposed to have been the same among the Greeks with 
the denarius among the Romans: others have disputed 
this; but both may be reconciled by the consideration that 
the number of drachma?, as well as of denarii, which 
went to the ounce might have been subject to occasional 

(Pitisci Lexicon Antiq. Gr. et Rrrm., v. Denarius ; Pin- 
kerten's Essay on Medals, vol. i., $ 6 ; Kelly's Universal 
Cambist, 4to.» Lond., 1821, vol. i, 3, 4. 9. 30. 34, &c; vol. 
ii. 256.) 


British Museum. Actual sizo. Silver. Weight, 61^ grains. 

DRACI'N A, the name given by Melandri to the colouring 
matter of dragon's blood, and which he supposed to be a 
vegetable alkali ; but Berzelins and Herberger are of opi- 
txion that it does not possess alkaline properties : the last- 
mentioned chemist, indeed, calls this colouring matter 
draconin, and he considers it to possess rather sub-acid pro- 
perties than such as denote alkalinity. 

DRACO, an Athenian legislator, who flourished about 
tb* 39th Olympiad., 621 m. Suidas tells us that he 

brought forward his code of laws in this Tear, and that he 
was tiien an old man. Aristotle says (Polit. ii. at the end), 
that Draco adapted his laws to the existing constitution, 
and that they contained nothing peculiar beyond the se- 
verity of their penalties. The slightest theft was punished 
capitally, as well as the most atrocious murder ; and De- 
mades remarked of his laws, that they were written witl 
blood, and not with ink. (Plutarch, Solon, cxvii.) Draco, 
however, deserves credit as the first who introduced writ- 
ten laws at Athens, and it is probable that he improved 
the criminal courts by his transfer of cases of bloodshed 
from the archon to the ephet® (Jul. Pollux, viii. 124, 12*) 
since before his time the archons had a right of settling ail 
cases arbitrarily, and without appeal, a right which thej 
enjoyed in other cases till Solon s time. (Hekker's Anse- 
dota, p. 449, 1. 23.) It appears that there were soum 
offences which he did not punish with death ; for instance, 
loss of the civil rights was the punishment for an attenul 
to alter one of his laws. (Demosth. c. Aristocr. % p. 7 Mi 
Bekk.) "Draco was archon (Pausan. ix. 36, { 8), and con* 
sequently an eupatrid : it is not therefore to be supposed 
that his object was to favour the lower orders, though ha 
code seems to have tended to abridge the power of tin 
nobles. He died in the island of jEgina. On the legisla- 
tion of Draco in general, see Wachsmuth, Hettemsche Al- 
ter thorns kunde, ii. 1, p. 239, and following. 

DRACO (the dragon), one of the old constellations, re- 
ferred by Higinus to the fable of the Hesperides. It is con- 
stantly stated by the older writers as being placed between 
Ursa Major and Ursa Minor, which hardly suits the present 
position of the constellation, since its principal stars area)] 
contained between Ursa Minor, Cepheus, Cygnus, uA 
Hercules. The two stars in the head (/3 and y, the lattei 
celebrated as passing very near the zenith of the south oj 
England, and as being the one used in the discovery d 
aberration [Bradley],) are nearly in the line joining a Cygni 
(Deneb) and Arcturus ; while seven or eight smaller stab 
wind round Ursa Minor in such a manner as to rendef 
the name of the constellation not unappropriate. The 
extreme star (X) is very nearly between the pole star an4 
its pointers. [Ursa Major.] The principal stars are n 

No, in Catalogue or 





Nn. id Catalogue of 











E 5,2 



































21 0-2 









































A 1 


























20 1 G 























































DRACONIN, the dracina above mentioned, may be ob- 
tained, according to Melandri, by macerating dragon's M<*d 
in water acidulated with sulphuric acid : this becomes i.f * 
yellow colour, but does not act upon the draconin, which is 
of a fine red colour and very fusible : it mov be worked be- 
tween the fingers, and drawn into threads. It melts at about 
130°: on solidifying it becomes of a crimson colour, and 
when triturated gives a cinnabar red colour. It dissokss 
readily in alcohol, and the solution, which is of a fine r*i 
becomes yellow on the addition of an acid; but oc Om •*• 

aii the red colour is restored. It does not 
have been analyzed. 

JMAN.S. ur DROGOMANS (from the Turkish 
>; the interpreters attached to the Eurnpi. 

■assies in the Levant are so tailed. At Con- 

• they are the chief, and in noil cases the sole 

'eownunication between Conation ambassadors, 

it of the Turkish language, and the Ottoman 

byaro men born in the country, and are chiefl}' de- 

>m old Genoese or Venetian settlers. Th< 

ml sympathies have often interfered with their 

have been honourable exceptions, 

»t distinguished as a body for honour and integrity. 

ih, as early as the time of Louis XIV., saw the 

if employing native subjects in (his capacity, and 

ill body of young men, technically called 

, who were sent to (he country to learn the 

rid ucquaint themselves with itslaws and customs, 

jood pttn has nut been sufficiently supported. 

mans and their families enjoy the prolection of 

is whom they serve, and are exempted from 


)N. DRACO'NI DM, a family of Saurians, dis- 
from their congeners in having their six first false 
d of hooping the abdomen, extending in a nearly 
ke, and sustaining a production of the skin which 
ad of wing comparable to that of the bat 

t. This wing sustains the ani- 

heu it leaps from branch to branch, 

ss the faculty of heating the air, and so 

ile into flight like a hud. All the species 

with small imbricated scale*, of 

of the tail" and limbs are earmeted. The 

y, hut slightly extensile, and slightly jagged 

he throat is a lot 3 production 

tied by the hind pa of ins os hyoidee, 

ttined by the 
I is long. The thigh 
li a small dantilation. In eaall 
and on eai h side a long and 
!\e triangular and iriluhated molars, 
description tin thai the dragons 

Titles and the gular appendage of the [gwmai, 
sad and teeth of the Stelliortidce* 

Dnuditi Hist extricated from confusion come from the East 

$kckn>a of Dm g 

JMrtrikttion.—The known species which 

Draco AtubriattuL 

DRAGON'S BLOOD. [Calamus.] 

DRAGOON. [Cavalry.] 

DRAGU1GNAN, a town in France, capital of the de- 
partment of Var. It is on the river Pis, ur N 
Artuby, which fall** into the Argons, 4tG 
line BQUth*aouth*eaaf of Paris, or jj! nnles by i. 
through Lyon, Valet ion, Aix, and Briguolles; in 

43° S2 1, and fi° SO* E. long. 

It baa been supposed by some, but without sufficient 
reason, that Dfaguignaa is on the rite of lbs Forum Voeo- 

Etil of the Romans: it is however u (dace of Considerable 
antiquity, having been mentioned in the titles of the e 
counts of Provence. Little historical interest is d 
to it. Before the Revolution there were many i 
houses here: the Reformed Dominican*, Augustinia; 
Canons, Cordeliers, Minims, and Capuchins had convents ; 
that of the Dominicans was very handsome; and then 
were nunneries for Ursulinas and the nuns of the Visita- 
tion. Tlie pr tests of the Christian doctrine had the directio 
of a college, and there was a tolerably well- L ml t hospital 
The bishop of Frejua had a palace here, The town is 
situated in a fertile plain surrounded by an amphitheatre of 
hills oorered with Tines and olive-treea, It i>» tolerably well 
built, and not badly bid out : it is adorned with numerous 
and copious fountains and many rows of trees* There is & 
r built upon a precipitous limestone rock, which 
crowns a small eminence, and rises as high as the roots of 
the houses, The population in I B3 j for the tOWttj 

or 9B04 fur the whole commune ; the inhabitants manufac- 
ture coarse woollen cloths, leather, stockings, silks, wax- 
candles, and earthenware : there are many Oil-mill*. Hie 
environs produce excellent fruit and wines: gypsum is 
abundant, and there arc stone quarries in which larfj 
of stone are quarried. There are a library, a cabinet of 
medals, a museum of natural history, containing chiefly the 
minerals of the department, a botanic garden, a high school, 
an agricultural society, and sei :id foundling 

hospitals ; the foundlings are chiefly illegitimate children. 
The arroiiflissemeiit, which is exku>i\e, had in J ?32 a 

population of 86,709. 

DRAIN. [Skwlr] 

Dlv ^ a certain quantity of moic 

tial to vegetation, so an excess <>' it u highh 
In the removal of this e\< ul of drain 

Water may render land unproductive ft- 

lirelv or partially, forming lakes of bogs; wr there maybe 

iisture diffused throt 
uating in it, by which ihe fibres of the roots of nil plants 
which are notauuatic are injur* fed. 

From (beac different cfc\ktf* <& tofottSto] w*vi ^\<* 



D R A 

different branches of the art of draining, which require to 
be separate!? n ttieed. 

I. To dtaiii land which is flooded or rendered marshy by 
nnning over it from a higher level, and having no 
adequate outlet below. 

fi, To drain land where springs rise to the surface, and 
where there are no natural channels for the water to run 

X To drain land which is wet from its impervious nature, 
nnd where the evaporation is not sufficient to carry off all 
the water supplied hy IDOW and rain. 

The fir*t branch includes all those extensive operations 
where large tracts of land are reclaimed hy means pi Bfn- 
bnnkiuents, ennuis, sluices, and mills to raise ihe water: or 
where deep cuts Of tunnels are made through hills which 
for i in? 1 1 a natural dam or harrier to the water. Such works 
iu rally undertaken by iissociatiuiis under the sanction 
of 'he government, or hy the government itself; few indi* 
vidualf being possessed of sufficient capital, or having the 
power to oblige all whose interests are infected hy the drain- 
ing of the land to give their consent and ftflbro assistance. 
In the British dominions there is no difficulty in obtaining 
the sanction of the legislature to any undertaking which 
appear* likely to he of puhlic benefit* In every sessiun of 
parliament acts are parsed giving certain powers and pri- 
vileges to companies or individuals, in orde